the Fourth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1161 - δέ
- but, moreover, and, etc.
but: adversative and copulative Particle,
I answering to μέν (q. v.), τὴν νῦν μὲν Βοιωτίαν, πρότερον δὲ Καδμηίδα γῆν καλουμένην Th. 1.12, etc.
II without preceding μέν,
1 adversative, expressing dist. opposition, αἰεί τοι τὰ κάκ' ἐστὶ φίλα.. μαντεύεσθαι, ἐσθλὸν δ' οὔτε τί πω εἶπας ll. 1.108; ὀρθῶς ἔλεξας, οὐ φίλως δέ μοι λέγεις E. Or. 100, cf. S. Ant. 85, etc.; τέθνηκεν ἀνδρὸς οὐδενός, θεοῦ δ' ὕπο Id. Ph. 334; so in Prose, οὐκ ἐπὶ κακῷ, ἐλευθερώσει δέ.. Th. 4.86; οἱ αἰχμάλωτοι.. ᾤχοντο εἰς Δεκέλειαν, οἱ δ' εἰς Μέγαρα X. HG 1.2.14, cf. Cyr. 4.5.46; ἡ δ' ἑτέρα IG 2.652 A 45.
2. copulative, in explanatory clauses, ξυνέβησαν.. τὰ μακρὰ τείχη ἑλεῖν (ἦν δὲ σταδίων μάλιστα ὀκτώ) Th. 4.66, cf. Il. 7.48: when a Subst. is folld. by words in apposition, Ἀρισταγόρῃ τῷ Μιλησίῳ, δούλῳ δὲ ἡμετέρῳ Hdt. 7.8. β'; μήτηρ βασιλέως βασίλεια δ' ἐμή A. Pers. 152; so in answers, διπλᾶ λέγειν. — Answ. διπλᾶδ' ὁρᾶν Id. Th. 974. in enumerations or transitions, Il. 1.43 - 49, 345 - 351, X. Cyr. 1.2.1, etc.; with repetition of a word in different relations, ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς θάμβησεν.., θάμβησαν δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι Il. 24.483; σάκος εἷλε.., εἵλετο δ' ἔγχος 14.9 sq.; Ζεύς ἐστιν αἰθήρ, Ζεὺς δὲ γῆ, Ζεὺς δ' οὐρανός A. Fr. 70; κινεῖκραδίαν, κινεῖδὲ χόλον E. Med. 99; ὄζει ἴων, ὄζει δὲ ῥόδων, ὄζει δ' ὑακίνθου Hermipp. 82.8; in rhetorical outbursts, οὐκ ἂν εὐθέως εἴποιεν· τὸν δὲ βάσκανον, τὸν δὲ ὄλεθρον, τοῦτον δὲ ὑβρίζειν, — ἀναπνεῖν δέ. D. 21.209; in a climax, πᾶν γύναιον καὶ παιδίον καὶ θηρίον δέ nay even beast, Pl. Tht. 171e, cf. X. HG 5.2.37; in the combination καὶ δέ Il. 23.80, al., καὶ.. δέ A. Pr. 973, E. El. 1117, etc., each particle retains its force. answering to τε (q. v.), ἃ τῶν τε ἀποβαινόντων ἕνεκα ἄξια κεκτῆσθαι, πολὺ δὲ μᾶλλον αὐτὰ αὑτῶν Pl. R. 367c.
3. implying causal connexion, less direct than γάρ, Il. 6.160, Od. 1.433.
4. in questions, with implied opposition, ἑόρακας δ', ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα; X. Cyr. 5.1.4; καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης, εἰπέ μοι, ἔφη, κύνας δὲ τρέφεις; Id. Mem. 2.9.2, cf. 2.1.26, S. Ant. 1172: in Trag. (not in Com. or Oratt.), when the speaker turns from one person to another, the voc. stands first, then the pers. Pron. folld. by δέ, as Μενέλαε, σοὶ δὲ τάδε λέγω.. E. Or. 622, etc.; also in Hdt., ὦ δέσποτα, ἐγὼ δὲ ταῦτα ἐποίησα 1.115. τί δέ; what then ? to mark a transition in dialogue; v. τίς.
II in apodosi:
1 after hypothetical clauses, εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι if they will not give it, then I.., Il. 1.137, cf. Od. 12.54; εἰ μηδὲ τοῦτο βούλει ἀποκρίνασθαι, σὺ δὲ τοὐντεῦθεν λέγε X. Cyr. 5.5.21, cf. Pi. O. 3.43 (v.l.), A. Ag. 1060, Hdt. 5.1, etc. after temporal or relative clauses, with ἐπεί, ἕως, etc., Il. 24.255, Hdt. 9.70, etc.; μέχρι.. εἶχον τὰ βέλη, οἱ δὲ ἀντεῖχον Th. 3.98; with demonstr. Pronouns or Advbs. answering to a preceding relative, οἵηπερ φύλλων γενεή, τοίη δὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν Il. 6.146, etc.; ἆθλα οἷς κεῖται ἀρετῆς μέγιστα, τοῖς δὲ καὶ ἄνδρες ἄριστοι πολιτεύουσιν Th. 2.46; τοὺς δ' ἔλαβε τυράννους.. τούτους δὲ.. ἐξεδίδου Hdt. 5.37, cf. Isoc. 4.98, Pl. La. 194d; οἷα μὲν ἕκαστα ἐμοὶ φαίνεται τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔστιν ἐμοί, οἷα δὲ σοί, τοιαῦτα δὲ αὖ σοί Id. Tht. 152a: sts. after a participle, οἰόμενοι.. τιμῆς τεύξεσθαι, ἀντὶ δὲ τούτων οὐδ' ὅμοιοι.. ἐσόμεθα X. An. 6.6.16, cf. Isoc. 15.71 (v.l.).
2. to resume after an interruption or parenthesis, χρόνου δὲ ἐπιγινομένου καὶ κατεστραμμένων σχεδὸν πάντων.., — κατεστραμμένων δὲ τούτων.. Hdt. 1.28, 29; νῦν δ' αὖ πάλιν ὑπό τε πλούτου διαθρυπτόμενος.. καὶ ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων.. ὑπὸ τοιούτων δέ.. X. Cyr. 7.2.23; with an anacoluthon, ἡ δὲ ψυχὴ ἄρα, — οἷ ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ.. τῇ ἐμῇ ψυχῇ ἰτέον, αὕτη δὲ δή.. Pl. Phd. 80d: for δ' οὖν, v. οὖν.
3. to begin a story, ἦμος δ' ἠέλιος.. well, when the sun.., Od. 4.400.
4. to introduce a proof, τεκμήριον δέ, σημεῖον δέ, v. sub vocc.
POSITION of δέ. It usu. stands second: hence freq. between Art. and Subst. or Pr and case; but also after Subst., or words forming a connected notion, hence it may stand third, γυναῖκα πιστὴν δ' ἐν δόμοις εὕροι A. Ag. 606, cf. Th. 411, Eu. 531, S. Ph. 959, etc.; fourth, Id. OT 485, E. Hel. 688, A. Pr. 323, 383, etc.; fifth, ib. 401c odd.; even sixth, Epigen. 7 (codd. Poll.); so in Prose after a neg., οὐχ ὑπ' ἐραστοῦ δέ, to avoid confusion between οὐ δέ and οὐδέ, Pl. Phdr. 227c.
δέ (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover (Winers Grammar, § 53, 7 and 10, 2); it is much more frequent in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other books, very rare in the Epistles of John and the Apocalypse. (On its general neglect of elision (when the next word begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 96; WHs Appendix, p. 146; Winers Grammar, § 5, 1a.; Buttmann, p. 10f) It is used:
1. universally, by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opposed to a preceding statement: ἐάν ὀφθαλμός κτλ. Matthew 6:23; ἐλεύσονται δέ ἡμέραι, Mark 2:20; it opposes persons to persons or things previously mentioned or thought of — either with strong emphasis: ἐγώ δέ, Matthew 5:22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44; ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 10:13; σύ δέ, Matthew 6:6; ὑμεῖς δέ, Mark 8:29; οἱ δέ υἱοί τῆς βασιλείας, Matthew 8:12; αἱ ἀλώπεκες ... ὁ δέ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58; πᾶς ὁ λαός ... οἱ δέ φαρισαῖοι, Luke 7:29f; ὁ δέ πνευματικός, 1 Corinthians 2:15, and often; — or with a slight discrimination, ὁ δέ, αὐτός δέ: Mark 1:45; Mark 5:34; Mark 6:37; Mark 7:6; Matthew 13:29, 37, 52; Matthew 15:23ff; Luke 4:40, 43; Luke 5:16; Luke 6:8; Luke 8:10, 54; Luke 15:29; οἱ δέ, Matthew 2:5; Mark 3:4; Mark 8:28, etc., etc.; with the addition also of a proper name, as ὁ δέ Ἰησοῦς: Matthew 8:22 (Tdf. omits Ἰησοῦς);
2. μέν ... δέ, see μέν.
3. after negative sentences, but, but rather (German wohl aber): Matthew 6:19f (μή θησαυρίζετε ... θησαυρίζετε δέ);
4. it is joined to terms which are repeated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions as tend to explain and establish them more exactly; in this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed negative clause and give its force in English by inserting I say, and that, so then, etc.): Romans 3:21f (not that common δικαιοσύνη which the Jews boasted of and strove after, but δικαιοσυνεσς ... διά πίστεως); Romans 9:30; 1 Corinthians 2:6 (σοφίαν δέ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου); Galatians 2:2 (I went up, not of my own accord, but etc.); Philippians 2:8; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2, p. 361f; L. Dindorf in Stephanus Thesaurus ii. col. 928; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 443 (412)).
5. it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before: Matthew 1:18; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 10:21; Luke 12:13; Luke 13:1; John 7:14, 37; Acts 6:1; Romans 8:28; 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 8:1, etc., etc.; so also in the phrase ἐγένετο δέ, see γίνομαι, 2 c.
6. it introduces explanations and separates them from the things to be explained: John 3:19; John 6:39; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 7:6, 29; Ephesians 5:32, etc.; — especially remarks and explanations intercalated into the discourse, or added, as it were, by way of appendix: Mark 5:13 (ἦσαν δέ etc. R L brackets);
7. after a parenthesis or an explanation which had led away from the subject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse again (cf. Winer's Grammar, 443 (412)): Matthew 3:4; Luke 4:1; Romans 5:8; 2 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 10:2; Ephesians 2:4; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 376f.
8. it introduces the apodosis and, as it were, opposes it to the protasis: Acts 11:17 R G (1 Macc. 14:29; 2 Macc. 1:34); after a participial construction which has the force of a protasis: Colossians 1:22 (21); cf. Matthiae 2:1470; Kühner, 2:818; (Jelf, § 770); Klotz as above, p. 370f; (Buttmann, 364 (312)).
9. καί ... δέ, but ... also, yea and, moreover also: Matthew 10:18; Matthew 16:18; Luke 2:35 (WH text omits; L Tr brackets δέ); John 6:51; John 15:27; Acts 3:24; Acts 22:29; Romans 11:23; 2 Timothy 3:12; 1 John 1:3; 2 Peter 1:5; cf. Klotz as above, p. 645f; Buttmann, 364 (312); (also Winer's Grammar, 443 (413); Ellicott on 1 Timothy 3:10; Meyer on John 6:51). ἐάν δέ yea even if: John 8:16.
10. δέ never stands as the first word in the sentence, but generally second; and when the words to which it is added cannot be separated, it stands third (as in Matthew 10:11; Matthew 18:25; Mark 4:34; Luke 10:31; Acts 17:6; Acts 28:6; Galatians 3:23; 2 Timothy 3:8, etc.; in οὐ μόνον δέ, Romans 5:3, 11, etc.), or even in the fourth place, Matthew 10:18; John 6:51; John 8:16; 1 John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 4:18; (Luke 22:69 L T Tr WH).
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(before vowels δ᾽ ; on the general neglect of the elision in NT, v. WE, App., 146; Tdf., Pr., 96), post-positive conjunctive particle;
1. copulative, but, in the next place, and, now (Abbott, JG, 104): Matthew 1:2 ff., 2 Corinthians 6:15-16, 2 Peter 1:5-7; in repetition for emphasis, Romans 3:21-22; Romans 9:30, 1 Corinthians 2:6, Galatians 2:2, Philippians 2:8; in transition to something new, Matthew 1:18; Matthew 2:19, Luke 13:1, John 7:14, Acts 6:1, Romans 8:28, 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 8:1, al.; in explanatory parenthesis or addition, John 3:19, Romans 5:8, 1 Corinthians 1:12, Ephesians 2:4; Ephesians 5:32, al.; ὡς δέ , John 2:9; καὶ ... δέ , but also, Matthew 10:18, Luke 1:76, John 6:51, Romans 11:23, al.; καὶ ἐὰν δέ , yea even if, John 8:16.
2. Adversative, but, on the other hand, prop., answering to a foregoing C (q.v.), and distinguishing a word or clause from one preceding (in NT most freq. without μέν ; Bl., § 77, 12): ἐὰν δέ , Matthew 6:14; Matthew 6:23, al.; ἐγὼ (σὺ , etc.) δέ , Matthew 5:22; Matthew 6:6, Mark 8:29, al.; ὁ δέ , αὐτὸς δέ , Mark 1:45, Luke 4:40, al.; after a negation, Matthew 6:19-20, Romans 3:4, 1 Thessalonians 5:21, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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