the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1163 - δεῖ
- it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper
- necessity lying in the nature of the case
- necessity brought on by circumstances or by the conduct of others toward us.
- necessity in reference to what is required to attain some end
- a necessity of law and command, of duty, equity
- necessity established by the counsel and decree of God, especially by that purpose of his which relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of Christ and which is disclosed in the Old Testament prophecies
- concerning what Christ was destined finally to undergo, his sufferings, death, resurrection, ascension
subj. δέη, sts. contr. δῆ (in codd. of Com., as Ar. Ra. 265); ὁπόσου κα δῆ IG 4.1484.65 (Epid.), cf. SIG 245 G 47 (Delph.); opt. δέοι Th. 4.4; inf. δεῖν; part. δέον (v. infr. IV): impf. ἔδει, Ion. ἔδεε: fut. δεήσει E. Hipp. 941, etc.: aor. I ἐδέησε Th. 2.77, etc. — Impers. from δέω (A), there is need (the sense of moral obligation, prop. belonging to χρή, is later, S. Ph. 583, etc.):
I c.acc.pers.et inf.,
1. it is needful for one to do, one must, once in Hom., τί δὲ δεῖ πολεμιζέμεναι.. Ἀργείους why need the Argives fight? Il. 9.337; δ. [μ'] ἐλθεῖν Pi. O. 6.28, etc.: with nom. of the Pron., ἡγούμην.. δεῖν.. μεγαλοψυχότερος φαίνεσθαι D. 19.235: rarely δεῖ σ' ὅπως δείξεις, = δεῖ σε δεῖξαι, S. Aj. 556, cf. Ph. 54; δεῖ σ' ὅπως μηδὲν διοίσεις Cratin. 108; (the full constr. in S. Ph. 77 τοῦτο δεῖ σοφισθῆναι.. ὅπως γενήσῃ): rarely c. dat. pers., there is need of.. for.., θεοῖσι προσβαλεῖν χθονὶ ἄλλην δεήσει γαῖαν E. Hipp. 941, cf. X. An. 3.4.35, Oec. 7.20: the acc. pers. is often omitted, ἐκ τῶν μανθάνειν δεῖ (sc. ἡμᾶς) Hdt. 1.8, cf. A. Ag. 567, Eu. 826, etc.
2. c. acc. rei et inf., δεῖ τι γενέσθαι Th. 5.26; παραδείγματα, καθ' ἃ δέοι ἀποκρίνεσθαι Pl. Men. 79a, etc.; also ἐπεὶ δέ οἱ ἔδεε κακῶς γενέσθαι since it was fated for him.., since he was doomed.., Hdt. 2.161, cf. 8.53, 9.109, S. OT 825; for οἴομαι δεῖν, v. οἴομαι.
3. abs. with inf. understood, μὴ πεῖθ' ἃ μὴ δεῖ (sc. πείθειν) S. OC 1442, cf. OT 1273; εἴ τι δέοι, ἤν τι δέῃ (sc. γενέσθαι), X. Mem. 1.2.59, Th. 1.44; κἂν δέῃ (sc. τροχάζειν), τροχάζῶ Philetaer. 3.
II c. gen. rei,
1. there is need of, freq. with neg., οὐδὲν ἂν δέοι πολλοῦ ἀργυρίου Pl. Cri. 45a, etc.; τί δεῖ τῆς ἀρετῆς; Arist. Pol. 1309b10; sts. with inf. added, μακροῦ λόγου δεῖ ταῦτ' ἐπεξελθεῖν A. Pr. 870, cf. 875, Supp. 407. freq. in phrases, πολλοῦ δεῖ there wants much, far from it, ὀλίγου δεῖ there wants little, all but; in full c. inf., πολλοῦ δεῖ οὕτως ἔχειν Pl. Ap. 35d; τοὺς Πλαταιέας ἐλαχίστου ἐδέησε διαφθεῖραι [τὸ πῦρ] Th. 2.77; πολλοῦ γε δεῖ, πολλοῦ γε καὶ δεῖ Ar. Ach. 543, D. 18.300, 21.71; τοῦ πλεῦνος αἰεὶ ἔδεε there was always further to travel, Hdt. 4.43; τοῦ παντὸς δεῖ Luc. Merc.Cond. 13: also ὀλίγου δεῖν abs., in same sense, Pl. Revelation 22:1-21 a, etc.; μικροῦ δεῖν D. 27.29.
2. with dat. pers. added, δεῖ μοί τινος A. Ag. 848, E. Med. 565, Th. 1.71, etc.
3. with acc. pers. added, αὐτὸν γάρ σε δεῖ προμηθέως A. Pr. 86, cf. E. Rh. 837, Hipp. 23.
4. rarely with Subj. in nom., δεῖ μοί τι something is needful to me, ἓν δεῖ μόνον μοι E. Supp. 594; εἴ τι δέοι τῷ χορῷ Antipho 6.12; πρῶτον μὲν τοῦτο δεῖ, ὑπειληφέναι.. D. 10.15.
1. Med., δεῖται there is need, c. gen., δεῖταί σοι τῆς αὐτῆς ἐρωτήσεως Pl. Men. 79c; ὅσων δέοιτο Aen.Tact. 13.1; ἑτέρου δεῖσθαι στρατηγοῦ νομίζων Plu. Pel. 26: c. inf., ὥστε βραχἔ ἐμοὶ δεῖσθαι φράσαι S. OC 570 (codd.); δεήσεται.. ἀναγράφεσθαι Aen.Tact. 31.9; τήν μευ γλῶσσαν ἐκτεμεῖν δεῖται Herod. 6.41. neut. part. δέον (δεῖν is dub. in Ar. Fr. 220, Lys. 14.7, cf. A.D. Adv. 132.30, Hdn.Gr. 2.328, al., Hsch.): abs., it being needful or fitting, Pl. Prt. 355d, etc.; οὐκ ἀπήντα, δέον, he did not appear in court, though he ought to have done so, D. 21.90: c. inf., Ar. Nu. 988; οὐδὲν δέον there being no need, Hdt. 3.65, etc.: fut. ὡς αὐτίκα δεῆσον διώκειν X. Cyr. 3.2.8: aor. δεῆσαν Plu. Fab. 9, etc.: also δέον ἂν εἴη, = δέοι ἄν, Plb. 2.37.5, etc.: less freq. gen. abs. δέοντος, c. acc. inf., Corn. ND 17.
2. Subst. δέον, τό (v. sub voc.).
δεῖ; subjunctive present δέῃ; imperfect ἔδει; an impersonal verb (cf. Buttmann, § 132, 12; cf. § 131, 3; from Homer down); (δέω, namely, τίνος, to have need of, be in want of; cf. German es bedarf), it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper; followed either by the infinitive alone (cf. our one ought), or by the accusative with an infinitive (cf. Buttmann, 147 (129)), it denotes any sort of necessity; as a. necessity lying in the nature of the case: John 3:30; 2 Timothy 2:6.
b. necessity brought on by circumstances or by the conduct of others toward us: Matthew 26:35 (κἄν δέῃ με ἀποθανεῖν), cf. Mark 14:31; John 4:4; Acts 27:21; 2 Corinthians 11:30; (2 Corinthians 12:1 L T Tr WH text); or imposed by a condition of mind: Luke 2:49; Luke 19:5.
c. necessity in reference to what is required to attain some end: Luke 12:12; John 3:7; Acts 9:6; Acts 16:30; 1 Corinthians 11:19; Hebrews 9:26 (on this cf. Winers Grammar, 283 (266); (also Buttmann, 216 (187); 225 (195))); Hebrews 11:6.
d. a necessity of law and command, of duty, equity: Matthew 18:33; Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42; Luke 13:14; Luke 15:32; Luke 18:1; Luke 22:7; John 4:20; Acts 5:29; Acts 15:5; Romans 1:27 (ἀντιμισθίαν, ἥν ἔδει, namely, ἀπολαμβάνεσθαι, the recompense due by the law of God); Romans 8:26; Romans 12:3; 1 Corinthians 8:2, etc. or of office: Luke 4:43; Luke 13:33; John 9:4; John 10:16; Ephesians 6:20; Colossians 4:4; 2 Timothy 2:24.
e. necessity established by the counsel and decree of God, especially by that purpose of his which relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of Christ and which is disclosed in the O. T. prophecies: Matthew 17:10; Matthew 24:6; Mark 9:11; Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:53; in this use, especially of what Christ was destined finally to undergo, his sufferings, death, resurrection, ascension: Luke 24:46 (R G L brackets); Matthew 26:54; John 3:14; Acts 3:21, etc. (of the necessity of fate in Herodotus 5, 33; with the addition κατά τό θεοπρόπιον, 8, 53; Thucydides 5, 26.) [SYNONYMS: δεῖ, χρή: δεῖ seems to be more suggestive of moral obligation, denoting especially that constraint which arises from divine appointment; whereas χρή signifies rather the necessity resulting from time and circumstance. Schmidt, chapter 150.]
STRONGS NT 1163: δέον δέον, δεοντος, τό (participle of δεῖ, which see), from (Sophocles and) Herodotus down, that of which there is need, which is requisite, due, proper: δέον ἐστι there is need, 1 Peter 1:6 (T Tr text WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets ἐστι); followed by the accusative with an infinitive Acts 19:36; τά μή δέοντα that are not proper, 1 Timothy 5:13.
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impersonal (δέω ),
[in LXX chiefly for infin. with לְ ;]
one must, it is necessary: c. inf., Matthew 26:54, Mark 13:7, Acts 5:29, al.; c. acc et inf., Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, John 3:7, Acts 25:10, al.; with ellipse of acc, Matthew 23:23; of acc, and inf., Mark 13:14, Romans 1:27; Romans 8:26; οὐ (μὴ ) δεῖ (non licet), ought not, must not: Acts 25:24, 2 Timothy 2:24; impf., ἔδει , of necessity or obligation in past time regarding a past event (Bl., § 63, 4), Matthew 18:33, Luke 15:32, John 4:4, Acts 27:21, al.; periphr., δέον ἐστίν (as in Attic, χρεών ἐστι = χρή , see δέον ), Acts 19:36; id., with ellipse of ἐστίν , 1 Peter 1:6 τὰ 5:13.
SYN.: ὀφείλει G3784, expressing moral obligation, as distinct from δεῖ , denoting logical necessity and χρή G5534, a need which results from the fitness of things (v. Tr., Syn., § cvii, 10; Westc. on Hebrews 2:1, 1 John 2:6; Hort on James 3:10).
δέον , -οντος , τό
(neut. part. of δεῖ , used as subst.),
[in LXX Sir prof. 3, 4, 1 Maccabees 12:11, 2 Maccabees 1:18 *; pl. τὰ δ ., for H3899 Exodus 16:22, 1 Kings 4:22, Proverbs 24:31; H7607, Exodus 21:10; H6598, Da TH Daniel 11:26, Tobit 5:14, 2 Maccabees 13:20*;]
that which is needful, due, proper: δ . ἐστίν (periphr. for δεῖ , q.v.), Acts 19:36, with ellipse of ἐστίν , 1 Peter 1:6; τὰ μὴ δ ., 1 Timothy 5:13.†
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For the conjunctive, as in Matthew 26:35, cf. P Fay 109.5 (early i/A.D.) ἐάν σε δῇ (for δέῃ ) τὸ εἱμάτιόν σου θεῖναι ἐνέχυρον , ";even if you have to pawn your cloak"; (Edd.). In P Tebt I. 58.56 (B.C. 111) we have ἐάν followed by the indicative—ἐὰν δεῖ σε συνπεσεῖν τῶι Ἀνικήτωι , σύνπεσαι , ";if you must meet Anicetus, meet him"; (Edd.) : cf. Mayser Gr. p. 325. Other examples of the verb are P Par 46.15 (B.C. 153) διὸ καὶ ἡγούμενος δεῖν ἐπ᾽ ἄλλου μὲν μηθενὸς αὐτῶι διακριθῆναι , P Lille I. 26.7 (iii.B.C.) περὶ (corr. from πεερὶ ) δὲ τούτου τοῦ μέρους δεήσει ἐπισχεῖν , P Tebt II. 341.4 (A.D. 140–1) δεήσι ἐπισταλῆναι εἰς δάνε [ι ]α σπέρματα κατασπ [ο ]ρᾶς κτλ ., ";it will be necessary to send on account of loans of seed-corn for the sowing,"; etc., Michel 1001viii. 5 (Theran Doric—c. B.C. 200) no one may bring forward a proposal ὡς δεείσῃ διαλῦσαι τὸ κοινὸν εἲ τὰς θυσίσς , P Flor II. 133.2 (A.D. 257) ἔδι μὲν ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ὑπομνήσεως χρῄζειν , ";you oughtn’t even to have needed a reminder,"; P Oxy X. 1293.10 f. (A.D. 117–38) ἔδει αὐτῶι διδώναι οσι (? l. ὅτι ) οὐκ ε ̣͗στ᾽ αὐτὸς Σαρᾶς , ἀλλὰ ἄλλος ξένος ἐστὶν οὗ δεῖ με πισθῆναι ὡς ἐσχήκατε , ";you ought to have given him a letter, because it is not S. but another stranger whose word I have to take that you have received it"; (Edd.). See also s.v. δέον .
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