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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
tal´mud ( תּלמוּד , talmūdh ):
I. PRELIMINARY REMARKS AND VERBAL EXPLANATI ONS
II. IMPORTANCE OF THE TALMUD
III. THE TRADITIONAL LAW UNTIL THE COMPOSITIO N OF THE MISHNA
IV. DIVISION AND CONTENTS OF THE MISHNA (AND THE TALMUD )
1. Zeraim, "Seeds"
2. Moedh, "Feasts"
3. Nashim, "Women"
4. Neziqin, "Damages"
5. Kodhashim, "Sacred Things"
6. Teharoth, "Clean Things"
V. THE PALESTINIAN TALMUD
VI. THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD
VII. THE NON-CANONICAL LITTLE TREATISES AND T HE TOSEPHTA '
1. Treatises after the 4th Sedher
2. Seven Little Treatises
The present writer is, for brevity's sake, under necessity to refer to his Einleitung in den Talmud , 4th edition, Leipzig, 1908. It is quoted here as Introduction .
There are very few books which are mentioned so often and yet are so little known as the Talmud. It is perhaps true that nobody can now be found, who, as did the Capuchin monk Henricus Seynensis, thinks that "Talmud" is the name of a rabbi. Yet a great deal of ignorance on this subject still prevails in many circles. Many are afraid to inform themselves, as this may be too difficult or too tedious; others (the anti-Semites) do not want correct information to be spread on this subject, because this would interfere seriously with their use of the Talmud as a means for their agitation against the Jews.
I. Preliminary Remarks and Verbal Explanations.
(1) משׁנה , Mishnāh , "the oral doctrine and the study of it" (from shānāh , "to repeat," "to learn," "to teach"), especially ( a ) the whole of the oral law which had come into existence up to the end of the 2nd century AD; ( b ) the whole of the teaching of one of the rabbis living during the first two centuries AD ( tannā' , plural tannā'ı̄m ); ( 100 ) a single tenet; ( d ) a collection of such tenets; ( e ) above all, the collection made by Rabbi Jehudah (or Judah) ha-Nasi'.
(2) גּמרא , Gemārā' , "the matter that is leaned" (from gemar , "to accomplish," "to learn"), denotes since the 9th century the collection of the discussions of the Amoraim, i.e. of the rabbis teaching from about 200 to 500 AD.
(3) תּלמוּד , Talmūdh , "the studying" or "the teaching," was in older times used for the discussions of the Amoraim; now it means the Mishna with the discussions thereupon.
(4) הלכה , Hălākhāh (from hālakh , "to go"): ( a ) the life as far as it is ruled by the Law; ( b ) a statutory precept.
(5) הגּדה , Haggādhāh (from higgı̄dh , "to tell"), the non-halakhic exegesis.
II. Importance of the Talmud.
Commonly the Talmud is declared to be the Jewish code of Law. But this is not the case, even for the traditional or "orthodox" Jews. Really the Talmud is the source whence the Jewish Law is to be derived. Whosoever wants to show what the Jewish Law says about a certain case (point, question) has to compare at first the Shulḥān ‛ārūkh with its commentary, then the other codices (Maimonides, Alphasi, etc.) and the Responsa , and finally the Talmudic discussions; but he is not allowed to give a decisive sentence on the authority of the Talmud alone (see Intro , 116,117; David Hoffmann, Der Schulchan-Aruch , 2nd edition, Berlin, 1894,38, 39). On the other hand, no decision is valid if it is against the yield of the Talmudic discussion. The liberal (Reformed) Jews say that the Talmud, though it is interesting and, as a Jewish work of antiquity, ever venerable, has in itself no authority for faith and life.
For both Christians and Jews the Talmud is of value for the following reasons: (1) on account of the language, Hebrew being used in many parts of the Talmud (especially in Haggadic pieces), Palestinian Aramaic in the Palestinian Talmud, Eastern Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud (compare "Literature," (7), below). The Talmud also contains words of Babylonian and Persian origin; (2) for folklore, history, geography, natural and medical science, jurisprudence, archaeology and the understanding of the Old Testament (see "Literature," (6), below, and Introduction , 159-75). For Christians especially the Talmud contains very much which may help the understanding of the New Testament (see "Literature," (12), below).
III. The Traditional Law Until the Composition of the Mishna.
The Law found in the Torah of Moses was the only written law which the Jews possessed after their return from the Babylonian exile. This law was neither complete nor sufficient for all times. On account of the ever-changing conditions of life new ordinances became necessary. Who made these we do not know. An authority to do this must have existed; but the claim made by many that after the days of Ezra there existed a college of 120 men called the "Great Synagogue" cannot be proved. Entirely untenable also is the claim of the traditionally orthodox Jews, that ever since the days of Moses there had been in existence, side by side with the written Law, also an oral Law, with all necessary explanations and supplements to the written Law.
What was added to the Pentateuchal Torah was for a long time handed down orally, as can be plainly seen from Josephus and Philo. The increase of such material made it necessary to arrange it. An arrangement according to subject-matter can be traced back to the 1st century AD; very old, perhaps even older, is also the formal adjustment of this material to the Pentateuchal Law, the form of Exegesis (Midrash). Compare Introduction , 19-21.
A comprehensive collection of traditional laws was made by Rabbi Aḳiba circa 110-35 AD, if not by an earlier scholar. His work formed the basis of that of Rabbi Mē'ı̄r , and this again was the basis of the edition of the Mishna by Rabbi Jehudah ha-Nasi'. In this Mishna, the Mishna par excellence , the anonymous portions generally, although not always, reproduce the views of Rabbi Mē'ı̄r . See TIBERIAS .
The predecessors Rabbi (as R. Jehudah ha-Nasi', the "prince" or the "saint," is usually called), as far as we know, did not put into written form their collections; indeed it has been denied by many, especially by German and French rabbis of the Middle Ages, that Rabbi put into written form the Mishna which he edited. Probably the fact of the matter is that the traditional Law was not allowed to be used in written form for the purposes of instruction and in decisions on matters of the Law, but that written collections of a private character, collections of notes, to use a modern term, existed already at an early period (see Intro , 10 ff).
IV. Division and Contents of the Mishna (and the Talmud).
The Mishna (as also the Talmud) is divided into six "orders" ( ṣedhārı̄m ) or chief parts, the names of which indicate their chief contents, namely, Zerā‛ı̄m , Agriculture; Mō‛ēdh , Feasts; Nāshı̄m , Women; Nezı̄ḳı̄n , Civil and Criminal Law; Ḳŏdhāshı̄m , Sacrifices; Ṭehārōth , Unclean Things and Their Purification.
The "orders" are divided into tracts ( maṣṣekheth , plural maṣṣikhtōth ), now 63, and these again into chapters ( pereḳ , plural peraḳı̄m ), and these again into paragraphs ( mishnāyōth ). It is Customary to cite the Mishna according to tract chapter and paragraph, e.g. Ṣanh . ( Ṣanhedhrı̄n ) x.1. The Babylonian Talmud is cited according to tract and page, e.g. ( Babylonian Talmud ) Shabbāth 30b; in citing the Palestinian Talmud the number of the chapter is also usually given, e.g. ( Palestinian Talmud ) Shabbāth vi. 8d (in most of the editions of the Palestinian Talmud each page has two columns, the sheet accordingly has four).
1. Zeraim, "Seeds":
(1) Berākhōth , "Benedictions": "Hear, O I srael" (Deuteronomy 6:4 , shema' ); the 18 benedictions, grace at meals, and other prayers.
(2) Pē'āh , "Corner" of the field ( Leviticus 19:9 f; Deuteronomy 24:19 ff).
(3) Demā'ı̄ , "Doubtful" fruits (grain, etc.) of which it is uncertain whether the duty for the priests and, in the fixed years, the 2nd tithe have been paid.
(4) Kil'ayim , "Heterogeneous," two kinds, forbidden mixtures ( Leviticus 19:19; Deuteronomy 22:9 ff).
(5) Shebhı̄‛ı̄th , "Seventh Year," Sabbatical year ( Exodus 23:11; Leviticus 25:1 ff); Shemiḳḳāh (Deuteronomy 15:1 ff).
(6) Ṭerūmōth , "Heave Offerings" for the priests ( Numbers 18:8 ff; Deuteronomy 18:4 ).
(7) Ma‛ăsērōth or Ma‛ăsēr rı̄'shōn , "First Tithe" ( Numbers 18:21 ff).
(8) Ma‛ăsēr shēnı̄ , "Second Tithe" ( Deuteronomy 14:22 ff).
(9) Ḥallāh , (offering of a part of the) "Dough" ( Numbers 15:18 ff).
(10) ‛Orlāh , "Foreskin" of fruit trees during the first three years ( Leviticus 19:23 ).
(11) Bikkūrı̄m , "First-Fruits" ( Deuteronomy 26:1 ff; Exodus 23:19 ).
2. Moedh, "Feasts":
(1) Shabbāth ( Exodus 20:10; Exodus 23:12; Deuteronomy 5:14 ).
(2) ‛Ērūbhı̄n , "Mixtures," i.e. ideal combination of localities with the purpose of facilitating the observance of the Sabbatical laws.
(3) Pesāḥı̄m , "Passover" ( Exodus 12; Leviticus 23:5 ff; Numbers 28:16 ff; Deuteronomy 16:1 ); Numbers 9, the Second Passover (Numbers 9:10 ff).
(4) Sheḳālı̄m , "Shekels" for the Temple (compare Nehemiah 10:33; Exodus 30:12 ff).
(5) Yōmā' , "The Day" of Atonement ( Leviticus 16 ).
(6) Ṣukkāh , "Booth," Feast of Tabernacles ( Leviticus 23:34 ff; Numbers 29:12 ff; Deuteronomy 16:13 ff).
(7) Bēcāh , "Egg" (first word of the treatise) or Yōm ṭōbh , "Feast," on the difference between the Sabbath and festivals (compare Exodus 12:10 ).
(8) Rō'sh ha - shānāh , "New Year," first day of the month Tishri ( Leviticus 23:24 f; Numbers 29:1 ff).
(9) Ta‛ănı̄th , "Fasting."
(10) Meghillāh , "The Roll" of Esther, Purim ( Esther 9:28 ).
(11) Mō‛ēdh ḳāṭān , "Minor Feast," or Mashḳin , "They irrigate" (first word of the treatise), the days between the first day and the last day of the feast of Passover, and likewise of Tabernacles.
(12) Ḥăghı̄ghāh , "Feast Offering," statutes relating to the three feasts of pilgrimage (Passover, Weeks, Tabernacles); compare Deuteronomy 16:16 f.
3. Nashim, "Women":
(1) Yebhāmōth , "Sisters-in-Law" (perhaps better, Yebhāmūth , Levirate marriage; Deuteronomy 25:5 ff; compare Rth 4:5; Matthew 22:24 ).
(2) Kethūbhōth , "Marriage Deeds."
(3) Nedhārı̄m , "Vows," and their annulment ( Numbers 30 ).
(4) Nāzı̄r , "Nazirite" ( Numbers 6 ).
(5) Giṭṭı̄n , "Letters of Divorce" ( Deuteronomy 24:1; compare Matthew 5:31 ).
(6) Ṣōtāh , "The Suspected Woman" ( Numbers 5:11 ff).
(7) Ḳiddūshı̄n , "Betrothals."
4. Nezikin, "Damages":
(1) (2) and (3) Bābhā' ḳammā' , Bābhā' mecı̄‛ā' , Bābhā' bathrā' , "The First Gate," "The Second Gate," "The Last Gate," were in ancient times only one treatise called Nezı̄ḳı̄n : ( a ) Damages and injuries and the responsibility; ( b ) and ( 100 ) right of possession.
(4) and (5) Ṣanhedhrı̄n , "Court of Justice," and Makkōth "Stripes" ( Deuteronomy 25:1 ff; compare 1 Corinthians 11:24 ). In ancient times only one treatise; criminal law and criminal proceedings.
(6) Shebhū‛ōth , "Oaths" ( Leviticus 5:1 ff).
(7) ‛Ēdhuyōth , "Attestations" of later teachers as to the opinions of former authorities.
(8) ‛Ǎbhōdhāh zārāh , "Idolatry," commerce and intercourse with idolaters.
(9) 'Ābhōth , (sayings of the) "Fathers"; sayings of the Tannā'ı̄m .
(10) Hōrāyōth , (erroneous) "Decisions," and the sin offering to be brought in such a case ( Leviticus 4:13 ff).
5. Kodhashim, "Sacred Things":
(1) Zebhāḥı̄m , "Sacrifices" ( Leviticus 1 ff).
(2) Menāḥōth , "Meal Offerings" ( Leviticus 2:5 , Leviticus 2:11 ff; Leviticus 6:7 ff; Numbers 5:15 ff, etc.).
(3) Ḥullı̄n , "Common Things," things non-sacred; slaughtering of animals and birds for ordinary use.
(4) Bekhōrōth , "The Firstborn" ( Exodus 13:2 , Exodus 13:12 f; Leviticus 27:26 f, 32; Numbers 8:6 ff, etc.).
(5) ‛Ǎrākhı̄n , "Estimates," "Valuations" of persons and things dedicated to God ( Leviticus 27:2 ff).
(6) Temūrāh , "Substitution" of a common (non-sacred) thing for a sacred one (compare Leviticus 27:10 , Leviticus 27:33 ).
(7) Kerı̄thōth , "Excisions," the punishment of being cut off from Israel ( Genesis 17:14; Exodus 12:15 , etc.).
(8) Me‛ı̄lāh , "Unfaithfulness," as to sacred things, embezzlement ( Numbers 5:6 ff; Leviticus 5:15 f).
(9) Tāmı̄dh , "The Daily Morning and Evening Sacrifice" ( Exodus 29:38 ff; Nu Exodus 38:3 ff).
(10) Middōth , "Measurements" of the Temple.
(11) Ḳinnı̄m , "Nests," the offering of two turtle-doves or two young pigeons ( Leviticus 1:14 ff; Leviticus 5:1 ff; Leviticus 12:8 ).
6. Teharoth, "Clean Things":
This title is used euphemistically for "unclean things":
(1) Kēlı̄m , "Vessels" ( Leviticus 6:20 f; Leviticus 11:32 ff; Numbers 19:14 ff; Numbers 31:20 ff).
(2) 'Ǒholōth , "Tents," the impurity originating with a corpse or a part of it (compare Numbers 19:14 ).
(3) Neghā‛ı̄m , "Leprosy" ( Leviticus 13; 14 ).
(4) Pārāh , "Red Heifer"; its ashes used for the purpose of purification ( Numbers 19:2 ff). See HEIFER , RED .
(5) Ṭehārōth , "Clean Things," euphemistically for defilements.
(6) Mikwā'ōth , "Diving-Baths" ( Leviticus 15:12; Numbers 31:33; Leviticus 14:8; Leviticus 15:5 ff; compare Mark 7:4 ).
(7) Niddāh , "The Menstruous" ( Leviticus 15:19 ff; 12).
(8) Makhshı̄rı̄n , "Preparers," or Mashḳı̄n , "Fluids" (first word of the treatise). Seven liquids (wine, honey, oil, milk, dew, blood, water) which tend to cause grain, etc., to become defiled (compare Leviticus 11:34 , Leviticus 11:37 f) .
(9) Zābhı̄m , "Persons Having an Issue," flux ( Leviticus 15 ).
(10) Ṭebhūl yōm , "A Person Who Has Taken the Ritual Bath during the Day," and is unclean until sunset ( Leviticus 15:5; Leviticus 22:6 f).
(11) Yādhayim , "Hands," the ritual impurity of hands and their purification (compare Matthew 15:2 , Matthew 15:20; Mark 7:22 ff).
(12) ‛Uḳcı̄n , "Stalks," the conveyance of ritual impurity by means of the stalks and hulls of plants.
V. The Palestinian Talmud.
Another name, Talmūdh Yerūshalmı̄ ("Jerusalem Talmud"), is also old, but not accurate. The Palestinian Talmud gives the discussions of the Palestinian Amoraim, teaching from the 3century AD until the beginning of the 5th, especially in the schools or academies of Tiberias, Caesarea and Sepphoris. The editions and the Leyden manuscript (in the other manuscripts there are but few treatises) contain only the four ṣedhārı̄m i-iv and a part of Niddāh . We do not know whether the other treatises had at any time a Palestinian Gemara. "The Mishna on which the Palestinian Talmud rests" is said to be found in the manuscript Add. 470,1 of the University Library, Cambridge, England (ed W.H. Lowe, 1883). The treatises ‛Ēdhuyōth and 'Ābhōth have no Gemara in the Palestinian Talmud or in the Babylonian.
Some of the most famous Palestinian Amoraim may be mentioned here (compare Introduction , 99 ff): 1st generation: Ḥānı̄nā bar Ḥāmā , Jannai , Jonathan , Osha‛ya , the Haggadist Joshua ben Levi ; 2nd generation: Joḥannan bar Nappāḥā , Simeon ben Laḳish ; 3generation: Samuel bar Naḥman , Levi , Eliezer ben Pedāth , Abbahu , Ze‛ira (i); 4th generation: Jeremiah , Aḥā' , Abı̄n (i), Jūdāh , Hūnā ; 5th generation: Jonah , Phinehas , Berechiah , Jose bar Abin , Mānı̄ (ii), Tanhumā' .
VI. The Babylonian Talmud.
The Babylonian Talmud is later and more voluminous than the Palestinian Talmud, and is a higher authority for the Jews. In the first ṣēdher only Berākhōth has a Gemara; Sheḳālı̄m in the 2nd ṣēdher has in the manuscripts and in the editions the Palestinian Gemara; Middōth and Ḳinnı̄m in the 5th ṣēdher have no Babylonian Gemara. The greatest Jewish academies in Babylonia were in Nehardea, Ṣura , Pumbeditha and Maḥuza .
Among the greatest Babylonian Amoraim are the following (compare Introduction , 99 ff): 1st generation: Abba Arı̄khā or, shortly, Rab in Sura (died 247 AD). Mar Samuel in Nehardea (died 254 AD). 2nd generation: Rab Hūnā , Rab Judah (bar Ezekiel). 3generation: Rab Hiṣda , Rab Shēsheth , Rab Naḥman (bar Jacob), Rabbāh ( רבּה ) bar Ḥana , the story-teller, Rabbāh bar Naḥmānı̄ , Rab Joseph (died 323 AD). 4th generation: Abāye , Rābā ( רבא ) (bar Joseph). 5th generation: Rab Pāpā . 6th generation: Amēmar , Rab Āshı̄ .
VII. The Non-Canonical Little Treatises and the Tosephta.
In the editions of the Babylonian Talmud after the 4th ṣēdher we find some treatises which, as they are not without some interest, we shall not pass over in silence, though they do not belong to the Talmud itself (compare Introduction , 69 ff).
1. Treatises After the 4th Sedher:
(1) 'Ābhōth deRabbı̄ Nāthān , an expansion of the treatise 'Ābhōth , edition. S. Schechter, Vienna, 1887.
(2) Ṣōpherı̄m , edition Joel Muller, Leipzig, 1878.
(3) 'Ēbhel Rabbāthı̄ , "Mourning," or, euphemistically, Semāḥōth , "Joys."
(4) Kallāh , "Bride."
(5) Derekh 'erec , "Way of the World," i.e. Deportment; Rabbā' and Zūṭā' , "Large" and "Small."
2. Seven Little Treatises:
Septem Libri Talmudici parvi Hierolymitani , edition. R. Kirchheim, Frankfurt a. Main, 1851: Ṣēpher Tōrāh , Mezūzāh , Tephillı̄n , Cı̄cı̄th , ‛Ǎbhādhı̄m , Kūthı̄m (Samaritans), Gērı̄m (Proselytes).
The Tōṣephtā' , a work parallel to Rabbi's Mishna, is said to represent the views of R. Nehemiah, disciple of R. Aḳiba , edition. M. S. Zuckermandel, Posewalk, 1880. Zuckermandel tries to show that the Tōṣephtā' contains the remains of the old Palestinian Mishna, and that the work commonly called Mishna is the product of a new revision in Babylonia (compare his Tosephta, Mischna und Boraitha in ihrem Verhaltnis zu einander , 2 volumes, Frankfurt a. Main, 1908,1909).
Hermann L. Strack, Einleitung in d. Talmud , 4th edition, Leipzig, 1908, in which other books on this subject are mentioned, pp. 139-44.
(2) Manuscripts (Introduction, 72-76):
There are manuscripts of the whole Mishna in Parma, in Budapest, and in Cambridge, England (the latter is published by W.H. Lowe, 1883). The only codex of the Palestinian Talmud is in Leyden; Louis Ginsberg, Yerushalmi Fragments from the Genizah , volume I, text with various readings from the editio princeps, New York, 1909 (372 pp., 4to). The only codex of the Babylonian Talmud was published whole in 1912 by the present writer: Talmud Babylonian codicis Hebrew Monacensis 95 phototypice depictum , Leyden (1140 plates, royal folio). On the manuscripts in the Vatican see S. Ochser, ZDMG , 1909,365-93,126, 822 f.
(3) Editions (Introduction, 76-81):
( a ) Mishna, editio princeps , Naples, 1492, folio, with the commentary of Moses Maimonides; Riva 501 Trento , 1559, folio, contains also the commentary of Obadiah 501 Bertinoro. The new edition printed in Wilna contains a great number of commentaries ( b ) Palestinian Talmud, editio princeps , Venice, 1523 f, folio; Cracow, 1609, folio. Of a new edition begun by Asia Minor Luncz, Jerusalem, 1908 ff, two books, Berākhōth and Pē'āh , are already published. Another new critical edition, with German translation and notes, was begun in 1912 by G. Beer and O. Holtzman ( Die Mischna , Giessen). Compare also B. Ratner, Ahabath Tsijjon Wirushalayim, Varianten und Erganzungen des Jerusalem Talmuds , Wilna, 1901 ff. ( 100 ) Babylonian Talmud, editio princeps , Venice, 1520-23. The edition, Bale, 1578-81, is badly disfigured by the censorship of Marcus Marinus, Amsterdam, 1644-48, Berlin 1862-66. Compare R. Rabbinowicz, Variae Lectiones in Mishna et in Talmud Babylonicum , Munich, 1868-86, Przemysl, 1897 (the ṣedhārı̄m 3,6,5 in part are missing).
E. Bischoff, Krit. Geschichte d. Tal-mudubersetzungen , Frankfurt a. Main, 1899. ( a ) Mishna, Latin: Gull. Surenhusius, Amsterdam, 1698-1703 (contains also a translation of Maimonides and Obadiah 501 Bertinoro); German.: J.J. Rabe, Onolzbach, 1760 ff; A. Saminter, D. Hoffmann and others, Berlin, 1887 ff (not yet complete); English: De Sola and Raphall, 18 Treatises from the Mishna , London, 1843; Josephus Barclay, The Talmud, a Translation of 18 Treatises , London, 1878 (but 7 treatises also in De Sola and Raphall; Fiebig, Ausgewahlte Mischnatractate , Tubingen, 1905 ff (annotated German translation). ( b ) Palestinian Talmud, Latin: 20 treatises in B. Ugolini, Thesaurus antiquitatum sacrarum , volumes XVII-XXX , Venice, 1755 ff. French: M. Schwab, Paris, 1878-89 (in 1890 appeared a 2nd edition of volume I). ( 100 ) Babylonian Talmud, German.: L. Goldschmidt, Berlin (Leipzig), 1897 ff; gives also the text of the 1st Venetian edition and some variant readings ( ṣedhārı̄m 1,2, and 4 are complete); A. Wunsche, Der Babylonian Talmud in seinen haggadischen Bestandteilen ubersetzt , Leipzig, 1886-89. English: M.L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud ... Translated into English , New York, 1896 ff (is rather an abridgment (unreliable)).
(5) Commentaries (Introduction, 146-51):
Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Obadiah 501 Bertinoro (died 1510), Yōm - Ṭōbh Lipmann Heller (1579-1654), Israel Lipschutz.
(B) Babylonian Talmud:
Rashi or Solomon Yicḥāḳı̄ (died 1105); The Tōsāphōth (see L. Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur , Berlin, 1845,29-60); Menahem ben Solomon or Mē'ı̄rı̄ (1249-1306); Solomon Luria (died 1573), commonly called Maharshal ; Bezaleel Ashkenāzı̄ (16th century), author of the Shiṭṭāh Meḳubbeceth ; Samuel Edels (1559-1631) or Maharsha' ; Meir Lublin (died 1616); Elijah Wilna (died 1797); Aqiba Eger (died 1837).
(6) Single Treatises (Compare Introduction, 151-55):
The present writer is publishing: Ausgewahlte Misnatraktate, nach Handschriften und alten Drucken (Text vokalisiert, Vokabular), ubersetzt und mit Berucksichtigung des Neuen Testaments erlautert , Leipzig (J. C. Hinrichs); Yōmā' , 3edition, 1912, ‛Ǎbhōdhāh Zārāh , 2nd edition, 1909, Pirḳē 'Ābhōth , 4th edition, 1914, Shabbāth , 2nd edition, 1914, Ṣanhedhrı̄n , Makkōth , 1910, Peṣāḥı̄m 1911, Berākhōth , 1914. This series is to be continued (H. Laible, e.g., is writing Nedharim); Ch. Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers , in Hebrew and English, 2nd edition, Cambridge, 1897; W. A. L. Elmslie, The Mishna on Idolatry , with Translation, Cambridge, 1911.
(B) Gemara, Berakhoth, German:
E. M. Pinner, Berlin, 1842, fol; Pē'āh (Palestintan Talmud), German.: J. J. Rabe, Ansbach, 1781; Ṣukkāh , Latin: F. B. Dachs, Utrecht, 1726,4to; Rō'sh ha - shānāh , German: M. Rawicz, Frankfurt a. Main, 1886; Ta‛ănı̄th German.: Straschun Halle, 1883; Ḥăghı̄ghāh , English: A. W. Streane Cambridge, 1891; Kethūbhōth , German: M. Rawicz, 1891; Ṣōtah , Latin: J. Chr. Wagenseil, Altdorf, 1674-78; Bābhā' Mecı̄‛ā' , German: A. Sammter, Berlin, 1876, fol; Ṣanhedhrı̄n , Latin: Ugolini, Thesaurus , volume XXV , German.: M. Rawicz, 1892; ‛Ǎbhōdhāh Zārāh , German: F. Chr. Ewald, Nurnberg, 1856; Zebhāḥı̄n and Menāḥōth , Latin: Ugolini, Thesaurus , volume XIX; Hullı̄n , German: M. Rawicz, Offenburg, 1908; Tāmı̄dh , Latin: Ugolini, Thesaurus , Vol XIX .
(7) Helps for the Grammatical Understanding (Introduction, 155-58):
M. H. Segal, "Misnaic Hebrew," JQR , 1908,647-737; K. Albrecht, Grammatik des Neuhebraischen (Sprache der Mishna) , Munich, 1913;
J. Levy, Neuhebr. und chald. Worterbuch , Leipzig, 1876-89; M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the ... Talmud Babylonian and Yerushalmi , New York, 1886-1903; W. Bacher, Die Terminologie der jud. Traditionsliteratur , Leipzig, 1905; G. Dalman, Grammatik des judischpalastin. Aramaisch , 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1905; C. Levias, Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Babylonian Talmud , Cincinnati, 1900; Max L. Margolis, Grammar of the Aramaic Language of the Babylonian Talmud with a Chrestomathy , Munich, 1909.
(8) The Haggadah (Introduction, 159-62):
The Haggadic elements of the Palestinian Talmud are collected by Samuel Jaffe in Yephēh Mar'eh , Constantinople, 1587, etc., those of the Babylonian by Jacob ibn Habib in ‛Ēn Ya‛ăḳōbh , Saloniki, about 1516, etc.; W. Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiten , 2 volumes, Strassburg, 1884,1890 (1st volume, 2nd edition, 1903); Die A. der babylon. Amoraer , 1878; Die A. der palastinensischen Amoraer , 1892-99,3 volumes; P. T. Hershon, A T almudic Miscellany or 1001 Extracts , London, 1880; Treasures of the Talmud , London, 1882.
(9) Theology (Introduction, 162-65):
F. Weber, Judische Theologie , 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1897; J. Klausner, Die messianischen Vorstellungen des jud. Volkes im Zeitalter der Tannaiten , Berlin, 1904; R.T. Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash , London, 1903; H.L. Strack, Jesus, die Haretiker und die Christen nach den altesten jud. Angaben (texts, translation, commentary), Leipzig, 1910; L. Blau, Das altjudische Zauberwesen , Budapest, 1898; M. Lazarus, Die Ethik des Judentums , 2 volumes, Frankfurt a. Main, 1898,1911.
(10) The Talmud and the Old Testament (Introduction, 167 F):
G. Aicher, Das Altes Testament in der Mischna , Freiburg i. Baden, 1906; V. Aptowitzer, Das Schriftwort in der rabbin. Literatur , 4 parts, Wien, 1906-11 (to be continued; various readings in the quotations); P.T. Hershon, Genesis, with a Talmudical Commentary , London, 1883.
(11) The Talmud and the New Testament (Introduction, 165-67):
Joh. Lightfoot, Horae hebraicae et talmudicae, edition Leusden , 2 volumes, fol T, Franeker, 1699; Chr. Schottgen, Horae hebraicae et talmudicae in universum Novum Test ., 2 volumes, 4to, Dresden, 1733; Franz Delitzsch, "Horae hebraicae et talmudicae," in Zeitschrift fur die gesammte luther. Theologie u. Kirche , 1876-78; Aug. Wunsche, Neue Beitrage zur Erlauterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrash , Goettingen, 1878; Th. Robinson, The Evangelists and the Mishna , London, 1859; W.H. Bennett, The Mishna as Illustrating the Gospels , Cambridge, 1884; Erich Bischoff, Jesus und die Rabbinen, Jesu Bergpredigt und "Himmelreich" in ihrer Unabhangigkeit vom Rabbinismus , Leipzig, 1905.
(12) Jurisprudence (Introduction, 169-71):
J. L. Saalschtitz, Das Mosaische Recht , 2nd edition, Berlin, 1853; Josephus Kohler, "Darstellung des talludischen Rechts," in Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft , 1908,161-264; Z. Frankel, Der gerichtliche Beweis nach mosaisch-talmud. Rechte , Berlin, 1846; P.B. Benny, The Criminal Code of the Jews , London, 1880; S. Mendelsohn, The Criminal Jurisprudence of the Ancient Hebrews , Baltimore, 1891; H.B. Fassel, Das mosaisch-rabbinische Civilrecht, Gross-Kanischa , 2 volumes, 1852-54; Das mos.-rabb. Gerichtsverfahren in civilrechtl. Sachen , 1859; M. Mielziner, The Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce , Cincinnati, 1884; D.W. Amram, The Jewish Law of Divorce , Philadelphia, 1896; M. Rapaport, Der Talmud und sein Recht , Berlin, 1912.
(13) History (Introduction, 171 F):
J. Derenbourg, Histoire de la Palestine depuis Cyrus jusqu'a Adrien , Paris, 1867; L. Herzfeld, Handelsgeschichte der Juden des Altertums , 2nd edition, Braunschweig, 1894; A. Buchler, The Political and the Social Leaders of the Jewish Community of Sepphoris , London, 1909; S. Funk, Die Juden in Babylonien 200-500 , 2 volumes, Berlin, 1902,1908.
(14) Medical Science (Intro, 173):
Jul. Preuss, Biblisch-talmudische Medizin , Berlin, 1911 (735 pp.); L. Kotelmann, Die Ophthalmologie bei den alten Hebraern , Hamburg, 1910 (436 pp.).
Sam. Krauss, Talmudische Archaologic , 3 volumes, Leipzig, 1910-1912.
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Talmud'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/t/talmud.html. 1915.