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Quotations of the Old Testament in the Talmud.

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In order to understand many quotations which are cited in the Talmud from the Scriptures, we must remember that the ancient rabbins, in their colloquies and disputations, did not use a MS., but cited from memory a mode of citation often found in the New Test. Dr. M. Steinschneider, in his essay Jewish Literature, in Ersch and Gruber's Allgem. Encycl. § 2, vol. 27:p. 375, makes the following statement: "The influence of the Bible on gnomonics in particular is shown in the following steps

(1.) Biblical precepts were used unchanged in meaning and expression, as sentiments or favorite sayings of particular persons. *

(2.) Biblical sentences, unchanged in form, were made by extending or contracting their contents into new expressions of various truths, uhich had elsewhere been clothed in known proverbs, so that these last were in some sense deduced from the Bible. A wide field was thus opened for the Midrash; and, finally, the words of the Bible were made into proverbs with an entirely different sense.

(3.) Lastly, Biblical phrases and ideas were used more or less intentionally in newly formed sententiae, and passed into proverbial forms, as they are to be found in the old Halachah (e.g. Peah, ii, 2).

* To illustrate Steinschneider's statement, we give the following example. In the Talmud (Nidda, fol. 51, Colossians 2) it was said in the school of R. Ishmnael, "He will magnify the law and make it honorable" (Isaiah 42:41).

In the Talmud (Sabbath, fol. 10, Colossians 1) the question was raised, how long the judges were oblinged to sit at court. R. Sheshel answerled, "Until mid-day." To which R. Chama said, "Where do you find this in the Scriptire?" The answer was, "It is said, Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning' (Ecclesiastes 10:16)." R. Jeremiah once engaged himself with R. Sera in the law. When the time for the evening prayer had already advanced, R. Jeremiah betook himself quickly to read it. To this R. Sera applied the passage (Proverbs 28:9), "He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law, even his prayer shall be abomination" (Sabbath, fol. 19, Colossians 1). Of R. Tarphon it is said that when some one told him something intellectual, he used to say כפתור ופרח, "A knop and a flower in one branch" (Exodus 25:33); but when the tale was not according to his taste, he (Bereshith Rabba, ch. 91).

E.g. כבר שתה עליכִוס תנחגומין, i.e. "He already drank for thee the cup of consolation" (Bereshith Rabba, fol. 20, etc.); i.e. to be comforted over something. The phrase "cup of consolation" is found in Jeremiah 16:7.

1. As the ancient rabbins made the Bible their study for years, we must not wonder when, in their colloquies, they were able to quote a correct Biblical text. And yet we must bear three things in mind, in order not to have a misconception of the matter. To make this intelligible, we will quote the following examples:

(a.) The Talmudists sometimes erroneously attribute a Biblical verse to another context. Thus we read in the Talmud (Pesachim, fol. 109, Colossians 1), "It is every man's duty to rejoice with his household on the feast, for itis written, And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast,' בְחִגֶּךָ וְשָׂמִחְתּ (Deuteronomy 16:14, where reference is made to the Feast of Tabernacles). The Tosaphoth on this passage, however, reads, "And thou shalt rejoice, thou and thine household" (וְשָׂמִחְתָ אִתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ ). Now the original reading was that as in the Tosaphoth, which is found in Deuteronomy 14:26, where the second tithe is spoken of. The rabbins, however, thought that the reading alluded to in the Tosaphoth is found in the section which treats of the Feast of Tabernacles; hence, when the editors of the Talmud found out the mistake, they substituted for the reading ושמחת אתה ובית that of בחגוִשמחת

(b.) Sometimes sentences are quoted in the Talmud as Biblical which are not found in the Bible. In Berakoth, fol. 61, Colossians 1, in fine, we read: Rab Nachman said Manioah was an ignorant manl (עִם הארוֹ ), for it is written, "He went after his wife" (Judges 13:11). B. Nachman, the son of Isaac, asked, should this not also apply to Elkanah, for it is written, "And Elkanah went after his wife;" and to Elisha, of whom the Scripture says, "And he arose and followed her" (2 Kings 4:30)? He followed her, indeed! Yes, but he followed her words and advice, and so here likewise he (Manoah) went after her words and counsel. The Tosaphoth correctly remarks on what the Talmud says concerning Elkanah: שבוש הוא שאין פסוק זה בכל המקרא; i.e. "It is an error, for this verse is not found in the whole Scripture." once I had a dream, and I vwent to all [interpreters of dreams the passage having reference to the twenty-four interpreters of dreams said to have been at Jerusalem], and the interpretation of the one was different from that of the other, but all were fulfilled, to fulfil what is said: All dreams go after the interpretation. But is this a verse of the Scripture? Yes, and according to R. Eliezer, who said, Whence do we know that all dreams go after the interpretation? For it is said, And it came to pass as he interpreted' (Genesis 41:13)."

In the Talmud (Pesachim, fol. 56, Colossians 1) it is said that Jacob, before his death, cited the words כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד ברושִם; i.e. "blessed be the glorious name of his kingdom for ever and ever." But such a quotation is nowhere found in the Scriptures.

In Yoma, fol. 85, Colossians 2, and Berakoth, fol. 62, Colossians 2, we read that the Scripture says, "If any one wants to kill you, kill him first" (להרגו בא להרגהִשכם ), but such a passage is nowhere found. Oftentimes quotations are made from Ecclesiasticus, and are introduced by the phrases generally applied to scriptural passages, as in Niddah, fol. 16, Colossians 2 (לדכתיב ); Berakoth, fol. 48, Colossians 1 (דכתיב ); Erubin, fol. 65, Colossians 1 (שנאמר ); Baba Kama, fol. 92, Colossians 2 (שנאמר בנביאים , Judges 11:3; דבר זה כתיב בתורה, Genesis 28:9; בכתובימ ומשולש, Sirach 13:20). As these passages are al. ready enumerated in this Cycloopedia, we can only refer to the art. ECCLESIASTICUS (See ECCLESIASTICUS).

(c.) Biblical phrases are here and there changed for the sake of brevity. In Erubin, fol. 31, Colossians 2 (Berakoth, fol. 27, Colossians 2; Kiddushin, fol. 54, Colossians 1), those things are mentioned which may be used for the Erub (i.e. the ceremony of extending the Sabbath boundary). But to prove those things which may not be used, the phrase is ונתן הכס וקם לו . But these four words are nowhere found in this connection together.

Sometimes some verses are contracted into one, as Deuteronomy 11:5-6, in Rosh ha-Shana, fol. 4, Colossians 2; Proverbs 19:17 and Proverbs 14:31, in Berackoth, fol. 18, Colossians 1; Ezekiel 15:4, and Jeremiah 36:22, in Sabbath, fol. 20, Colossians 1; Leviticus 14:39; Leviticus 14:44, in Maccoth, fol. 13, Colossians 2; Leviticus 19:13; ibid. fol. 16, Colossians 1. The same is often the case in the New Test., e.g. Matthew 21:5, where Isaiah 42:2 and Zechariah 9:9 are connected; Isaiah 6:9-10 in Mark 1:11; Isaiah 40:6-7; Isaiah 52:10, in Luke 3:4-6; Exodus 16:14-15; Numbers 11:7; Psalms 78:24 in John 6:31; John 6:49, etc.

2. Having thus shown the mode of quotations, we will now give a list of passages which are read otherwise in the Talmud than in our Bible:

A. Passages quoted in the Mishna.

1. Leviticus 25:36, אלאּתקח מאתו; Baba Metsia, ch. v, § 11, ממנו .

2. Numbers 28:2, ואמרת אלהם ; Taanith, ch. 4:§ 2, אליהם

3. Numbers 32:22, והייתם נקים; Shekalim, ch. iii, § 2, נקיים [thus likewise in two MSS.].

4. Deuteronomy 24:19, לאאּתשוב; Peah, ch.vi, § 4, בלאּתשוכ [three times].

5. Joshua 8:33, the words וכלאּישראל to לארון are quoted Sotah, ch. 7:§ 5, but instead of ושוטרים the reading is ושוטריו [probably on account of the antecedent וזקניו and following ושופטיו ; the reading in the Mishna is also marked by Michaelis, Bibl. Hebr. 1720, ad loc., and so likewise in the Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic versions].

6. Isaiah 10:13, שושתי; Yadaim, ch. 4:§ 4, שוסתי [in the Bible (with the exception of our passage) שסה is always read with the Samnech].

7. Ezekiel 46:21, ארבעת מקצועי; Middoth, ch. ii, § 5, ארבע מקצעות [probably on account of the following מקצעת in v, 22; ארבע is the reading also of one MSS.].

8. Amos 9:14, ושבתי את שבות עמי ישראל; Yadain, ch. 4:§ 4, reads after ישראל ויהודה .

9. Malachi 3:16, ספר ; Aboth, ch. iii, § 3, בספר [which is supported by seven MSS. and the Syr.].

10. Malachi 3:23, הנה אנכי שלח לכם אליה הנביא ; Eduyoth, ch. 8:§7, הנני שלח לכם את אליהו הנביא .

11. Psalms 68:27, אלהים אדני; Berakoth, ch. 7:§ 3, יהוה אלהים יהוה is the reading of eleven MSS.].

12. Job 1:1, אלהים והיה האיש ההוא תם וישר וירא; Sotah, ch. v, § 5, אישתם וישר ירא אלהים.

13. Proverbs 22:28, עוים; Peah, ch. v, § 6, עולים [but ch. 7:§ 3, the reading is, as in the Bible, עולם ].

14. 2 Chronicles 28:15, הלבישי; Sotah, ch. 8:§ 1, הלבישים

B. Passages quoted in the Gemara.

15. Genesis 7:8, אֵינֶנָּה טְחֹרָה; Pesachim, fol. 3, Colossians 1, איננה טהורה

16. Genesis 7:23, מֵאָדָם עִדאּבְּהֵמָה; Berakoth, fol. 61, Colossians 1, ועד

17. Genesis 15:2, in Berakoth, fol. 7, Colossians 2, we read: "R. Jochanan said, in the name of R. Sineon beni-Yochai, from the day wlien God created the world, no one called him Lord (אדון ) until Abraham came and called him Lord, f)r it is written (Genesis 15:8), And he said, Lord God (יהֵוהֹ אֲדֹנָי ), whereby shall I know that 1 shall inherit it?'" [But in 15:2, we already read ויאמר אברם אדני יהוה .]

18. Genesis 25:6, ולבני הפילגשים אשר לאברהם; in the Bereshith Rabba, sect. 61, fol. 67, Colossians 4 (where the question is whether Abraham had one or more concubines), it is stated that the reading is פילגשם [one concubine. This reading of the Midrash is followed by Rashi, who, in his commentary on Genesis 25:6, remarks, "The textual reading is פילגשם, defective, because Abraham had only one concubine, namely, Hagar, who was identical with Keturah." But this reading is contrary to the Masorah, which distinctly remarks that the word פילגשים occurs twice entirely plene, that is, with the two Yods after the two Chireks. The one instance is in Genesis 26:6, and the other in Esther 2:14].

19. Genesis 35:18, בנימין plene; in Sotah, fol. 36, Colossians 2, where the passage in Genesis 49:27, בנימין זאב יטר, is treated, we read that, with the exception of 49:27, the word בנימין is written בנימן, defective. [From this statement, it seems that at that time Genesis 35:18; Genesis 42:4; Genesis 43:14; Genesis 43:16; Genesis 43:29; Genesis 45:12 was written בנימן .]

20. Exodus 12:3, עֲדִת יַשְֹרָאֵל; in Pesachim, fol. 6, Colossians 2, עדת בני ישראל [so Samuel, Sept., Syr., Vulg., Targumn; comp. our Horce Samaritance on Exodus, in Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1876, loc. cit.; in the Talmud editions of Prague, Vienna, and Warsaw, the word בני is omitted].

21. Exodus 12:6, לִחֹדֶשׁ הִזֶּה; Erakin, fol. 13, Colossians 2:22 לחדש הראשון . Exodus 13:16, טוֹטָפֹת; Deuteronomy 6:8, טֹטָפֹת; Deuteronomy 11:18, טֹוטָפֹת; iln Menachothl fol. 34, Colossians 2, we read, "The sages propound, Rabbi Ishmael said in לָטוטפת לטטפֹת לטטפת, the four compartments [in the phylactery] are indicated." [To understand this, we will remark that the word טטפת occurs only three times, as indicated above; in two instances it has no ו (Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18), and in the third (Exodus 13:16) there is a ו after the first ט , i.e. טוטפת; hence R. Ishmael regards it as a dual, and makes of the three words four, to obtain the four compartments in the phylacteries. But Chayim, in his Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, tells us that "in the correct codices, as well as in the Book of Crowns,* the reading is לטטפת (Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18) and ולטוטפת (Exodus 13:16), but there is no ו between the פ and the ת; yet I myself have seen that in the ancient Book of the Crowns, even לטוטפת in Deuteronomy 11:18 is written with a, ו after the first ט " The latter statement proves that our present reading is correct.]

*The Book of Crowns (ספר תגין ) is an ancient treatise, containing Masoretical rules on the ornamental letters. It has lately been published, for the first time, by Burges (Paris, 1866).

23. Exodus 31:1, וִיְדִבֵּר; in Berakoth, fol. 55, Colossians 1, ויאמר

24. Leviticus 4:25; Leviticus 4:30; Leviticus 4:34, קִרְנֹת, defective; in Sanhedrin, fol. 4, Colossians 1, we read that the school of Shammai read קרנות קרנות קרנות, while that of Hillel, קרנות קרנת קרנת [i.e. once plene written; the same is also said in Zebachim, fol. 37, Colossians 2; comp. also the note in Michaelis, Biblia Hebr. ad loc.].

25. Leviticus 10:12, וִיְדִבֵּר; Berakoth, fol. 61, Colossians 1, ויאמר

26. Leviticus 15:10, וְהִנּוֹשֵׂא; Nidda, fol. 33, Colossians 1, כתיב והנשא

27. Leviticus 18:18, וְאַשָּׁה אֶלאּאֲחֹתָה לאֹ תַקָּח ; Kiddushin, fol. 50, Colossians 2, תקח דאמר קרא אשה אל אחותה לא .

28. Numbers 5:19, אַם לאֹ שָׁכִב ; Gittin, fol. 60, Yoma, fol. 37, Colossians 2, אם שכב אם לא שכב .

29. Numbers 18:16, וּפְדוּיָו מַבֶּןאּחֹדֶשׁ תַפְדֶּה; in the Talmud seems once to have stood ומעלה after חדש, at least this is intimated in the Tosaphoth, or additional commentary to the Talmud; Erakin, fol. 18, Colossians 2, where it is stated וחפשנו אחר מקרא הזךְ ולא מצאנוהו, i.e. "We sought for this reading, but could not find it."

30. Deuteronomy 6:7, וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ; Berakoth, fol. 2, col.!בשכב, [thus likewise the Samar. and Vulg.].

31. Deuteronomy 6:9, מְזֻזוֹת; Menachoth, fol. 34, Colossians 1, R. Meir seems to have read מזוזת .

32. Deuteronomy 6:20, מָה to אתכם; Jerusalem Talmud, Pesachim, ch. 10:§ 4, אותנו .

33. Deuteronomy 23:1, כְּנִ אָבַיו; Berakoth, fol. 21, Colossians 2, את כנ

34. Deuteronomy 25:7, לאֹ אָבָה יִבְמַי; Yebamoth, fol. 106, Colossians 2, R. Ashai found R. Kahana, who, being perplexed about it, read ולא אבה יבמי (with ו conjunctive). In correct codices, as is also evident from the Masorah, it is read לא אבה [some Hebr. MSS., 1 Samuel, the Syr., Ar., and Vulg. have ולא ].

35. Joshua 3:17 is quoted in Berakoth, fol. 54, Colossians 1, but instead of הארון ברית יההוה it reads ארון יהוה, and עד אשר תמו כל הגוי ר tֵ he reading is כל הים עד תום

36. Joshua 10:11, מַפְנֵי יַשְׂרָאֵל; Berakoth, fol. 54, Colossians 2, מפני בני ישראל :'

37. Joshua 14:7; Joshua 14:10. These two verses for the sake of brevity are thus contracted (see No. 1, c, above), Erakin, fol. 13, Colossians 1, שנה ד קאמר כלב בן ארבעים (?)עבד ה מקדש ברנע לרגל את מנלן הארוֹ ועתה אנכי היום בן חמש ושמונים בשלח אותי משה עבד, i.e. "It is said of Caleb, forty years old was I when Moses the servant of the Lord sent me from Kadesh-barnea to espy ont the land, and now I am this day fourscore and five years old."

38. Joshua 16:6, תִּאִנִת שַׁלה; Zebachim, fol. 118, Colossians 2, Rabbi Abdini bar-Chasa said, the Scripture says, תאנת שילה ולו, to which the commentary remarks, חיפשתיו ולא מצאתיו במקרא, i.e. "I have sought but not found it in the Scripture, but I found in Joshua 16 :, אבל מצאתיו תאנת שילה,

39. Judges 15:20; Judges 16:31, where Samson is said to have judged Israel twenty years (Judges 16:31). The Talm. Hieros. Sotah, fol. 17, "One passage reads, and he judged Israel forty years, and another that he judged Israel twenty years. R. Acha answered, From this we see that the Philistines feared him twenty years after his death, just as they did twenty years before it." [On this passage R. Chayim, in his preface to the Rabbinic Bible, makes the following interpretation: "To me it appears, however, that there is no difficulty in it; for what the Talmud speaks about Samson refers to the Midrashic interpretation, viz. Why is the verse, that he judged Israel twenty years, repeated twice? R. Acha answered, From this we see that the Philistines feared him (viz. Samson) twenty years after his death, just as they did twenty years before it, and this makes forty years.' Hence the Talmnd does not say, Why is it written in the text, The judged Israel forty years?' but simply, The judged forty years,' that is, according to the Midrash. And now everything comes out right when thou lookest into it." We may well subscribe what Claudius Capellanus, in his Mare Rabbinicum Infidum, 1p. 350, note, says, "Tam insigne mendacinum quod decepit doctissimum Buxtorfium facile corruet vel sola adductiole loci Talmudici." This much is certain, that in the time of the Talmud, one codex at least had the reading, Judges 15 : ארבעים שנה ]

40. 1 Samuel 2:24, מִעֲבַרַים; in Sabbath, fol. 55, Colossians 2, "is not the reading מִעֲבַרַים ? Whereupon R. Hunnah ben R. Joshua said the reading is מעברם [Rashi remarks that the reading of the most trustworthy codices is מעברים : plene, i.e. with a Yod after the Resh.]

41. 2 Samuel 3:35, להברות; Sanhedrin, fol. 20, Colossians 1, it is written להכרות, but is read להברות [a number of MSS. read להכרות; comp. also the Diets. of Kimchi, Lib. Rad. s.v. כרה, and Menachen ben-Sarug, Lex. Rad. בר and כר (ed. Filipowski, Lond. 1854, p. 48, 109)].

42. 2 Samuel 24:15, וְעִדאּעֵת מוֹעֵד וִיַּתֵּן יְהוהֹ דֶבֶר בְּיַשְׂרָאֵל מֵהִבֹּקֶר ; Yoena, fol. 2, Colossians 2, מן הבקר ועד עת מועד ויתן ה דבר בעם

43. 2 Kings 17:31, נַבְחִז; Sanhedrin, fol. 63, Colossians 2, נבחן [D. Kimchi also asserts to have seen the Nun (") final, instead of the ן majuscular, as written now].

44. 2 Kings 23:17; in Erakin, fol. 33, Colossians 1, the whole verse is quoted with the exception of האלה אשר עשתה .

45. Isaiah 38:16, וְהֲחֲיֵינַי;ַ eerakoth, fol. 55, Colossians 1, ותחייני

46. Isaiah 42:5, וְנוֹטֵיהֶם; Bereshith Rabba, sect. 12, fol. 15, 3, ונווטיהם [i.e. leaders].

47. Isaiah 58:7, לאֹ תַתְעִלָּם; Jerusalem Talmud, Kethuboth, ch. 11:§ 3, אל תתעלם .

48. Ezekiel 40:48; Ezekiel 47:1; Erubin, fol. 2, Colossians 1, הבית דכאיב אל פתח אולם; but such a passage is not to be found in the Scriptures. [Tosaphoth remarks on this passage, "Such a passage is nowhere to be found, but we find written (Ezekiel 40:48) אוּלָם הִבִּיַת and פֶתִח הִבִּיַת (Ezekiel 47:1)."]

49. Ezekiel 44:9, is quoted Moed Katon, fol. 5, Colossians 1, but with the addition לשרתני after מקדשי .

50. Hosea 4:11, וְתַרוֹשׁ pleine; Yoma, fol. 76, Colossians 2, it is written תירש and read תירוש .

51. Amos 4:6, וְגִם אֲנַי נָתִתַּי; lidda, fol. 65, Colossians 1, גם אנכי נתתי

52. Amos 8:11, אֵת דַּבְרֵי יְהוהֹ; Sabbath, fol. 138, Colossians 2, דברי את דבר יהוה is found in the ed. princeps, but later editions, Kimchi, Aben-Ezra, Sept., Syriac,Vulg., Targum, read דבר ].

53. Amos 9:11, . וְשִׁבְתַּי אֶת שְׁבוּת; Berakoth, fol. 28, Colossians 1 (ed. princeps), הנני משיב את שבית [Later ed. reads as in our text of the Bible.]

54. Micah 4:2, גּוֹיַם; Berakoth, fol. 55, col. 2, עִמים . 55. Zechariah 12:10, אלי ; Sukka, fol. 52, Colossians 1, אליו [forty codices have אליו, and so many Jewish commentators].

56. Malachi 1:2, מֵאָהָלֵי יִעֲקֹב; many editions of the Talnud have מאלקי for מאהלי, but this is of no importance, since the ed. princeps, Sanhedron, fol. 82, Colossians 1, only quotes the first part of the verse till ער ועונה .

57. Psalms 5:5, רָע כַּי לאֹ אֵלאּחָפֵוֹ רֶשִׁע אִתָּה לאֹ יְגֻרְךָ ; Chagiga, fol. 12, Colossians 2, יָגוּר בַּמְגּוּרְךָ רָע לאֹ אֵלאּחָפֵוֹ רֶשִׁע אִתָּה לא But this does not stand in the Bible as Tosaphoth already remarked, אין זה מקרֹא .

58. Psalms 16:10, חֲסַידְיךָ; Erubin, fol. 19, Colossians 1; Yomna, fol. 87, Colossians 1 (in five eds. of the Talmud) read! חסיד [so likewise Sept., Syriac, Vulg. Jerome].

59. Psalms 56:11, דָּבָר בֵּאלֹהַים אֲהִלֵּל דָּבָר בִּיהוהֹ אֲהִלֵּל ; Berakoth, fol. 60, Colossians 1, באלהים בוהוה אהלל דבר

60. Psalms 68:21, לִמָּוֶת תּוֹצָאוֹת; Berakoth, fol. S, Colossians 1, ולמות

61. Psalms 95:5, וְיִבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ; Kethuboth, fol. 5, Colossians 1, ידו כתיב והכתיב יצרו .

62. Psalms 97:7, תַשְׁתִּחֲווּ; Jerusalem Talmud, Edulyoth, fol. 44, Colossians 1, ישתחוו [comp. Epistle to the Hebrews 1:6, προσκυνησάτωσαν, κ . τ . λ.].

63. Psalms 127:5, אֶתאּאִשְׁפָּתו; Kiddushin, fol. 30, Colossians 2, without את .

64. Psalms 139:5, כִּפֶּכָה; Chagiga, fol. 12, Colossians 1,!כפ .

65. Proverbs 8:13, שׂנאֹת רָע; Pesachim, fol. 113, Colossians 2, שונאי רע

66. Proverbs 11:17, איש חָסֵד; Taanlith, fol. 11, Colossians 2, חסיד איש

67. Proverbs 15:1, יָשַׁיב; Berakoth, fol. 17, Colossians 2, משיב .

68. Job 2:8, לְהַתְגָּשׁד ; Midrash Bereshith Iabba, sect. 64 (towards the end), להתגיר .

69. Job 13:4, אֵַּלל ; Chullin., fol. 121, Colossians 1, אֵַליל .

70. Job 14:6, כַּיאּעִתָּה; Jerusalem Talmud, Berakoth, ch. v, § 1, כי אתה .

71. Job 36:5, הֶןאּאֵל כִּבַּיר וְל

Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Quotations of the Old Testament in the Talmud.'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tce/​q/quotations-of-the-old-testament-in-the-talmud.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.
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