Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1122 - γραμματεύς
- a clerk, scribe, esp.a public servant, secretary, recorder, whose office and influence differed in different states
- in the Bible, a man learned in the Mosaic law and in the sacred writings, an interpreter, teacher. Scribes examined the more difficult and subtle questions of the law; added to the Mosaic law decisions of various kinds thought to elucidate its meaning and scope, and did this to the detriment of religion. Since the advice of men skilled in the law was needed in the examination in the causes and the solution of the difficult questions, they were enrolled in the Sanhedrin; and are mentioned in connection with the priests and elders of the people. See a Bible Dictionary for more information on the scribes.
- a religious teacher: so instructed that from his learning and ability to teach advantage may redound to the kingdom of heaven
γραμμᾰτ-εύς, έως, ὁ,
1. secretary, registrar, title of officials at Athens and elsewhere, IG 12.15, etc.; ὁ γ. ὁ τῆς πόλεως Th. 7.10; γ. τοῦ δήμου OGI 493.10 (Ephesus, ii A. D.), Acts 19:35; γ. ἀνδραπόδων PHib. 29.7; γ. τῶν μαχίμων UPZ 110.145 (ii B. C.); γ. τοῦ θεοῦ IG 9(2).1109.21 (Magn. Thess.); also of subordinate officials, clerk, sts. a term of contempt, ὄλεθρος γ. D. 18.127; θεοῖς ἐχθρὸς καὶ γ. Id. 19.95; ἡ γ., in joke, Ar. Th. 432.
2. metaph., recorder, of memory, Pl. Phlb. 39a.
3. scholar, γ. σαφής A. Fr. 358 (s. v. l.).
4. one who traces or marks out, of Egyptian embalmers, D.S. 1.91.
γραμματεύς , -έως
(acc pl., -εῖς , v. B1., § 8, 2), ὁ
1. a secretary; γ . τ . πόλεως , a state-clerk: Acts 19:35.
2. In Papyri, of a military officer (Deiss., BS, 110 f.). So Judges 5:14, 2 Kings 25:19 (H5608), al.
3. a scribe, a biblical scholar, teacher of the law (so first in 1 Esdras 8:3, Ezra 7:6; in Luke 5:17, νομοδιδάσκαλος ; in Luke 10:25, νομικός ): Matthew 7:29, Mark 1:22, and freq. in Gosp. γ . καὶ ἀρχιερεῖς , Matthew 2:4, et.; γ . κ . Φαρισαῖοι , Matthew 5:20, et.; γ . μαθητευθεὶς τῇ βασιλείᾳ τ . οὐρ ., Matthew 13:52; ποῦ σοφός ; ποῦ γ ., 1 Corinthians 1:20 (Cremer, 167; DB, iv, 420, 800).
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In the LXX γραμματεῖς first occur in connexion with the Egyptian ἐργοδιῶκται , and are rendered ";officers"; (Exodus 5:6, AV, RV) : cf. Deuteronomy 20:5, where the word again denotes subordinate military officials, presumably those who kept the register of the army (Driver ad l.). Deissmann (BS, p. 110 ff.) has shown how readily this technical usage of the word would be adopted by the Alexandrian translators in view of the practice of Egyptian Greek. Thus in P Par 63.145 (B.C. 165) we hear of a certain Eumelus τοῦ γραμματέως τῶν μαχίμων , ";the registrar of the μάχιμοι "; (Mahaffy, P Petr III. p. 31), and in P Lond 23.95 (B.C. 158–7) (= I. p. 41) of a γραμματέα τῶν δ [υ ]ναμέων . See also Archiv iv. p. 33 f. for the office of γραμματεὺς τῶν κατοίκων ἱππέων . The word is very common to denote the official who had to supply returns to the central authority on the number of inhabitants in a village, on their holdings in land, etc. In Syll 790.21 (i/B.C.) τὸν γραμματέα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὸν προφήτην we have an example of the word used with reference to a religious office; cf. lines 32, 46, and Magn 197.11 (time of Caracalla) οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γρ [αμ ]ματεῖς ἀνέστη [σαν (see Nägeli, p. 35). In P Petr III. 59 (b) we have a census for poll-tax, where in some community numbering 2108 males there are exempted 92 ἱερεῖς and 10 ἱερογραμματεῖς . It is unnecessary to illustrate the large and varied use of γρ . to denote public officials, and especially town clerks : e.g. P Lond 1159.1 (A.D. 145–7) (= III. p. 112) παρὰ γραμματέων Πόλεως (sc. Hermopolis) αἰτούμενοι ὑπὸ σοῦ —these officials proceed to furnish a return of well-to-do citizens on the ";liturgy"; list. The importance of the office at Ephesus, to which Acts 19:35 points, is now abundantly confirmed by the inscrr. : cf. e.g. OGIS 493.11 (Ephesus—ii/A.D.) Λούκιος . . . ἀποδε [δει ]γμένος γραμματεὺ [ς τοῦ ] δήμου , also .28, .34, and for a similar use of the verb ib. 480.11 (A.D. 104), 510.11 (A.D. 138–61) γραμματεύοντος Ποπλίου Οὐηδίου Ἀντ (ω )νείνου ἀσιάρχου : see further Hicks Greek Inscrr. in the Brit. Museum iii. p. 154, Ramsay St Paul, pp. 281, 305, and art. ";Ephesus"; in Hastings’ D.B. i. p. 723. It may be added that the word had as large a range as our ";clerk"; or ";secretary."; Thus P Giss I. 45.4 (Hadrian’s reign) εἰ ] δοκ [ε ]ῖ , πέμψον ἐνθάδε ἢ τὸν [κω ]μο ̣γραμματέα ἢ γραμματέα [αὐ ]τ ̣ο ̣[ῦ , ";the clerk of the village council, or his clerk"; : BGU IV. 1096.3 (i//ii A.D.) ἐπεὶ Σαραπίων [α ] ἔσχον γραμματέα , ὃν πρότερον εἶχον , ὑπὲρ οὗ [κ ]αὶ ἄλλοτέ σοι ἔγραψα —an official writes to a subordinate to hand over papers to his newly engaged secretary, whom he had employed previously, and not to have dealings with his successor. A new astrological fragment, in PSI III. 158.67 (? iii/A.D.), tells us that there are secretaries and secretaries, the planets differentiating them—ἐὰν δὲ ὁ τοῦ Κρόνου συνπροσγένηται τῷ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ , αὐτὸς [μ ]ε ̣̣ν ὁ τοῦ Κρόνου προάγων ποιεῖ γραμματεῖς αὐστηροὺς [καὶ ] δ ̣ι ̣κ ̣ογράφους ἢ δικολόγους ἤτοι τούτων παραπλ [η ]σίους [. ἐ ]ὰν δὲ ὁ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ αὐτὸς προάγῃ τοῦ Κρόνου , ν ̣[ω ]χελε ̣ι ̣ͅς ̣ δυσπράξου [ς ἀ ]τυχεῖς ἐν τοῖς πράγμασι . Another configuration (l. .53) γραμματεῖς μεγ [ά ]λους ποιεῖ καὶ κριτηρίων ἄρχοντας .
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