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Bible Encyclopedias
Kid

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia

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—Biblical, Data:

"'Ez" is the generic name for both sexes. Special terms for the he-goat: "'attud," Genesis 31:10; Ps. 9, etc.; "ẓafir," Ezra 8:35; 2 Chronicles 29:21; "sa'ir," Genesis 37:31; Leviticus 4:23, etc.; and "tayish," Genesis 30:35, etc. "Seh," usually meaning "sheep," is also used for "goat" in Exodus 12:5 and Deuteronomy 14:4, and both sheep and goats are comprised under "ẓon" (small cattle), in contrast to "baḳar" (large cattle). For the young goat, or kid, "gedi" is used in Genesis 27:9, Judges 6:19, etc., and the feminine form, "gediyyah," in Song of Solomon 1:8.

Of the domesticated goat, Capra hircus, to which the names generally refer, the chief breed occurring in Palestine is the mamber (from "Mamre"), or Syrian goat, with long ears and stout horns. The mohair, or Angora goat, with silky hair, is seldom met with in Palestine proper. The wild or mountain goat, Capra agagrus, occurring south of the Lebanon, is probably intended by "aḳḳo" (wild goat; Deuteronomy 14:5 among the clean animals) and "ya'el" (A. V. "roe," R. V. "doe"), whose fondness for rocky heights is referred to in 1 Samuel 24:3; Psalms 104:18; Job 39:1.

Usefulness.

The goat formed an important part of Palestinian husbandry (Genesis 30:32, 32:15; 1 Samuel 25:2; Proverbs 27:26; Song of Solomon 4:1, 6:5). Its milk and flesh were staple articles of food (Proverbs 27:27); the kid was considered a delicacy (Genesis 27:9,14; Judges 6:19, 13:15; etc.; comp. also Exodus 23:19, 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21, the prohibition against seething the kid in the milk of its mother; see DIETARY LAWS); the hair of the goat was woven into curtains and tent-covers (Exodus 26:7, 35:26, etc.), or used for stuffing cushions (1 Samuel 19:13); its skin was employed for garments (Hebrews 11:37; comp. Genesis 27:16) and for bottles (Genesis 21, 14; Joshua 9:5; comp. Matthew 11:17). The goat entered largely into the sacrificial ritual (Leviticus 3:12; 4:23,28; 5:6; comp. Genesis 15:9); on the Day of Atonement a "scapegoat" carried away the sins of the people to AZAZEL (Leviticus 16:10 et seq.). The local name "En Gedi" (1 Samuel 24:2; at present 'Ain Jidi) attests the frequency of the goat in Palestine.

Like the ram, the he-goat as the leader of the flock (comp. Proverbs 30:31) symbolizes the rulers and rich in contrast to the poor and common people (Isaiah 14:9; Jer. 8, 51:40; Ezekiel 34:17; Zechariah 10:3; comp. Daniel 8:5); and, like the gazelle, the female wild goat, "ya'alah," recalls the grace of woman (Proverbs 5:19).

—In Rabbinical Literature:

The Talmud ascribes to the goat great strength, endurance (Beẓah 25b), and pluck (Shab. 77b). Job's goats killed the wolves which assailed them (B. B. 15b), and Ḥanina's would bring bears upon their horns (Ta'an. 25a, and parallels). Goat's milk fresh from the udder relieves pains of the heart (Tem. 15b), and that of a white goat possesses especial curative properties (Shab. 109b). Against diseases of the spleen the same organ of a goat which has not yet borne young is recommended (Giṭ. 69b). Among the manifold uses of the goat may be mentioned, in addition to those given above, the making of its horns and hoofs into vessels (Ḥul. 25b). The blood of the he-goat is more similar to human blood than is that of any other animal (Gen. R. 84:19). "Goat of " in Ḥul. 80a may refer to a forest goat, or to a mountain goat ("bale" in Persian = height).

Bibliography:
  • Tristram, Natural History of the Bible, pp. 88-97;
  • L. Lewysohn, Zoologie des Talmuds, pp. 123-126.
E. G. H.
I. M. C.
Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Kid'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tje/​k/kid.html. 1901.
 
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