Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1162 - δέησις
- need, indigence, want, privation, penury
- a seeking, asking, entreating, entreaty to God or to man
δέ-ησις, εως, ἡ,
1. entreaty, Lys. 2.15 (pl.), Isoc. 8.138 (pl.), Pl. 329d (pl.), etc.; δέομαι δ' ὑμῶν.. δικαίαν δέησιν D. 29.4; δεήσεις ποιεῖσθαι Luke 5:33, cf. Wilcken Chr. 41 ii 12 (iii A.D.).
2. written petition, CPHerm. 6.10, J. BJ 7.5.2, Ph. 2.586, PGen. 16.10 (iii A.D.).
II want, need, Antipho Soph. 11; ἐν ἐπιθυμίαις τε καὶ δεήσεσιν Pl. Erx. 405e; κατὰ τὰς δεήσεις according to their needs, Arist. Pol. 1257a23; δεήσεις εἰσὶν αἱ ὀρέξεις Id. Rh. 1385a22.
δέησις, δεήσεως, ἡ (δέομαι);
1. need, indigence (Psalm 21:25
2. a seeking, asking, entreating, entreaty (from Plato down); in the N. T. requests addressed by men to God (German Bittgebet, supplication); universally: James 5:16; 1 Peter 3:12; as often in the Sept., joined with προσευχή (i. e. any pious address to God (see below)): Acts 1:14 Rec.; Ephesians 6:18; Philippians 4:6; plural 2 Timothy 1:3; joined with προσευχαί, 1 Timothy 5:5; with νηστειαι, Luke 2:37; ποιεῖσθαι δέησιν, Philippians 1:4; ποιεῖσθαι δεήσεις, Luke 5:33; 1 Timothy 2:1. contextually, of prayers imploring God's aid in some particular matter: Luke 1:13; Philippians 1:19; plural Hebrews 5:7; supplication for others: (2 Corinthians 1:11); περί τίνος, Ephesians 6:18; ὑπέρ τίνος, 2 Corinthians 9:14; Philippians 1:4; with the addition πρός τόν Θεόν, Romans 10:1. [SYNONYMS: δέησις, προσευχή, ἔντευξις: προσευχή, as Prof. Grimm remarks, is unrestricted as respects its contents, while δέησις is petitionary; moreover προσευχή is a word of sacred character, being limited to prayer to God, whereas δέησις may also be used of a request addressed to man. In Byzantine Greek it is used of a written supplication (like our petition); cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word. See more at length Trench, § li.; also Lightfoot on Philippians 4:6; Ellicott on Ephesians 6:18; cf. Schmidt, chapter vii. In 1 Timothy 2:1 to these two words is added ἔντευξις, which expresses confiding access to God; thus, in combination, δέησις gives prominence to the expression of personal need, προσευχή to the element of devotion, ἔντευξις to that of childlike confidence, by representing prayer as the heart's converse with God. See Huther's extended note at the passage; Ellicott at the passage; Trench, as above]
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δέησις , -εως , ἡ
(< δέομαι ),
[in LXX for H8467, H7440, H8605, etc.;]
1. a wanting, need (so Psalms 22:25).
2. an asking, entreaty, supplication; in NT always addressed to God: Luke 1:13, 2 Corinthians 1:11, Philippians 1:19, 2 Timothy 1:3, James 5:16, 1 Peter 3:12 (LXX); with νηστεῖαι , Luke 2:37; προσυνχή , -αί , Ephesians 6:18, Philippians 4:6, 1 Timothy 2:1; 1 Timothy 5:5; ἱκετηρίαι , Hebrews 5:7; προσκαρτέρησις , Ephesians 6:18; ἐντεύξεις , 1 Timothy 2:1; δ . ποιεῖσθαι (Deiss., BS, 250), Luke 5:33, Philippians 1:4 (pl.), 1 Timothy 2:1; seq. ὑπέρ , 2 Corinthians 9:14, Philippians 1:4; περί , Ephesians 6:18; πρός , Romans 10:1.†
SYN.: προσευχή G4335, used of prayer in general, while δ . gives prominence to the sense of need; on the other hand, δ . is used as well of requests from man to man, while Papyri is limited to prayer to God. ἔντευξις G1783, in the papyri, is the regular word for petition to a superior (Deiss., BS, 250; cf. the Pauline ἐντυγχάνειν G1793, to entreat). Cf. also εὐχή G2171. (James 5:15), αἴτημα , ἱκετηρία (Tr., Syn., § 1i; Cremer, 73, 174, 684).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
With δέησις , ";supplication,"; as in Philippians 1:4, may be compared P Par 69E. .11 (A.D. 232) ἔνθα σπονδὰ [ς καὶ δε ]ήσεις ποιησάμενος , and the Ptolemaic P Petr II. 19 (1a).2 where a prisoner supplicates μετὰ δεήσεως καὶ ἱκετείας οὕνεκα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ καλῶς ἔχοντος , ";in the name of God and of fair play"; (Ed.). In one of the Serapeum documents regarding the Twins, P Lond 21.20 (B.C. 162) (= I. p. 13), Ptolemy petitions Sarapion on their behalf, ἀξιῶ οὖν σε μετὰ δεήσεως νομίσαντα ταῖς διδύμαις ἰδίαι (= ἰδίᾳ ) σε ταῦτα διδόναι ; cf. the δέησις addressed by a woman to Abinnaeus, P Lond 306 (c. A.D. 346) (= II. p. 281), and P Giss I. 41ii. 10 (time of Hadrian) ἐπινεύσαντος ο [ὖ ]ν τη ̣̑[ι ] δεήσει μου , of a petition to the Praefect Apollonius. For petitions addressed to the Emperor cf. CP Herm 6.1 ὑπὲρ τοιούτων ὁποῖα προ ̣[σην ]έγκαμεν τὴν δέησιν ποιούμεθα : the statement follows, with θ ]ειότατε αὐτοκράτωρ in the next line. So ib 119 versoiii. 11, where Gallienus replies κα [λε ]ῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ το [ῦ δι ]καίου τάξις ὡς κ ̣αὶ τ ̣ὰ ἐκ τῆς παρὰ σοῦ δεήσεως ἑτοίμως [δ ]ι ̣δ [ό ]ναι τήν χάριν . It is clear that the word is a strong one, even if the language of exaggeration will sometimes employ it where ";request"; would express the sense : thus BGU I. 180.17 (A.D. 172) δικαίαν δέ [ησ ]ιν ποιούμενος , P Gen I. 16.10 (A.D. 207) δ ]έησίν σοι προσφέρομεν , κύριε . The noun and its original verb δέομαι retain connexion with the idea of ";need";; and δέησις was thus ready for its special NT use of ";entreaty"; towards God—we recall Trench’s epigram defining prayer as ";the mighty utterance of a mighty need.";
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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