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Bible Encyclopedias

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Fars

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Likats (great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by Isfahan and on the east by Kerman. It lies between 49° 30' and 56° 10' E. and 26° 20' and 31° 45' N. and has an area of nearly 60,000 sq. m. Fars is the same word as the Greek Persis, and, originally the name of only a part of the Persian empire (Iran), has become the name which Europeans have applied to the whole (see PERS1s). The province is popularly, but not for administrative purposes, divided according to climate into germsir and sardsir, or the warm and cold regions. The former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft. and the sardsir comprises the remaining and northern districts of the province.

In Arrian's relation of the voyage of Nearchus (Indica, 40), these two regions are well described. "The first part of Persis which lies along the Persian Gulf is hot, sandy and barren and only the date palm thrives there. The other part comprehends inner Persis lying northwards; it enjoys a pleasant climate and has fertile and well-watered plains, gardens with trees of all kinds, rich pasturages and forests abounding with game; with the exception of the olive all fruits are produced in profusion, particularly the vine. Horses and other draught animals are reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes." The mountains of Fars may be considered as a continuation of the Zagros and run parallel to the shores of the Persian Gulf. They comprise several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport very difficult. The highest of the mountains of Fars (14,000 ft.) is the Kuh Dina in the northwestern part of the province. Of the rivers of Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's Sitakos), Karaagha.ch in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river (Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis). Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros, Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into inland depressions or lakes.

The capital of the province is Shiraz, and the subdivision in districts, the chief places of the districts and their estimated population, and the number of inhabited villages in each as they appear in lists dated 1884 and 1905 are shown on the following page.


Name of District.

Chief Place or Seat of

Government.

Number of

inhabited

Villages in

District.

Name .

Popula-

tion.

I

Abadeh Iklid. .

Abadeh

4,000

33

2

Abadeh-Tashk .

Tashk

600

8

3

Abarj

Dashtek

2,000

6

4

Abbasi

(I) Bander Abbasi 1

and villages .

Bander Abbasi

10,000

14

(2) Issin and Tazian

Issin

6

(3) Shamil.. .

Shamil

1,000

18

(4) Moghistan. .

Ziarat

io

(5) Minab. .

Minab

4,000

23

5

Afzar

Nimdeh

12

6

`Alemrud. .. .

Sabzpushan

1,000

16

7

Arb`ah (the four)

(I) Deh Rud

(2) Deh Ram

Deh Ram

1,500

19

(3) Hengam

(4) Rudbal

8

Ardakan. .. .

Ardakan

5,000

10

9

Arsinjan.. .

Arsinjan

5,000

25

10

Asir

Asir

500

10

II

Baiza.. .

Baiza

2,000

55

12

Bidshahr and Juvim .

Bidshahr

3,000

23

13

Bovanat. .. .

Surian

500

23

14

Darab. ... .

Darab

5,000

62

15

Dashti

(I) Bardistan. .

Bander Dair

1,000

28

(2) Buluk. .

Bushgan

18

(3) Mandistan. .

Kaki

1,500

40

(4) Tassuj. .

Tang Bagh

500

II

(5) Shumbeh.. .

Shumbeh

15

16

Dashtistan

(I) Angali.. .

Haftjush

io

(2) Ahrom.. .

Ahrom

1,500

5

(3) Borazjan.. .

Borazjan

4,000

19

(4) Bushire l.. .

Bushire

25,000

20

(5) Daliki. .

Daliki

1,500

7

(6) Gonavah. .

Gonavah

I,000

12

(7) Hayat Daud .

Bander Rig

1,000

6

(8) Khurmuj. .

Khurmuj

1,000

5

(9) Rud Hillah. .

Kelat Sukhteh

10

(io) Shaban Kareh.

Deh Kohneh

27

(II) Tangistan. .

Tangistan

1,000

31

(12) Zengeneh. .

Samal

750

4

(13) Zirah.. .

Zirah

6

17

Dizkurd.. .

Cherkes

500

6

18

Famur. .. .

Pagah

300

3

19

Ferrashband.. .

Ferrashband

1,000

14

20

Fessa. ... .

Fessa

5,000

40

21

Firuzabad. .. .

Firuzabad

4,000

20

22

Gillehdar. .

Gillehdar

I,000

43

23

Humeh of Shiraz .

Zerkan

1,000

89

24

Istahbanat.. .

Istahbanat

10,000

12

25

Jahrum.. .

Jahrum

Io,000

33

26

Jireh. ... .

Ishfayikan

23

27

Kamfiruz. .. .

Palangeri

34

28

Kamin. ... .

Kalilek

I I

29

Kazerun. .. .

Kazerun

8,000

46

3 0

Kavar.. .

Kavar

26

31

Kir and Karzin. .

Kir

1,000

23

32

Khafr. ... .

Khafr

1,000

41

33

Khajeh.. .

Zanjiran

500

15

34

Khisht. ... .

Khisht

2,500

25

35

Khunj. .. .

Khunj

1,500

27

36

Kongan

Bander Kongan

12

37

Kuh Gila and Beh-

bahan. .. .

Behbahan

10,000

182

38

Kurbal.

Gavkan

600

67

39

Kuh i Marreh Shikeft

Shikeft

41

40

Kunkuri. .. .

Kazian

29

41

Laristan

(I) Lar. .

Lar

8,000

3 4

(2) Bikhah Ihsham.

Bairam

II

(3) Bikhah Fal .

Ishkenan

io

(4) Jehangiriyeh .

Bastak

4,000

30

(5) Shib Kuh. .

Bander Charak

36

(6) Fumistan or Gav-

bandi.. .

Gavbandi

13

(7) Kauristan. .

Kauristan

4

(8) Lingah 1.. .

Bander Lingah

woo()

II

(9) Mazayijan. .

Mazayijan

6

1 _ 4 2

Mahar Milati.. .

Jemalgird

5

Name of District.

Chief Place or Seat of

Government.

Number of

inhabited

Villages in

District.

Name.

Popula-

tion.

43

Maimand. .. .

Maimand

5,000

14

44

Maliki .

Bander Assalu

1,000

25

45

Mamasenni (Shulistan)

(I) Bekesh

8

(2) Javidi or Javi

6

(3) Dushmanziaris

16

(4) Rustami

Kal`ah Safid

26

(5) Fahlian

7

(6) Kakan

5

46

Mayin. ... .

Mayin

8

4 7

Mervast and Herat .

Mervast

14

48

Mervdasht .

(I) Upper Khafrek

14

(2) Lower Khafrek l

Fathabad

1,250

16

(3) Mervdasht 1

22

49

MeshhedMaderSuliman

111urghab

800

6

50

Niriz

Niriz

9,000

24

51

Ramjird .

Jashian

36

52

Rudan and Ahmedi .

Dehbariz

21

53

Sabah (the seven)

(I) Bivunj (Bivanej)

Durz

14

(2) Hasanabad. .

1-iasanabad

7

(3) Tarom.. .

Tarun

2,000

15

(4) Faraghan. .

Faraghan

1,500

13

(5) Forg.. .

Forg

3,000

18

(6) F i n and Guhrah.

Fin

13

(7) Gileh Gall (aban-

doned)

Ziaret

1,000

II

54

Sarchahan

55

Sarhad Chahar Dungeh

(I) Dasht Ujan

(2) Dasht Khosro va

Shirin

Kushk Zard

31

(3) Dasht Khungasht

(4) Dasht Kushk Zard

56

Sarhad Shesh Nahiyeh

(I) Padina (foot of

Mount Dina).

Khur

(2) Henna.. .

Henna

(3) Samiram. .

Samiram

(4) Felard.. .

Felard

24

(5) Vardasht.. .

Germabad

(6) Vank. .. .

Vank

57

Sarvistan. .. .

Sarvistan

4,500

23

58

Shiraz (town) in 1884

536 0 72

..

59

Siyakh. .. .

Darinjan

1.3

60

Simkan.. .

Duzeh

28

1 Are forming separate administrative division of "Persian Gulf Ports." The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen subprovinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the "Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran. The population of the province has been estimated at 750,000 and the yearly revenue it pays to the state amounts to about £150,000. Many districts are fertile, but some, particularly those in the south-eastern part of the province, do not produce sufficient grain for the requirements of the sparse population. In consequence of droughts, ravages of locusts and misgovernment by local governors the province has been much impoverished and hundreds of villages are in ruins and deserted. About a third of the population is composed of turbulent and lawless nomads who, when on the march between their winter and summer camping grounds, frequently render the roads insecure and occasionally plunder whole districts, leaving the inhabitants without means of subsistence.

The province produces much wheat, barley, rice, millet, cotton, but the authorities every now and then prohibiting the export of cereals, the people generally sow just as much as they think will suffice for their own wants. Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced. Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant. There are also some oil 2 Persian census in - 1884; 25,28 - 4 - Males, 28,323 females.

wells at Daliki, near Bushire, but several attempts to tap the oil have been unsuccessful. There are no valuable oyster-banks in Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein. (A. H.-S.)


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These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Fars'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/bri/f/fars.html. 1910.

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