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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #1223 - διά

Transliteration
diá
Phonetics
dee-ah'
Origin
a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
2:65,149
Definition
Thayer's
  1. through
    1. of place
      1. with
      2. in
    2. of time
      1. throughout
      2. during
    3. of means
      1. by
      2. by the means of
  2. through
    1. the ground or reason by which something is or is not done
      1. by reason of
      2. on account of
      3. because of for this reason
      4. therefore
      5. on this account
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
  3. Parsing
KJV (637)
Matthew
47
Mark
29
Luke
30
John
50
Acts
67
Romans
91
1 Corinthians
49
2 Corinthians
49
Galatians
19
Ephesians
23
Philippians
14
Colossians
16
1 Thessalonians
10
2 Thessalonians
10
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
11
Titus
2
Philemon
5
Hebrews
53
James
2
1 Peter
19
2 Peter
8
1 John
6
2 John
2
3 John
2
Revelation
17
NAS (450)
Matthew
38
Mark
21
Luke
25
John
39
Acts
39
Romans
71
1 Corinthians
29
2 Corinthians
25
Galatians
20
Ephesians
17
Philippians
8
Colossians
11
1 Thessalonians
8
2 Thessalonians
2
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
8
Titus
1
Philemon
4
Hebrews
38
James
1
1 Peter
14
2 Peter
4
1 John
3
2 John
1
3 John
1
Jude
1
Revelation
15
HCS (633)
Matthew
54
Mark
29
Luke
36
John
56
Acts
67
Romans
90
1 Corinthians
42
2 Corinthians
42
Galatians
18
Ephesians
21
Philippians
14
Colossians
13
1 Thessalonians
10
2 Thessalonians
10
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
12
Titus
3
Philemon
4
Hebrews
54
James
2
1 Peter
16
2 Peter
7
1 John
5
2 John
2
3 John
2
Jude
1
Revelation
17
BSB (667)
Matthew
59
Mark
32
Luke
39
John
59
Acts
74
Romans
91
1 Corinthians
42
2 Corinthians
45
Galatians
19
Ephesians
21
Philippians
14
Colossians
14
1 Thessalonians
10
2 Thessalonians
10
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
12
Titus
3
Philemon
4
Hebrews
58
James
2
1 Peter
18
2 Peter
7
1 John
5
2 John
2
3 John
2
Jude
2
Revelation
17
ESV (509)
Matthew
26
Mark
21
Luke
26
John
37
Acts
65
Romans
81
1 Corinthians
38
2 Corinthians
38
Galatians
19
Ephesians
19
Philippians
12
Colossians
12
1 Thessalonians
9
2 Thessalonians
5
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
10
Titus
2
Hebrews
47
James
2
1 Peter
13
2 Peter
5
1 John
3
Revelation
13
WEB (673)
Matthew
53
Mark
31
Luke
41
John
62
Acts
68
Romans
95
1 Corinthians
41
2 Corinthians
44
Galatians
20
Ephesians
21
Philippians
15
Colossians
16
1 Thessalonians
15
2 Thessalonians
10
1 Timothy
8
2 Timothy
13
Titus
3
Philemon
4
Hebrews
56
James
2
1 Peter
19
2 Peter
8
1 John
6
2 John
2
3 John
1
Revelation
19
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

διά,

poet. διαί (Aeol. ζά, q.v.), Pr governing gen. and acc. Rad. sense, through; never anastroph. [Prop. δῐᾰ: but Hom. uses at the beginning of a line, Il. 3.357, 4.135, al.: also , metri gr., freq. in Hom., for which A. uses διαί in lyr., Ag. 448, al.]

WITH GEN.

I of Place or Space:

1 of motion in a line, from one end to the other, right through, in Hom. freq. of the effect of weapons, διὰ μὲν ἀσπίδος ἦλθε.. ἔγχος καὶ διὰ θώρηκος.. Il. 3.357; δουρὶ βάλεν Δάμασον κυνέης διά 12.183; δι' ὤμου.. ἔγχος ἦλθεν 4.481; in Prose, τιτρώσκειν διὰ τοῦ θώρακος X. An. 1.8.26; διὰ τοῦ ὀρόφου ἐφαίνετο πῦρ ib. 7.4.16: also of persons, διὰ Σκαιῶν πεδίονδ' ἔχον ὠκέας ἵππους out through the Scaean gate, Il. 3.263; δι' ἠέρος αἰθέρ' ἵκανεν quite through the lower air even to the ether, Il. 14.288, cf. 2.458; διὰ Τρώων πέτετο straight through them, 13.755; δι' ὄμματος.. λείβων δάκρυον S. OC 1250, etc.: also in Compos. with πρό and ἐκ, v. διαπρό, διέκ: in adverbial phrases, διὰ πασῶν (sc. χορδῶν), v. διαπασῶν: διὰ πάσης throughout, Th. 1.14; διὰ κενῆς idly, Id. 4.126, etc. (cf. 111.1.c).

2. of motion through a space, but not in a line, throughout, ouer, ἑπόμεσθα διὰ πεδίοιο Il. 11.754; δι' ὄρεσφι 10.185, al.; ὀδύνη διὰ χροὸς ἦλθε through all his frame, 11.398; τεῦχε βοὴν διὰ ἄστεος Od. 10.118; δι' ὁμίλου Il. 6.226, etc.; θορύβου διὰ τῶν τάξεων ἰόντος X. An. 1.8.16, cf. 2.4.26, etc.; later, in quoting an authority, ἱστορεῖ δ. τῆς δευτέρας in the course of.., Ath. 10.438b.

3. in the midst of, Il. 9.468; κεῖτο τανυσσάμενος δ. μήλων Od. 9.298; between, δ. τῶν πλευρέων ταμόντα Hp. Morb. 2.61: hence, of pre-eminence, ἔπρεπε καὶ δ. πάντων Il. 12.104; τετίμακε δι' ἀνθρώπων Pi. I. 4(3).37; εὐδοκιμέοντι δ. πάντων Hdt. 6.63, cf. 1.25, etc.

4. in Prose, sts. of extension, along, παρήκει δ. τῆσδε τῆς θαλάσσης ἡ ἀκτή Id. 4.39 (but πέταται δ. θαλάσσας across the sea, Pi. N. 6.48); λόφος, δι' οὗ τὸ σταύρωμα περιεβέβληντο X. HG 7.4.22.

5. in Prose, of Intervals of Space, δ. τριήκοντα δόμων at intervals of thirty layers, i. e. after every thirtieth layer, Hdt. 1.179; δ. δέκα ἐπάλξεων at every tenth battlement, Th. 3.21; cf. infr. 11.3: of a single interval, δ. πέντε σταδίων at a distance of five stades, Hdt. 7.30, cf. 198; δ. τοσούτου μᾶλλον ἢ δ. πολλῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδοῦ at so short a distance, etc., Th. 2.29; δ. πολλοῦ at a great distance apart, Id. 3.94; δ. πλείστου Id. 2.97; δι' ἐλάσσονος Id. 3.51; ὕδατα δ. μακροῦ ἀλόμενα Hp. Aër. 9, etc.

II of Time,

1 of duration from one end of a period to the other, throughout, δ. παντὸς [τοῦ χρόνου ] Hdt. 9.13; δι' ὅλου τοῦ αἰῶνος Th. 1.70; δι' αἰῶνος S. El. 1024; δι' ἡμέρας ὅλης Ar. Pax 27; δι' ὅλης τῆς νυκτός X. An. 4.2.4, etc.: without an Adj., δι' ἡμέρης all day long, Hdt. 1.97; δ. νυκτός Th. 2.4, X. An. 4.6.22 (but δ. νυκτός in the course of the night, by night, Acts 5:19, PRyl. 138.15 (i A. D.), etc.); δ. νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας Pl. R. 343b; δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ, δι' ἔτους, Ar. Fr. 569.8, V. 1058; δ. βίου Pl. Smp. 183e, etc.; δ. τέλους from beginning to end, A. Pr. 275, Pl. R. 519c, etc.: with Adjs. alone, δ. παντός continually, A. Ch. 862 (lyr.), etc.; δι' ὀλίγου for a short time, Th. 1.77; δ. μακροῦ E. Hec. 320; ὁ δ. μέσου χρόνος Hdt. 8.27.

2. of the interval which has passed between two points of Time, δ. χρόνου πολλοῦ or δ. πολλοῦ χρ. after a long time, Id. 3.27, Ar. Pl. 1045; δ. μακρῶν χρόνων Pl. Ti. 22d: without an Adj., δ. χρόνου after a time, S. Ph. 758, X. Cyr. 1.4.28, etc.; δι' ἡμερῶν after several days, Mark 2:1; and with Adjs. alone, δι' ὀλίγου Th. 5.14; οὐ δ. μακροῦ Id. 6.15, 91; δ. πολλοῦ Luc. Nigr. 2, etc.: with Numerals, δι' ἐτέων εἴκοσι Hdt. 6.118, cf. OGI 56.38 (iii B. C.), etc.: but δ. τῆς ἑβδόμης till the seventh day, Luc. Hist.Conscr. 21: also distributively, χρόνος δ. χρόνου προὔβαινε time after time, S. Ph. 285; ἄλλος δι' ἄλλου E. Andr. 1248.

3. of successive Intervals, δ. τρίτης ἡμέρης every other day, Hdt. 2.37; δ. τρίτου ἔτεος ib. 4, etc.; δ. πεντετηρίδος every four years (with inclusive reckoning), Id. 3.97; δι' ἔτους πέμπτου, of the Olympic games, Ar. Pl. 584 (but δι' ἑνδεκάτου ἔτεος in the course of the eleventh year, Hdt. 1.62).

III

1. causal, through, by, of the Agent, δι' ἀλλέλων or -ου ἐπικηρυκεύεσθαι, ποιεῖσθαι, by the mouth of.., Id. 1.69, 6.4, cf. 1.113; δι' ἑρμηνέως λέγειν X. An. 2.3.17, etc.; τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ Κυρίου δ. τοῦ προφήτου.Matthew 1:22; δι' ἑκόντων ἀλλ' οὐ δ. βίας ποιεῖσθαι Pl. Phlb. 58b; πεσόντ' ἀλλοτρίας διαὶ γυναικός by her doing, A. Ag. 448 (lyr.); ἐκ θεῶν γεγονὼς δ. βασιλέων πεφυκώς X. Cyr. 7.2.24; δι' ἑαυτοῦ ποιεῖν τι of oneself, not by another's agency, ib. 1.1.4, etc.; but also, by oneself alone, unassisted, D. 15.14, cf. 22.38. of the Instrument or Means, δ. χειρῶν by hand (prop. by holding between the hands), δι' ὁσίων χ. θιγών S. OC 470; also δ. χερῶν λαβεῖν, δ. χειρὸς ἔχειν in the hand, Id. Ant. 916, 1258 (but τὰ τῶν ξυμμάχων δ. χειρὸς ἔχειν to keep a firm hand on, Th. 2.13); δ. στέρνων ἔχειν S. Ant. 639; ἡ ἀκούουσα πηγὴ δι' ὤτων Id. OT 1387; δ. στόματος ἔχειν X. Cyr. 1.4.25; δ. μνήμης ἔχειν Luc. Cat. 9; αἱ δ. τοῦ σώματος ἡδοναί X. Mem. 1.5.6; δ. λόγων συγγίγνεσθαι to hold intercourse by word, Pl. Plt. 272b; δ. λόγου ἀπαγγέλλειν Acts 15:27; δι' ἐπιστολῶν 2 Corinthians 10:9, POxy. 1070.15 (iii A. D.). of Manner (where διά with its Noun freq. serves as an Adv.), δ. μέθης ποιήσασθαι τὴν συνουσίαν Pl. Smp. 176e; παίω δι' ὀργῆς through passion, in passion, S. OT 807; δ. τάχους, = ταχέως, Id. Aj. 822, Th. 1.63 (but δ. ταχέων ib. 80, al.); δ. σπουδῆς in haste, hastily, E. Ba. 212; δι' αἰδοῦς with reverence, respectfully, ib. 441; δ. ψευδῶν ἔπη lying words, Id. Hel. 309; αἱ δ. καρτερίας ἐπιμέλειαι long-continued exertions, X. Mem. 2.1.20; δι' ἀκριβείας, δ. πάσης ἀκρ., Pl. Ti. 23d, Lg. 876c; δ. σιγῆς Id. Grg. 450c; δ. ξυμφορῶν ἡ ξύμβασις ἐγένετο Th. 6.10; οὐ δι' αἰνιγμάτων, ἀλλ' ἐναργῶς γέγραπται Aeschin. 3.121; δι' αἵματος, οὐ δ. μέλανος τοὺς νόμους ὁ Δράκων ἔγραψεν Plu. Sol. 17: also with Adjs., δ. βραχέων, δ. μακρῶν τοὺς λόγους ποιεῖσθαι, Isoc. 14.3, Pl. Grg. 449b; ἀποκρίνεσθαι δ. βραχυτάτων ibid. d; cf. infr. IV.

2. in later Prose, of Material out of which a thing is made, κατασκευάζειν εἴδωλα δι' ἐλέφαντος καὶ χρυσοῦ D.S. 17.115; θυσίαι δι' ἀλφίτου καὶ σπονδῆς πεποιημέναι Plu. Numbers 8:1-26; βρώματα δ. μέλιτος καὶ γάλακτος γιγνόμενα Ath. 14.646e; οἶνος δ. βουνίου Dsc. 5.46. διά τινος ἔχειν, εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, to express conditions or states, ἀγὼν διὰ πάσης ἀγωνίης ἔχων extending through every kind of contest, Hdt. 2.91; δι' ἡσυχίης εἶναι Id. 1.206; δι' ὄχλου εἶναι to be trouble some, Ar. Ec. 888; δ. φόβου εἶναι Th. 6.59; δι' ἀπεχθείας γίγνεσθαι X. Hier. 9.2; ἡ ἐπιμέλεια δ. χάριτος γίγνεται ibid.; δ. μιᾶς γνώμης γίγνεσθαι Isoc. 4.138. with Verbs of motion, δ. μάχης ἐλεύσονται will engage in battle, Hdt. 6.9; ἐλθεῖν Th. 4.92; δ. παντὸς πολέμου, δ. φιλίας ἰέναι τινί, X. An. 3.2.8; δ. δίκης ἰέναι τινί go to law with.., S. Ant. 742, cf. Th. 6.60; δ. τύχης ἰέναι S. OT 773; δι' ὀργῆς ἥκειν Id. OC 905; ἐμαυτῷ δ. λόγων ἀφικόμην I held converse with myself, E. Med. 872; δ. λόγων, δ. γλώσσης ἰέναι come to open speech, Id. Tr. 916, Supp. 112; δ. φιλημάτων ἰέναι come to kissing, Id. Andr. 416; δ. δικαιοσύνης ἰέναι καὶ σωφροσύνης Pl. Prt. 323a, etc.; δ. πυρὸς ἰέναι (v. πῦρ): in pass. sense, δι' ἀπεχθείας ἐλθεῖν τινι to be hated by.., A. Pr. 121 (anap.). with trans. Verbs, δι' αἰτίας ἔχειν or ἄγειν τινά hold in fault, Th. 2.60, Ael. VH 9.32; δι' ὀργῆς ἔχειν τινά Th. 2.37, etc.; δ. φυλακῆς ἔχειν τι Id. 7.8; δι' οἴκτου ἔχειν τινά, δι' αἰσχύνης ἔχειν τι, E. Hec. 851, IT 683; δ. πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγειν X. Cyr. 4.6.6; δι' οὐδενὸς ποιεῖσθαί τι S. OC 584.

WITH Acc.

I of Place, only Poet., in same sense as διά c. gen.:

1 through, ἓξ δὲ δ. πτύχας ἦλθε.. χαλκός Il. 7.247; ἤϊξε δ. δρυμὰ.. καὶ ὕλην 11.118, cf. 23.122, etc.; δ. τάφρον ἐλαύνειν across it, 12.62; δ. δώματα ποιπνύοντα 1.600; ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ δ. πόντον βέβακεν Pi. I. 4(3).41; φεύγειν δ. κῦμ' ἅλιον A. Supp. 14 (anap.).

2. through, among, in, οἴκεον δι' ἄκριας Od. 9.400; ἄραβος δὲ δ. στόμα γίγνετ' ὀδόντων Il. 10.375 (but μῦθον, ὃν.. δ. στόμα.. ἄγοιτο through his mouth, 14.91; so δ. στόμα ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι Hes. Th. 65; ἀεὶ γὰρ ἡ γυνή σ' ἔχει δ. στόμα Ar. Lys. 855); δ. κρατερὰς ὑσμίνας Hes. Th. 631; νόμοι δι' αἰθέρα τεκνωθέντες S. OT 867 (lyr.). II of Time, also Poet., δ. νύκτα Il. 2.57, etc.; δ. γλυκὺν ὕπνον during sweet sleep, Mosch. 4.91.

III causal:

1 of persons, thanks to, by aid of, νικῆσαι δ... Ἀθήνην Od. 8.520, cf. 13.121; δ. δμῳὰς.. εἷλον 19.154; δ. σε by thy fault or service, S. OC 1129, Ar. Pl. 145, cf. 160, 170: in Prose, by reason of, on account of, δ' ἡμᾶς Th. 1.41, cf. X. An. 7.6.33, D. 18.249; οὐ δι' ἐμαυτόν And. 1.144; so εἰ μὴ διά τινα if it had not been for.., εἰ μὴ δι' ἄνδρας ἀγαθούς Lys. 12.60; Μιλτιάδην εἰς τὸ βάραθρον ἐμβαλεῖν ἐψηφίσαντο, καὶ εἰ μὴ δ. τὸν πρύτανιν ἐνέπεσεν ἄν Pl. Grg. 516e, cf. D. 19.74; εἰ μὴ δ. τὴν ἐκείνου μέλλησιν Th. 2.18, cf. Ar. V. 558; πλέον' ἔλπομαι λόγον Ὀδυσσέος ἢ πάθαν γενέσθαι δι' Ὅμηρον Pi. N. 7.21.

2. of things, to express the Cause, Occasion, or Purpose, δι' ἐμὴν ἰότητα because of my will, Il. 15.41; Διὸς μεγάλου δ. βουλάς Od. 8.82; δι' ἀφραδίας for, through want of thought, 19.523; δι' ἀτασθαλίας 23.67; δι' ἔνδειαν by reason of poverty, X. An. 7.8.6; δ. καῦμα, δ. χειμῶνα, ib. 1.7.6; δι' ἄγνοιαν καὶ ἀμαθίαν Pl. Prt. 360b, etc.: freq. also with neut. Adjs., δ. τί; wherefore?; δ. τοῦτο, δ. ταῦτα on this account; δι' ὅ, δι' ἅ on which account; δ. πολλά for many reasons, etc.

3. = ἕνεκα, to express Purpose, δἰ ἀχθηδόνα for the sake of vexing, Th. 4.40, cf. 5.53; δ. τὴν τούτου σαφήνειαν with a view to clearing this up, Pl. R. 524c, cf. Arist. EN 1172b21; αὐτή δι' αὑτήν for its own sake, Pl. R. 367b, etc.

WITHOUT CASE as Adv. throughout, δ. πρό (v. supr. A.I.I); δ. δ' ἀμπερές Il. 11.377.

IN COMPO S.:

I through, right through, of Space, διαβαίνω, διέχω, διιππεύω.

II in different directions, as in διαπέμπω, διαφορέω; of separation, asunder, διαιρέω, διαλύω; of difference or disagreement, at variance, διαφωνέω, διαφέρω; or simply mutual relation, one with another, διαγωνίζομαι, διάδω, διαθέω, διαπίνω, διαφιλοτιμέομαι.

III pre-eminence, διαπρέπω, διαφέρω. completion, to the end, utterly, διεργάζομαι, διαμάχομαι, διαπράττω, διαφθείρω: of Time, διαβιόω. to add strength, thoroughly, out and out, διαγαληνίζω, etc.; cf. ζά. of mixture, between, partly, esp. in Adj., as διάλευκος, διάχρυσος, διάχλωρος, etc. of leaving an interval or breach, διαλείπω, διαναπαύω. (Cogn. with δύο, δίς.)

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

διά

(before a vowel δι᾽ , exc. Romans 8:10, 2 Corinthians 5:7, and in pr. names; Tdf., Pr., 94), prep. c. gen., acc, as in cl.;

1. c. gen., through;

(i) of Place, after verbs of motion or action: Matthew 2:12; Matthew 12:43, Mark 2:23, Luke 4:30, John 4:4, 2 Corinthians 11:33, al.; σώζεσθαι (διασ -) δ . πυρός , ὕδατος , 1 Corinthians 3:15, 1 Peter 3:20; βλέπειν δ . ἐσόπτρου , 1 Corinthians 13:12; metaph., of a state or condition: Romans 14:20, 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 5:10; δ . γράμμος , ἀκροβυστίας (Lft., Notes, 263, 279), Revelation 2:27; Revelation 4:11; δι᾽ ὑπομονῆς , Romans 8:25.

(ii) Of Time;

(a) during which: Matthew 26:61, Mark 14:58, Luke 5:5; δ . παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν , Hebrews 2:15; δ . παντόν (διαπαντός in Mark 5:5, Luke 24:53), always, continually, Matthew 18:10, Acts 2:25 (LXX) Acts 10:2; Acts 24:16, Romans 11:10 (LXX), 2 Thessalonians 3:16, Hebrews 9:6; Hebrews 13:15;

(b) within which: Acts 1:3; δ . νυκτός , Acts 5:19; Acts 16:9; Acts 17:10; Acts 23:31;

(c) after which (Field, Notes, 20; Abbott, JG, 255 f.): Mark 2:1, Acts 24:17, Galatians 2:1.

(iii) Of the Means or Instrument;

(1) of the efficient cause (regarded also as the instrument): of God, Romans 11:30, 1 Corinthians 1:9, Galatians 4:7, Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 7:21; of Christ, Romans 1:8; Romans 5:1; Romans 5:17, 1 Corinthians 15:21, 1 Peter 4:11, al.; δ . τ . ὑμῶν δεήσ -εως , Romans 1:12, 2 Corinthians 1:4, Galatians 4:23, al.;

(2) of the agent, instrument or means;

(a) c. gen. pers., Matthew 11:2, Luke 1:70, John 1:17, Acts 1:16, Romans 2:16, 1 Corinthians 1:21, Ephesians 1:5, Hebrews 2:14, Revelation 1:1, al; ὑπὸ τ . κυρίου δ . τ . προφήτου (δ . τ . κυρίου , 1 Thessalonians 4:2 (M, Th., in l); Lft., Rev., 121 f.), Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, Romans 1:2; δ . ἐπιστολῆς ὡς δ . ἡμῶν (Field, Notes, 202), 2 Thessalonians 2:2; δ . . (NTD, 22), 1 Peter 5:12;

(b) c. gen. rei (where often the simple dat. is used in cl.; Jannaris, Gr., 375), John 11:4, Acts 5:12; δ . τ . πίστεως , Romans 3:30; δ . λόγου θεοῦ , 1 Peter 1:23; δ . παραβολῆς , Luke 8:4; δουλεύειν δ . τ . ἀγάπης , Galatians 5:13; δ . ἐπαγγελίας , Galatians 3:18.

2. C. acc;

(i) rarely, as c. gen., through (Hom), δ . μέσον Σαμαρίας (ICC, in l; Bl., § 42, 1; Robertson, Gr., 581), Luke 17:11.

(ii) by reason of, because of, for the sake of;

(a) c. acc pers. (M, Pr., 105), Mark 2:27, John 6:57; John 11:42, Romans 8:20;

(b) c. acc rei, δ . φθόνον , Matthew 27:18, Mark 15:10; δ . φόβον , John 7:13; John 20:19; δ . ἀγάπην , Ephesians 2:4; δ . τοῦτο , freq., for this cause, therefore, Matthew 6:25, Mark 6:14, Luke 11:49, John 6:65, al.; id. seq. ὅτι , John 5:16; John 10:17, al.; δ . τί , why, Matthew 9:11; Matthew 9:14, Mark 2:18, John 7:45, al.; δ . τό , c. inf., Mark 5:4, Luke 9:7, James 4:2

3. In composition,

(1) through, as in διαβαίνω ;

(2) of separation, asunder, as in διασπάω ;

(3) of distribution, abroad, as in διαγγέλλω ;

(4) of transition, as διαλλάσσω ;

(5) of "perfective" action (M, Pr., 112 f., 115 f.), as διαφύγω , διακαθαρίζω .

Δία , acc of Ζεύς , q.v.


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

See Thumb’s account of the MGr γιά (pron. yaδ has fallen out before y, as is normal), Handbook p. 104 f. He shows that the old preposition survives unchanged as far as its use c. acc. is concerned. ";The local meaning of διὰ with gen. has entirely disappeared."; But γιὰ τοῦτο ";therefore,"; γιὰ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ ";for God’s sake,"; are entirely in the succession of old use. Γιά also = for in other senses which had not emerged in our period—Thumb notes it ";has acquired the function partly of the old dative and partly those of ἐπί, περί, ὑπέρ, ἀντί."; Αὐτὸ εἶναι καλὸ γιὰ σένα, ";that is good for you,"; recalls Philippians 1:24, Hebrews 1:14; and ὅτι γιὰ μένα δὲν ζητῶ, ";what I do not seek for myself,"; has many parallels in NT. The disappearance of διά c. gen. in MGr is not prepared for in the time of the papyri. According to Rossberg’s calculation, out of 714 occurrences of διά in papyri 508 are with genitive, which is a more marked predominance than the NT 382 : 279 (Proleg. p. 105).

Διά c. gen. in the papyri is freely illustrated by Rossberg, p. 37 f. : his citations need not be repeated. Deissmann’s reference in BS, p. 289, brings up the ";Hebraising periphrases"; of which διά takes its share. Wünsch AF 5.24 (iii/A.D. = BS, p. 276) ὁρκίζω σε τὸν φωστῆρα καὶ ἄστρα ἐν οὐρανῷ ποιήσαντα διὰ φωνῆς προστάγ [μ ]ατος, ";by the voice of his command,"; is based on LXX language, and admitted by Deissmann to be a phrase ";which a Greek might feel to be a pleonasm, but which is not altogether un-Greek."; The commonest of these locutions is διὰ χειρός c. gen., with meaning indistinguishable from διά c. gen. alone. This is of course based on בְּיַד, but it is not a literal translation like ἐν χειρί. It is obviously modelled upon the vernacular phrase διὰ χειρός, of money paid ";by hand,"; ";directly,"; ubiquitous in commercial documents : e.g. P Oxy II. 268.7 (A.D. 58) ἀπεσχηκυῖαι [παρὰ τοῦ Ἀντ ]ιφάνους διὰ χειρὸς [ ]ξ οἴκου ὃ καὶ ἐπε [ίσθη ]σαν κεφάλαιον, ";have received from Antiphanes from hand to hand in cash the sum which they severally consented to accept"; (Edd.). Among other stereotyped phrases may be mentioned διὰ παντός, common in papyri as in Bibl. Greek in place of the obsolescent ἀεί : thus P Lond 42.6 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) σοῦ διὰ παντὸς μνείαν ποιούμενοι, BGU IV. 1078.2 (A.D. 39) Σαραπίων Σαραπιάδι τῇ ἀδελφῇ πλεῖστα χαίρειν καὶ διὰ παντὸς ὑγιαίνειν. A rather different temporal use appears in διὰ νυκτός, ";by night"; (Acts 5:19 etc.), as P Ryl II. 138.15 (A.D. 34) κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτὸς ἡλμένον ἐξ ὑπερβατῶν εἰς τὼιὸ τῆς οὐσίας ἐποίκιον Δρομη ̣ως λεγώμενου (i.e. -όμενον), ";I detected him when under cover of night he had sprung into the farmstead"; (Edd.) : it is hard to imagine Fritzsche (see Grimm) arguing that here διὰ νυκτός must mean ";all night long";! Equally unmistakeable is the spell in P Lond 121.407 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 97) ἐάν τινι ἐθελήσῃς φανῆναι διὰ νυκτὸς ἐν ὀνείροις. Διὰ βίου however = ";for life,"; as P Lond 1178.50 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 217) ξυστάρχων διὰ βίου, Preisigke 1269.8 (B.C. 104) ἱερεὺς διὰ βίου, and δι᾽ ἐνιαυτοῦ = ";for a year";—P Strass I. 22.32 (iii/A.D. init.) παρ᾽ ἡμεῖν δ [ὲ ἰ ]δοὺ η ̣̔ [δ ]ι ̣̔ς ̣ ἐνιαυτοῦ νομὴ αὐτάρκης ἐστίν ̣, ";der einjährige Besitz"; (Ed.). For διά as in Mark 2:1, Acts 24:17, cf. OGIS 56.38 (B.C. 239–8) ἐὰν δὲ καὶ συμβαίνηι τὴν ἐπιτολὴν τοῦ ἄστρου μεταβαίνειν εἰς ἑτέραν ἡμέραν διὰ τεσσάρων ἐτῶν, ";after four years"; (see note). Instrumental διά appears in διὰ γένους, as Cagnat IV. 293.46 (Pergamum, c. B.C. 127) τὸν ἀρχιερέα καὶ διὰ γένους ἱερέα τοῦ [Διός ";hereditary priest,"; JHS xxxiv. p. 5 (no. 10.3 of Lycian inscrr.) λαβὼν τὸ χωρίον διὰ γένους. So διὰ προγόνων, Cagnat IV. 293.47 (see above) καὶ δι ]ὰ προγόνων ὑπάρχοντα τῆς πατρίδος εὐεργέ [την. P Ryl II. 135.11 (A.D. 34) ἦραν διὰ ὄνον χόρτου δύσμας τριάκοαν, ";carried off on donkeys thirty bundles of hay"; (Edd.). The common use of Acts 15:27, 2 Corinthians 10:11, may be freely illustrated : thus P Oxy VII. 1066.9 (iii/A.D.) ἔγραψάς μοι διὰ τῆς [ ]πιστολῆς, ";you write to me in the letter"; (Ed.), ib. 1070.15 (iii/A.D.) πολλάκις σοι γράψας διὰ ἐπιστολῶν πολλῶν, P Grenf I. 30.5 (B.C. 103) (= Witkowski.2, p. 107) διὰ γραμμάτων ἐκρίναμεν σημῆναι. It can hardly be said that there is always insistence on mediate authorship when διά has a personal gen. attached. Thus P Grenf II. 41.17 (A.D. 46) (= Chrest. II. p. 197) πάντος (l. -ας) τοὺ (l. τοὺς) δἰ ἐμοῦ οἰκονομηθησομένους χρηματισμούς : the writer is a principal. P Lond 276.7 (A.D. 15) (= II. p. 149) ἵν᾽ [εἰδ ]ὼς κατακλουθησας (l. κατακολουθῇς) τοῖς δι᾽ αὐτοῦ σημαινο [μέν ]οις, P Amh II. 68.6 (late i/A.D.) τὰς δηλουμένας δι᾽ αὐτοῦ (ἀρούρας) ι ̄. But this distinction between διά and ὑπό is normally observed. Thus P Amh II. 111.17 (A.D. 132) καθ᾽ ὁμολογείαν τελιωθῖσαν διὰ τοῦ ἐν κώμῃ Σοκνοπαίου Νήσου γραφείου, ";executed through the record-office of S.N."; (Edd.). BGU I. 136.4 (A.D. 135) Ταποντὼς δι᾽ ἐκδίκου, his counsel. Note δι᾽ ἑαυτοῦ = ipse, as P Oxy II. 273.21 (A.D. 95) ἀπὸ τῆσδε [τῆς ὁμο ]λογίας δι᾽ ἑαυτῆς μετεπιγράφεσθαι, ";to transfer by herself to another"; (Edd.). See other instances in Kuhring p. 39 f., also of other uses c. gen. The elliptical locution διὰ κενῆς, P Hib I. 66.5 (B.C. 228–7) ὥστε σε μὴ διὰ κενῆς εὐχαριαστῆσαι ἡμ [ῖν, ";so that you shall not oblige me to no purpose"; (Edd.), presumably arises from the local meaning of διά.

With acc. διά has a recognized use in petitions where the subtle but important difference from gen. may be overlooked—see Proleg. p. 105. P Magd 16.7 (B.C. 222) ἵνα διὰ σέ, βασιλεῦ, τοῦ δικαίου τύ [χω, ";grâce à toi"; (Ed.), is a good example : διὰ σοῦ would be avoided in addressing a king, and διὰ σέ is more delicate than παρὰ σοῦ. Other instances in Kuhring p. 41, and Rossberg p. 39, whose heading ";quo auctore quid fiat"; is fairly established. The acc. rei sometimes brings the meaning rather near that of διά c. gen. P Fay 119.34 (c. A.D. 100), ἐπὶ κράζει Πᾶσις εἵνα μὴ εἰς ψωμὶν γένηται διὰ τὼ ὕδωρ, ";for Pasis is crying out that we must not allow it [the manure] to be dissolved by the water"; (Edd.), BGU I. 350.4 (ii/A.D.) πεπρακέ [ναι τὸν ὁμολογοῦντα διὰ τήνδε τὴν ] ὁμολογίαν, P Par 17.11 (A.D. 154) πριαμένης διὰ χειρόγραφον (Kuhring p. 41). Late and illiterate documents were only anticipating the general development of Greek syntax. Rossberg p. 39 f. has instances of διά c. acc. classified. With Hebrews 2:10, Revelation 4:11, cf. P Leid Wxiii. 33 (ii/iii A.D.), addressing a deity, σοῦ γαρ φανέντος κ (αὶ) κόσμος ἐγένετο, κ (αὶ) φῶς ἐφάνη · κ (αὶ) διοικονομήθη τὰ πάντα διὰ σέ. P Oxy I. 41.8 (c. A.D. 300), where a crowd acclaims a magistrate, πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀπολαύομεν διὰ σαί, πρύτανι : the date makes it reasonable to compare this directly with διὰ σοῦ in Acts 24:2, rather than putting it into the category described above. For διά in composition it will suffice to refer to Moulton Gr. II. § 116.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
δι δι' δια διά διὰ εν ἰδίᾳ di di' dia diá dià idia idíāi
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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