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Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words
Shâqâh (שָׁקָה, Strong's #8248), “to give drink, irrigate, water.” This verb is found in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic, as well as in biblical and modern Hebrew. The word usually occurs in the causative sense, while its much more common counterpart, shâtâh, is used primarily in the simple active form, “to drink.” In its first occurrence in the biblical text, shâqâh expresses the idea of “to irrigate,” or “to water”: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground” (Gen. 2:6). In view of the Mesopotamian background of this passage, both linguistic and agricultural, the Hebrew word for “mist” probably is to be connected with the idea of an irrigation canal or system.
The dry climate of the Middle East makes shâqâh a most important word, since it expresses the act of “irrigating” or “watering” crops (Deut. 11:10). God “waters” the earth and causes plants to grow (Ps. 104:13-14). Figuratively, He “irrigates” His vineyard, Israel (Isa. 27:3).
A frequent use of shâqâh is to express the “giving of water to drink” to animals (Gen. 24:14, 46; 29:2-3, 7-8, 10). Men are given a variety of things to drink, such as water (Gen. 24:43), wine (Gen. 19:32; Amos 2:12), milk (Judg. 4:19), and vinegar (Ps. 69:21). In a symbol of divine judgment, God is said to give “poisoned water [KJV, “water of gall”] to drink” to Israel (Jer. 8:14; 9:15; 23:15). In this time of judgment and mourning, Israel was not to be given “the cup of consolation to drink” (Jer. 16:7).
A healthy person is one whose bones “are moistened” with marrow (Job 21:24; literally, whose bones “are watered” or “irrigated” with marrow).
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Give Drink'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/vot/g/give-drink.html. 1940.