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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Ashamed, Shame

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A — 1: αἰσχύνομαι
(Strong's #153 — Verb — aischuno — ahee-skhoo'-nom-ahee )

from aischos, "shame," always used in the Passive Voice, signifies (a) "to have a feeling of fear or shame which prevents a person from doing a thing," e.g., Luke 16:3 ; (b) "the feeling of shame arising from something that has been done," e.g., 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; Philippians 1:20 ; 1 John 2:28 , of the possibility of being "ashamed" before the Lord Jesus at His Judgment seat in His Parousia with His saints; in 1 Peter 4:16 , of being ashamed of suffering as a Christian.

A — 2: ἐπαισχύνομαι
(Strong's #1870 — Verb — epaischunomai — ep-ahee-skhoo'-nom-ahee )

a strengthened form of No. 1 (epi, "upon," intensive), is used only in the sense (b) in the preceding paragraph. It is said of being "ashamed" of persons, Mark 8:38 ; Luke 9:26 ; the Gospel, Romans 1:16 ; former evil doing, Romans 6:21 ; "the testimony of our Lord," 2 Timothy 1:8 ; suffering for the Gospel, 2 Timothy 1:12 ; rendering assistance and comfort to one who is suffering for the Gospel's sake, 2 Timothy 1:16 . It is used in Heb., of Christ in calling those who are sanctified His brethren, Hebrews 2:11 , and of God in His not being "ashamed" to be called the God of believers, Hebrews 11:16 . In the Sept., in Job 34:19 ; Psalm 119:6 ; Isaiah 1:29 .

A — 3: καταισχύνω
(Strong's #2617 — Verb — kataischuno — kat-ahee-skhoo'-no )

another strengthened form (kata, "down," intensive), is used (a) in the Active Voice, "to put to shame," e.g., Romans 5:5 ; 1 Corinthians 1:27 (AV, "confound"); 1 Corinthians 11:4,5 ("dishonoreth"), and 1 Corinthians 11:22 ; (b) in the Passive Voice, Romans 9:33 ; 10:11 ; 2 Corinthians 7:14 ; 1 Peter 2:6 ; 3:16 . See CONFOUND , DISHONOR , SHAME.

A — 4: ἐντρέπω
(Strong's #1788 — Verb — entrepo — en-trep'-o )

"to put to shame," in the Passive Voice, to be ashamed, lit. means "to turn in" (en, "in," trepo, "to turn"), that is, to turn one upon himself and so produce a feeling of "shame," a wholesome "shame" which involves a change of conduct, 1 Corinthians 4:14 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:14 ; Titus 2:8 , the only places where it has this meaning. See also REGARD , REVERENCE.

B — 1: αἰσχύνη
(Strong's #152 — Noun Feminine — aischune — ahee-skhoo'-nay )

"shame," akin to A, No. 1, signifies (a) subjectively, the confusion of one who is "ashamed" of anything, a sense of "shame," Luke 14:9 ; those things which "shame" conceals, 2 Corinthians 4:2 ; (b) objectively, ignominy, that which is visited on a person by the wicked, Hebrews 12:2 ; that which should arise from guilt, Philippians 3:19 ; (c) concretely, a thing to be "ashamed" of, Revelation 3:18 ; Jude 1:13 , where the word is in the plural, lit., "basenesses," "disgraces." See DISHONESTY.

B — 2: ἐντροπή
(Strong's #1791 — Noun Feminine — entrope — en-trop-ay' )

akin to A, No. 4, lit., "a turning in upon oneself," producing a recoil from what is unseemly or vile, is used in 1 Corinthians 6:5 ; 15:34 . It is associated with aischune in the Psalms, in the Sept., e.g., Psalm 35:26 , where it follows aischune, "let them be clothed with shame (aischune) and confusion (entrope);" Psalm 44:15 , "all the day my shame is before me and the confusion of my face has covered me;" Psalm 69:19 , "Thou knowest my reproach and my shame and my confusion;" so in Psalm 71:13 . In Psalm 109:29 the words are in the opposite order.

Note: Aidos, used in 1 Timothy 2:9 , denotes "modesty, shamefastness" (the right spelling for the AV, "shamefacedness"). In comparison with aischune, aidos is "the nobler word, and implies the nobler motive: in it is involved an innate moral repugnance to the doing of the dishonorable act, which moral repugnance scarcely or not at all exists in aischune" (Trench, Syn, xix). See SHAMEFASTNESS.

C — 1: αἰσχρός
(Strong's #150 — Adjective — aischros — ahee-skhros' )

"base" (akin to No. 1), is used in 1 Corinthians 11:6 ; 14:35 ; Ephesians 5:12 . See FILTHY B, No. 1. Cp. aischrotes, "filthiness," Ephesians 5:4 .

C — 2: ἀνεπαίσχυντος
(Strong's #422 — Adjective — anepaischuntos — an-ep-ah'ee-skhoon-tos )

an intensive adjective (a, negative, n euphonic, epi, "upon," intensive, aischune, "shame"), "not ashamed, having no cause for shame," is used in 2 Timothy 2:15 .


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Ashamed, Shame'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/a/ashamed-shame.html. 1940.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, June 1st, 2020
the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
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