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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #1510 - εἰμί

Transliteration
eimí
Phonetics
i-mee'
Origin
the first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb
Parts of Speech
verb
TDNT
2:398,206
Definition
Thayer's
  1. to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
  3. Parsing
KJV (141)
Matthew
14
Mark
4
Luke
16
John
54
Acts
14
Romans
4
1 Corinthians
15
2 Corinthians
2
Philippians
1
Colossians
1
1 Timothy
1
Hebrews
1
1 Peter
1
2 Peter
1
Revelation
12
NAS (281)
Matthew
28
Mark
20
Luke
40
John
82
Acts
33
Romans
13
1 Corinthians
24
2 Corinthians
5
Galatians
1
Ephesians
5
Philippians
1
Colossians
3
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
2
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
3
1 Peter
1
2 Peter
2
1 John
2
Revelation
11
HCS (135)
Matthew
12
Mark
4
Luke
16
John
52
Acts
15
Romans
4
1 Corinthians
14
2 Corinthians
2
Philippians
1
Colossians
1
1 Timothy
1
Hebrews
1
1 Peter
1
2 Peter
1
Revelation
10
BSB (2465)
Matthew
289
Mark
192
Luke
362
John
445
Acts
278
Romans
113
1 Corinthians
162
2 Corinthians
62
Galatians
53
Ephesians
48
Philippians
17
Colossians
26
1 Thessalonians
12
2 Thessalonians
7
1 Timothy
29
2 Timothy
16
Titus
16
Philemon
3
Hebrews
55
James
32
1 Peter
13
2 Peter
13
1 John
99
2 John
6
3 John
2
Jude
4
Revelation
111
ESV (1902)
Matthew
207
Mark
141
Luke
280
John
390
Acts
205
Romans
69
1 Corinthians
132
2 Corinthians
46
Galatians
41
Ephesians
44
Philippians
14
Colossians
21
1 Thessalonians
11
2 Thessalonians
7
1 Timothy
19
2 Timothy
14
Titus
7
Hebrews
39
James
27
1 Peter
6
2 Peter
10
1 John
91
Revelation
81
WEB (153)
Matthew
18
Mark
4
Luke
16
John
53
Acts
17
Romans
6
1 Corinthians
14
2 Corinthians
2
Galatians
2
Ephesians
1
Philippians
1
Colossians
1
1 Thessalonians
1
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
1
Titus
1
Hebrews
1
1 Peter
1
2 Peter
1
Revelation
11
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

εἰμί

(sum), Aeol. ἔμμι Sapph. 2.15, Theoc. 20.32; Cret. ἠμί GDI 4959a; 2 sg. εἶ, and Ion. εἰς Od. 17.388, al., Aeol. ἔσσι, and Dor. ἐσσί Il. 1.176, Pi. O. 6.90, Sophr. 134; ἐσί GDI 4959a; 3 sg. ἐστί, Dor. ἐντί IG 12(1).677 (Rhodes), Theoc. 1.17, etc.; 3 dual ἐστόν Th. 3.112; 1 pl. ἐσμέν, and Ion. εἰμέν (also in Pi. P. 3.60), ἐμέν Call. Fr. 294, Dor. εἰμές Theoc. 15.73, but ἠμέν GDI 5178.34; 3 pl. εἰσί (-ίν), and Ion. ἔασι (-ιν) Il. 7.73, Xenoph. 8.1, Antim. 29, Herod. 4.84, Dor. ἐντί Pi. N. 1.24, Theoc. 11.45, IG 9(1).32.22 (Phocis), etc.: imper. ἴσθι (ἔσθι Hecat. 361 J.), and Lyr. also in Med. form ἔσσο Od. 3.200, Sapph. 1.28, Maced. Pae. 31, late Prose ἔσο Plu. 2.241d, M.Ant. 3.5, Hld. 5.12, Porph. Mar 34; 3 sg. ἔστω (ἤτω LXX Ps. 103.31, and late Inscrr., CIG 2664, al.; but in Pl. R. 361c leg. ἴτω), Dor. εἴτω, ἤτω, Heraclid. ap. Eust. 1411.21, Elean ἤστω Schwyzer 424; 3 pl. ἔστωσαν, but ἔστων Hom., Pl. R. 502a, ὄντων Id. Lg. 879b, and early Att. Inscrr., IG 12.22, etc. (ἔστωσαν first in ii B. C., ib.22.1328), Dor. ἐόντων ib.1126: subj. ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, ἔω Od. 9.18; 3 sg. ἔῃ Il. 12.300,al. (also ἔῃσι 2.366, al., ᾖσι (ν) 19.202, Hes. Op. 294), also Boeot. ἔνθω IG 7.3172.165, μετείω Il. 23.47 and perh. εἴῃ 9.245, etc.; Dor. 3 pl. ὦντι SIG 940.3 (Crete), ἔωντι GDI 5040.14 (Hierapytna), Boeot. ἴωνθι IG 7.3171.46 (iii B. C.): opt. εἴην, -ης (εἴησθα Thgn. 715), - η, also ἔοις, ἔοι, Il. 9.284, 142, al., cf. Hdt. 7.6; 3 pl. εἴοισαν Ἀρχ. Ἐφ. 1911.133 (Gonni); 3 dual εἴτην Pl. Prm. 149e, Sph. 243e; 1 pl. εἶμεν E. Alc. 921 (lyr.), Pl.; 2 pl. εἶτε Od. 21.195; 3 pl. εἶεν Il. 2.372, etc., εἴησαν Hdt. 1.2, etc.; Elean ἔα, = εἴη, SIG 9 (vi B. C.), and σύν-εαν, = συνεῖεν, GDI 1149 (vi B. C.): inf. εἶναι, Arc. ἦναι SIG 306.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); ἔμμεναι (also Aeol. ἔμμεν' Sapph. 34), ἔμμεν (also Pi. P. 6.42, S. Ant. 623 (lyr.)), ἔμεναι, ἔμεν, also ἔμειν SIG 1166 (Dodona); Dor. εἶμεν Foed. ap. Th. 5.77, 79, IG 7.1.7 (Megara), ἦμεν Test.Epict. 5.16, Tab.Heracl. 1.75, Cret. ἦμεν or ἤμην Leg.Gort. 1.15, al., GDI 4998i 2, al., Megar. εἴμεναι Ar. Ach. 775, εἴμειν IG 12(1).155.100 (Rhodes), 14.952 (Agrigentum); εἶν ib. 12(9).211.10 (Eretria), SIG 135.4 (Olynthus), etc.: part. ὤν, ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, Cypr. ἰών Inscr.Cypr. 135.23 H.; Boeot. fem. ἰῶσα IG 7.3172.116 (Orchom.), Aeol. and Dor. fem. ἔσσα Sapph. 75.4, IG 4.952.2 (Epid.), Theoc. 28.16, ἐοῖσα Pi. P. 4.265, ἔασσα Lyr.Alex.Adesp. 9, Diotog. ap. Stob. 4.7.62, εὖσα Erinn. 5.5 (also Ion., Herod. 5.16, εὔντων 2.85), ἐᾶσα Ti.Locr. 96d, IG 5(1).1470.8 (Messene), ἴαττα Leg.Gort. 8.47; acc. sg. εὖντα Theoc. 2.3; nom. sg. εἴς in Heraclid. ap. Eust. 1756.13, pl. ἔντες Tab.Heracl. 1.117; dat. pl. ἔντασσι ib.104; gen. pl. παρ-έντων Alcm. 64: impf. ἦν Il. 2.77, etc., ἔον (also Aeol., Alc. 127, Sapph. Oxy. 1787 Fr. 3 ii 21), in Att. (dub. in Aeol., Alc. Supp. 14.9), Ar. Pl. 77, Pl. Phd. 61b, etc., but usu. altered to ἦν in codd. (and ἦν is required by metre in E. Ion 280), contr. from and Ion. ἦα (Il. 5.808, al., IG 12(8).449.2 (Thasos), whence Hom.and later Ion. ἔᾱ Il. 4.321, al., ἔας Hdt. 1.187, ἔατε Id. 4.119); Ephesians 3:1-21 sg. ἦεν, always with ν in Hom.; ἔην as 1 sg., only Il. 11.762 (s. v.l., al. ἔον), freq. as 3 sg. (generally before a consonant, so that ἔεν is possible), sts. also ἤην; 2 sg. ἦσθα, later ἦς (wh. is v.l. in Pi. I. 1.26), sts. in LXX (Jd. 11.35, Ruth 3:2,al.), cf. Pl. Ax. 365e, Erinn. 4.4, Matthew 25:21, al., ἦσθας Men. Epit. 156, ἔησθα; 3 sg. ἦν, ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν (v. supr.), Dor. and Aeol. ἦς Alc. Supp. 30.1, Epich. 102, Sophr. 59, Theoc. 2.90, SIG 241.145 (Delph.); 3 dual ἤστην Il. 5.10, E. Hipp. 387, Ar. Eq. 982, Pl. Euthd. 272a, al.; Dor. 1 pl. ἦμες Plu. Lyc. 21; 2 pl. ἦτε Pl. Euthd. 276c, ἦστε Ar. Pax 821, Ec. 1086; 3 pl. ἦσαν, Ion. and Poet. ἔσαν (in Hes. Th. 321, 825, ἦν is not pl. for ἦσαν, but is rather a peculiarity of syntax, v. infr. v, but is 3 pl. in Epich. 46, al., SIG 560.15 (Epidamnus, iii B. C.)); Aeol. ἔον Schwyzer 644.12; later ἤμην PSI 4.362.21 (iii B. C.), SIG 527.46 (Crete, iii B. C.), IGRom. 4.1740 (Cyme), always in LXX as Ba. 1.19, cf. Matthew 23:30, Plu. 2.174a, etc., and sts. in codd. of earlier writers, Lys. 7.34, Trag.Adesp. 124 (cited from E. Hel. 931 by Choerob. and from Id. Tr. 474 by Aps.), X. Cyr. 6.1.9, Hyp. Ath. 26, 2 sg. ἦσο Epigr.Gr. 379 (Aezani), 3 sg. ἦστο Supp.Epigr. 1.455.7 (Phrygia), 1 pl. ἤμεθα PPetr. 2p.11 (iii B. C.), LXX Ba. 1.19, 1 Ki. 25.16, Ephesians 2:3; subj. ὦμαι PBaden 48.12 (ii B. C.), ἦται GDI 1696, ἦνται prob. in IG 5(1).1390.83 (Andania); Ion. and also ἔσκον, used by A. Pers. 656 (lyr.): fut. ἔσομαι, ἔσται, and Aeol. also ἔσσομαι, ἔσεται, ἔσσεται; Aeol. 2 sg. ἔσσῃ prob. in Alc. 67, 87; Dor. 2 and 3 sg. ἐσσῇ, ἐσσεῖται, Il. 2.393, 13.317, Theoc. 10.5, 3 pl. ἐσσοῦνται Foed. ap. Th. 5.77 codd. (but ἔσσονται Tab.Heracl. 1.113), inf. ἐσσεῖσθαι Sophr. 57.

I All forms of the pres. ind. are enclitic (exc. 2 sg. εἶ and 3 pl. ἔασι); but 3 sg. is written ἔστι when it begins a sentence or verse, or when it immediately follows οὐκ, καί, εἰ, ὡς, ἀλλά, or τοῦτ', Hdn.Gr. 1.553 (also μή acc. to EM 301.3); later Gramm. wrote ἔστι as Subst. Verb, Phot., Eust. 880.22. as the Subst. Verb, I of persons, exist, οὐκ ἔσθ' οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὐδ' ἔσσεται Od. 16.437; ἔτ' εἰσί they are still in being, 15.433, cf. S. Ph. 445, etc.; τεθνηῶτος.. μηδ' ἔτ' ἐόντος Od. 1.289; οὐκέτ' ἐστί he is no more, E. Hipp. 1162; οὐδὲ δὴν ἦν he was not long- lived, Il. 6.131; ὁ οὐκ ὤν, οἱ οὐκ ὄντες, of those who are no more, Th. 2.45, 44; οἱ ὄντες the living, Plb. 9.29.2; ὁ ὤν the Eternal, LXX Exodus 3:14, al., Ph. 1.289; θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες Il. 1.290; ἐσσόμενοι posterity, 2.119; κἀγὼ γὰρ ἦ ποτ', ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ εἴμ' ἔτι E. Hec. 284; ὡς ἂν εἶεν ἅνθρωποι might continue in being, Pl. Smp. 190c; ζώντων καὶ ὄντων Ἀθηναίων D. 18.72, cf. Arist. GC 318b25; of things, εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως [ἡ τράπεζα ] Hdt. 3.17, etc.; of cities, ὄλωλεν, οὐδ' ἔτ' ἐστὶ Τροία E. Tr. 1292, cf. Heracl. 491; δοκεῖ μοι Καρχηδόνα μὴ εἶναι censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, Plu. Cat.Ma. 27; ἂν ᾖ τὸ στράτευμα be in existence, D. 8.17; of money, to be in hand, τῶν ὄντων χρημάτων καὶ τῶν προσιόντων IG 12.91.25; τὰ ὄντα property, Pl. Grg. 511a, Plu. Ant. 24, etc.; τὸ ἐσόμενον ἐκ.. future revenue from.., BCH 46.420 (Olymos, i B. C.); of place, τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν the local church, Acts 13:1; of time, τοῦ ὄντος μηνός in the current month, BGU 146.4, etc.; in office, ἱερέων τῶν ὄντων PPar. 5.4 (ii B. C.); αἱ οὖσαι [ἐξουσίαι ] the powers that be, Romans 13:1.

II of the real world, be, opp.

1. become, γίγνεται πάντα ἃ δή φαμεν εἶναι Pl. Tht. 152d, etc.; τὸ ὄν Being, Parm. 8.35, Protag. 2, Pl. Ti. 27d, etc.; opp. τὸ μὴ ὄν, Gorg. Fr. 3 D., etc.; οὐδὲν γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος Epicur. Ephesians 1 p.5U.; ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεός LXX 2 Maccabees 7:28; τὰ ὄντα the world of things, Heraclit. 7, Emp. 129.5, etc.; ὄν indecl., τῶν ὂν εἰδῶν species of Being, Plot. 6.2.10.

2. of circumstances, events, etc., to happen, τά τ' ἐόντα, τά τ' ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ' ἐόντα Il. 1.70; ἡ ἐσβολὴ ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι Th. 2.13, etc.; τῆς προδοσίας οὔσης since treachery was there, Id. 4.103; ἕως ἂν ὁ πόλεμος ᾖ so long as it last, Id. 1.58; αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔσονται Id. 4.118; τί ἐστιν; what is it? what's the matter? Ar. Th. 193; τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο; how came it to pass ? Pl. Phd. 58a: repeated with a relat. to avoid a positive assertion, ἔστι δ' ὅπῃ νῦν ἔ. things are as they are, i.e. are ill, A. Ag. 67.

III be the fact or the case, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι ἤ ἐστιν twice as large as it really is, Th. 1.10; αὐτὸ ὅ ἐστι καλόν beauty in its essence, Pl. Smp. 211c, cf. Phd. 74b; freq. in part., τὸν ἐόντα λόγον λέγειν or φαίνειν the true story, Hdt. 1.95, 116; τῷ ἐόντι χρήσασθαι tell the truth, ib. 30; τὰ ὄντα ἀπαγγέλλειν Th. 7.8; σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν, λόγον οὐκ ὄντα, S. El. 584, Ar. Ra. 1052; τῷ ὄντι in reality, in fact, Pl. Prt. 328d, etc.; to apply a quotation to a case in point, τῷ ὄντι κλαυσίγελως real 'smiles through tears' (with allusion to Il. 6.484), X. HG 7.2.9, cf. Pl. La. 196d; κατὰ τὸ ἐόν according to the fact, right ly, Hdt. 1.97; πᾶν τὸ ἐόν the whole truth, Id. 9.11; τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεται Hp. VM 2. folld. by the relat., οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς or ὅστις no one, οὐκ ἔσθ' ὃς.. ἀπαλάλκοι Il. 22.348; οὐκ ἔ. οὐδεὶς ὅς E. El. 903; οὐκ ἔ. ὅτῳ, = οὐδενί, A. Pr. 293 (anap.), cf. 989: freq. in pl., εἰσὶν οἵ, = Lat. sunt qui, used exactly like ἔνιοι, Th. 6.88, 7.44, Pl. Men. 77d, Grg. 503a, etc. (εἰσί τινες οἵ.. Th. 3.24); ἐστὶν ἃ χωρία, πολίσματα, Id. 1.12, 65; ἐστὶν ἃ εἰπεῖν Id. 2.67; ἦσαν οἵ X. An. 5.2.14; the sg. Verb is used even with masc. and fem. pl., ἐστὶν οἵ, αἵ, Hp. Fract. 1, VC 4, X. Cyr. 2.3.16; more freq. in oblique cases, ποταμῶν ἐστὶ ὧν Hdt. 7.187; ἐστὶν ἀφ' ὧν Th. 8.65; ἐστὶ παρ' οἷς, ἐστὶν ἐν οἷς, Id. 1.23, 5.25: in questions

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

εἰμί ,

with various uses and significations, like the English verb to be.

I. Conditional, if;

1. c. indic., expressing a general assumption;

(a) pres.: seq. indic. pres., Matthew 11:14, Romans 8:25, al.; seq. imperat., Mark 4:23; Mark 9:22, John 15:18, 1 Corinthians 7:9, al.; seq. fut. indic., Luke 16:31, Romans 8:11, al.; seq. pf. or aor., with negation in apodosis, Matthew 12:26, Romans 4:14, al.; similarly, seq. impf., Luke 17:6, John 8:39; seq. quæst., Matthew 6:23 John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46, 1 Peter 2:20;

(b) fut.: Matthew 26:33, 1 Peter 2:20;

(c) pf.: John 11:12, Romans 6:5, al.;

(d) aor.: Luke 16:11; Luke 19:8, John 13:32; John 18:23, Revelation 20:15, al.

2. Where the assumption is certain = ἐπεί : Matthew 12:28, John 7:4, Romans 5:17, al.

3. Of an unfulfilled condition, c. indic. impf., aor. or plpf., seq. ἄν , c. imp. or aor. (see ἄν , I, i).

4. C. indic., after verbs denoting wonder, etc., sometimes, but not always, coupled with an element of doubt: Mark 15:44, 1 John 3:13, al.

5. C. indic., as in LXX (Numbers 14:30, 1 Samuel 14:45, al. = Heb. H518), in oaths, with the formula of imprecation understood in a suppressed apodosis (WM, 627; Burton, § 272): Mark 8:12, Hebrews 3:11 (LXX) Hebrews 4:3 (LXX),

6. Rarely (cl.) c. optat., to express a merely possible condition: Acts 24:19; Acts 27:39, 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 3:17

II. Interrogative, if, whether.

1. As in cl., in indir. questions after verbs of seeing, asking, knowing, saying, etc: c. indic. Pres., Matthew 26:63, Mark 15:36, Acts 19:2, 2 Corinthians 13:5, al.; fut., Mark 3:2, Acts 8:22, al.; aor., Mark 15:44, 1 Corinthians 1:16, al.; c. subjc. aor. (M, Pr., 194), Philippians 3:12.

2. As in LXX (= Heb. H518 and interrog. הֲ , Genesis 17:17, al.; v. WM, 639 f.; Viteau, i, 22), in direct questions: Mark 8:23 (Tr., WH, txt.), Luke 13:23; Luke 22:49, Acts 19:2, al.

III. With other particles.

1. εἰ ἄρα , εἴγε , εἰ δὲ μήγς , see ἄρα , γε .

2. εἰ δὲ καί , but if also: Luke 11:18; but even of, 1 Corinthians 4:7, 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 11:6.

3. εἰ δὲ μή , but if not, but if otherwise: Mark 2:21-22, John 14:2, Revelation 2:5, al.

4. εἰ καί , if even, if also, although: Mark 14:29, Luke 11:8, 1 Corinthians 7:21, 2 Corinthians 4:16, Philippians 2:17, al.

5. καί εἰ , even if see καί .

6. εἰ μή , if not, unless, except, but only: Matthew 24:22, Mark 2:26; Mark 6:5, John 9:33, 1 Corinthians 7:17 (only), Galatians 1:19 (cf. ἐὰν μή , 216; v. Hort., Ja., xvi); ἐκτὸς εἰ μή , pleonastic (Bl., § 65, 6), 1 Corinthians 14:5; 1 Corinthians 15:2, 1 Timothy 5:19..

7. εἰ μήν = cl. ἦ μήν (M, Pr., 46), in oaths, surely (Ezekiel 33:27, al.): Hebrews 6:14.

8. εἴ πως , if haply: Acts 27:12, Romans 1:10.

9. εἴτε . . . εἴτε , whether . . . or: Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 13:8, al.


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Middle forms in the flexion of εἰμί other than the present tense (cf. however MGr εἶμαι, –σαι, etc.) begin to appear very early in the dialects and are well established in the papyri. Thus the 1st sing. impf. ἤμην, which always takes the place of the class. in the NT (but see Acts 20:18 D) may be illustrated from PSI IV. 362.21 (B.C. 251–0) ἤμην δὲ πρὸς τῶι λαμβάνειν τὸν χαλκόν, P Magd 6.6 (B.C. 221) ἤμην γυμνός, P Par 8.7 (B.C. 129) ὧν ἤμην δι᾽ αὐτῶν [π ]αραμε [μετ ]ρηκ [υῖα, P Oxy III. 526.3 (ii/A.D.) οὐκ ἤμην ἀπαθὴς ἀλόγως σε καταλείπιν. For 1st plur. ἤμεθα see P Petr II. 4 (7).3 (B.C. 255–4) τεθλιμμένοι ἤμεθα : cf. Acts 27:37, Ephesians 2:8, as contrasted with the act. ἦμεν in Acts 11:11 (אB), 16.12, Romans 7:5 al. : the two forms are found together in Galatians 4:3 (אDFG). The non-classical ἦς (Lob. Phryn. p. 149) is found septies in the NT as compared with ἦσθα (from an old perf. form ἤησθα), which is confined to Mark 14:67 with its parallel Matthew 26:69. For ἤμην, ἦς in Epictetus, see Sharp Epict. p. 83. On the other hand ἦσθα is the commoner form in the LXX (Thackeray Gr. i. p. 256), and Moulton (Gr. ii. § 86) throws out the conjecture that this ἦσθα in Mt may have started under LXX influence, and that the text of Mk was harmonized. In P Hib I. 78.16 (B.C. 244–3) ἐὰν δὲ μὴ δυνατὸς ἦσθα ἀπολῦσαι γράψομ (l. γράψον) μοι, ἦσθα must be treated as subj., like ἦσαν in P Tebt II. 333.13 (A.D. 216) ἐὰν ἦσάν τι παθόντες ἀνθρώπ [ι ]νον and P Oxy VIII. 1157.15 (late iii/A.D.) ἐὰν δὲ ἦσαν <? ἐπείγον > τες ἀπαιτῆσαι τὸ ἐπικεφάλαιον, ";and if they are [hurrying on with] the collection of the poll-tax"; (Ed.), where a past tense is excluded by the context. The forms may probably be regarded as extensions of the curious but common substitution of ἦν for , the iota being lost and the parasitic ν being added after the long vowel, in such passages as P Oxy IV. 744.9 f. (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐὰν ἦν ἄρσενον, ἄφες, ἐὰν ἦν θήλεα, ἔκβαλε, BGU III. 821.6 (ii/A.D.) ὅταν ἦν τι καινότερον, εὐθέως σοι δηλ [ ]σω, P Fay 124.15 (ii/A.D.) ε ̣ἴπερ εἰ καὶ γράμματα μ ̣ὴ ἦν, P Oxy I. 63.18 (ii/iii A.D.) ἵνα μη [δ ]ὲν ἐνπόδιον ἦν, ";in order that there may be no delay."; The same phenomenon is found in NT uncials, e.g. Matthew 10:13 C ἔὰν μὲν ἦν ἡ οἰκία ἀξία, Mark 5:18 B*D ἵνα μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἦν, Luke 20:28 אc ἐὰν. . οὗτος ἄτεκνος ἦν, 1 Corinthians 16:4 Α ἐὰν δὲ ἄξιον ἦν. See further Moulton Gr. ii. § 86 n. 2 (ε) and for additional papyrus exx. CR xv. pp. 38, 436, xviii. p. 108. In certain cases we may have instances of ἐάν construed with the indicative (cf. Deissmann BS p. 201 f.) : the context alone can decide.

For 3rd sing. εἴη (ι), the only form of the opt. which occurs in the NT (undecies), we may cite P Vat A.3 (B.C. 168) (= Witkowski.2, p. 64) εἴηι ἄν, ὡς βούλομαι, P Grenf I. 21.2 (B.C. 126) ε [ ]ηι μέμ μοι ὑγιαίνοντι τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ κύριον εἶναι, and the frequently recurring phrase εὐορκοῦντι μέν μοι εὖ εἴηι, ἐφιορκοῦντι δὲ τὰ ἐναντία, as in P Tebt I. 79.17 f. (B.C. 110–8). In P Hib I. 79.5 (c. B.C. 260) we have εἲ (for εἴη) ἄν, ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω, a form apparently not found elsewhere in Ptolemaic papyri (cf. Witkowski.2, p. 25), and in P Par 44.2 (B.C. 153) εἴε (for εἴη) ἄν, ὡς βούλομαι. The 3rd plur. is seen in P Par 35.29 (B.C. 163) πυνθανομένων δ᾽ ἡμῶν τοῦ χάριν εἴησαν εἰσπορευσάμενοι.

The 2nd sing. imperf. ἴσθι, as in Matthew 5:25, Mark 5:34, occurs in such passages as P Tebt I. 58.51 (B.C. 111) καὶ σὺ ἀναγωνίατος ἴσθει (l. ἴσθι), P Leid Wiii. 10 (ii/iii A.D.) σὺ δὲ ἐν ἐλίνοις ἴσθσι (l. λίνοις ἴσθι). According to Mayser (Gr. p. 327) the ending –θι is found in the Ptolemaic papyri only in ἴσθει = ἴσθι from εἶναι, and ἴσθι from οἶδα. Ἔστω hardly needs illustration, but its frequency may be noted in such formulas as P Petr I. 16 (2).14 (B.C. 230) ἡ πρᾶξις ἔστω ὡς πρὸς βασιλικά, P Oxy II. 270.43 (A.D. 94) ἄκυρον [ ]στω, 46 κυρία ἔστω al. For ἤτω, which in the NT is found only in 1 Corinthians 16:22 (contrast Galatians 1:8), James 5:12, see BGU I. 276.24 (ii/iii A.D.) παρά σοι ἤτω, P Oxy III. 533.9 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ [ ]τω, P Lond 948 verso.8 (A.D. 257) (= III. p. 210) ἤτω οὖν ὁ Σύρος πρ [ ]ς τοὺς ποιμένας, BGU II. 419.13 (A.D. 276–7) ζημίωμα [π ]ρὸς σὲ ἤτω, and P Lond 46.325 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 75) ὑποτεταγμένος δέ μοι ἤτω. None of these exx., it will be noticed, carries us back to i/A.D., and the inscriptional evidence is also late (Schweizer Gr. p. 177, Meisterhans Gr. p. 191). For ἔστωσαν, which is found in Attic inscrr. from B.C. 200 onwards (Meisterhans, ut s.) and occurs twice in the NT (Luke 12:35, 1 Timothy 3:12), we may cite P Petr III. 2.22 (B.C. 237) ἔστωσαν ἐλεύθεροι, CPR I. 1.22 (A.D. 83–4) αἱ γεγονυῖαι διὰ τῶν καταλοχισμῶν οἰκονομίαι κυρίαι ἔστωσαν ἐπὶ τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον, and for ἤτωσαν P Leid Wiii. 40 (ii/iii A.D.) ἤτωσαν δὲ οἱ λύχνοι τεταρτημόριοι.

The periphrastic use of εἰμί with the participle (the so-called σχῆμα Χαλκιδικόν), which is common both in the LXX and the NT (see a useful list of exx. in Conybeare and Stock Selections, p. 68 ff.) may be illustrated in somewhat fuller detail : —(a) present : BGU I. 183.25 (A.D. 85) ἐφ᾽ ὃν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾗ Σαταβούς : cf. P Giss I. 19.3 (ii/A.D.) μεγάλως ἀγωνιῶσα περί σου διὰ τὰ ὄν [τα τ ]οῦ καιροῦ φημιζόμενα. (b) perfect : P Petr II. 13 (3).3 (B.C. 258–3) τεῖχος. . πεπτωκός ἐστιν, and often in such a phrase as ἵν᾽ ὦ εὐεργετημένη, e.g. P Oxy III. 486.16 (A.D. 131) : cf. John 16:24; John 17:19; John 17:23. See also Radermacher Gr. p. 83 for exx. from Vett. Valens, Diodorus, Herodas, and others. (c) future perfect : PSI IV. 424.8 (iii/B.C.) ἔσει ἐμέ τε σεσωικώς, P Par 35.38 (B.C. 163) ἔσομαι τετευχώς, P Tebt I. 56.16 (c. B.C. 130–121) τοῦτο δὲ ποήσας ἔσηι μοι κεχαρισμένος εἰς τὸν ἅπαντα χρόν [ον ], BGU II. 596.12 (A.D. 84) (= Selections, p. 64) ἔσῃ μοι μεγάλην χάριταν κατατ ̣ε ̣θειμ [ ]νο (ς), P Leid Wi. 35 (ii/iii A.D.) καὶ ἔσῃ τελεσμένος (l. τετελ –) αὐτός : other exx. in Mayser Gr. p. 377. Three papyri of iii/A.D. have an aor. part. with εἰμί in a future perfect sense—P Tebt II. 333.18 (A.D. 216) ἐὰν ἦσάν τι παθόντες ἀνθρώπ [ι ]νον, ib. 423.18 (early iii/A.D.) ἐὰν οὖν μὴ ̣ ἦς λαβὼν τὰ πρόβατα πρὸς κοιτασμός (l. όν) (";folding";), P Lond 948 verso.3 (A.D. 257) (= III. p. 210) ἀνερχέστω ἐὰν ἦν π ̣αυσάμεν ̣ος τοῦ ἀχύρου. The wholly exceptional Luke 23:19 B ἦν. . βληθείς may be compared, but there the sense is aoristic : cf. Robertson Gr. p. 860. (d) imperfect : P Oxy I. 115.5 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) ὅσα ἦν καθήκοντα ἐποίησα, Syll 929.81 ὅπερ οὐκ ἦν ἐνδεχόμενον : cf. also ib. 927.22 (ii/B.C.) ὡς ἁρμ ]όζον ἦν, and Pelagia-Legenden, p. 18.7 ἦν. . . ἀκούσασα. (e) plu-perfect : P Par 8.7 (B.C. 129) ὧν ἤμην δι᾽ αὐτῶν [π ]αραμε [μετ ]ρηκ [υῖα, P Oxy II. 285.10 (c. A.D. 50) ἀφήρπασεν ὃν ἤμην ἐνδεδυμένο (l. ος) χιτῶνα λ ̣ε ̣ι ̣νοῦν. On how far all these periphrastic constructions are due to Semitic influence, see Proleg. p. 226 f.

For οὐκ ἔστι = ";it is impossible,"; as in 1 Corinthians 11:20, Hebrews 9:5, cf. P Par 47.23 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψα <ι με > πόποτε ἐν τῇ Τρικομίαι ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης, ";it is impossible ever to show my face in Tricomia for very shame";; for πρέπον ἐστί, as in Matthew 3:15, cf. P Oxy I. 120.24 (iv/A.D.) τὰ κατὰ σὲ διοίκησον ὡς πρέπον ἐστίν, ";see that matters are properly conducted on your own part"; (Edd.), and for δέον ἐστί, as in Acts 19:36, cf. P Oxy IV. 727.19 f. (A.D. 154) ἃ ἐὰν [δ ]έον ἦν followed by πρὸς οὓς ἐὰν δέῃ, and the exx. cited s.v. δέον. In P Oxy VI. 899.40 (A.D. 200) δ ̣ε ̣ον οὖν τὴν μεταδιαταγὴν ἑτέροις γενέσθαι κατὰ τὰ γραφέντα ὑπο ̣̣ σ ̣οῦ, ";the change in appointment of other cultivators ought accordingly to take place in conformity with your letter"; (Edd.), ἐστί is omitted as in 1 Peter 1:6 א*B.

With the idiomatic use of ὁ ὤν in Acts 13:1 κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν, ";in the local church,"; and ib. 14.13 D τοῦ ὄντος Διὸς πρὸ πόλεως where τοῦ ὄντος is almost equivalent to τοῦ ὀνομαζομένου (see Ramsay CRE, p. 52), cf. P Lond 1168.5 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 136) ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις, also such phrases as PSI III. 229.11 (ii/A.D.) τοῦ ὄντος μηνὸς ̣ Τῦβι, ";the current month Tubi,"; P Oxy XII. 1583.11 (ii/A.D.) γράψον μοι περὶ τῶν ὄντων ὄντων (omit) καὶ τὰ γενόμενα. With 1 Corinthians 1:28 we may compare P Leid Wvii. 9 (ii/iii A.D.) σὲ μόνον ἐπικαλοῦμαι. . . τὸν ἑαυτὸν (omit) ἀλλάξαντα σεαυτὸν μορφαῖς ἁγίαις καὶ ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα, καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι.

For Romans 13:1 see P Par 5.4 (B.C. 114) ἐφ᾽ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν καὶ κανηφόρου τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν, and note P Petr III. 42 F (a).1 (mid. iii/B.C.) ἐφ᾽ ἱερέως τοῦ ὄντος Ἀλεξάνδρου καὶ τῶν θεῶν, ";in the time of the priest who is (priest) of Alexander and the gods,"; the form of expression implying ignorance of the name of the priest of a new year : the editors remark on this very early occurrence of a usage which afterwards became common.

Ἐστὶ δέ is found at the head of lists, as in PSI III. 160.13 (A.D. 149), P Flor III. 321.5 (iii/A.D.), P Grenf II. 77.16 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 121), al. For τουτέστιν, which is always written τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν by WH in the NT, see P Flor II. 157.4 (iii/A.D.) εἰς [τ ]ὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνο τὸ τῆς Θεω [ξ ]ένιδος τουτέστιν τὸ τ ̣ῆς ἄμμου, PSI IV. 298.9 (iv/A.D. init.) οὐκ ι ̔ασέν με τὸν τεταγμένον χρόνο (ν) [ἐκεῖσε διαμεῖναι ?,] τ ̣ου ̣τέστιν τοὺς ἓξ μῆνας πληρῶσαι. Cf. also P Meyer 6.21 (A.D. 125) τούτου ὄντος, ";this being the case."; Εἰμί with the gen. of time, as in Mark 5:42, is seen in P Oxy II. 275.9 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 55) οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν, ";not yet of age."; The present ἔστι is used in a futuristic sense in P Oxy III. 531.22 (ii/A.D.) ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὃ θέλεις, where a father promises his son that in the forthcoming month Tubi he will receive whatever he wishes.

The use of εἰς with a predicate (as in Acts 8:23, 1 Corinthians 4:3) can hardly be regarded as ";after a Hebrew model"; (Blass Gr. p. 85, cf. Radermacher Gr. p. 16 f.) in view of the vernacular usage of εἰς to denote destination, e.g. P Hib I. 99.10 (B.C. 270) ὁμ [ολο ]γεῖ. . ἔχε [ιν ] . . ἐς τὰ ἐκφόρια. . ἀρτ (άβας) υ ̄, ";agrees that he has received for the rent 400 artabae"; : cf. Proleg. p. 71 f. Deissmann (LAE p. 123) gives a similar instance from an official text of about ii/B.C.—Priene 50.39 τ ]αῦτα δὲ εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τῆς πόλεως. Other instances of εἰμί with prepositions are P Petr II. 11 (1).8 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) γράφε. . . ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections, p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτό, P Par 70.11 (Ptol.) καὶ γὰρ ὁ πάτηρ αὐτοῦ ἐστὶν ἐνταῦθα περὶ Πετόνουριν, P Petr II. 42 (b).5 (mid. iii/B.C.) εἰμὶ γὰρ πρὸς τῶι ἀποδημεῖν, BGU I. 87.20 (A.D. 144) καὶ πάντων [τῶν ] δ [ημο ]σίων πρὸ [ς ] αὐτ [ ]ν ὄντων.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
ει εἶ είεν ειη είη εἴη είησαν ειμι ειμί είμι εἰμι εἰμί εἰμὶ ἐιμι ειναι ειναί είναι είναί εἶναι εἶναί εισι εισί εισιν εισίν είσιν εἰσιν εἰσίν εἰσὶν εσεσθαι έσεσθαι ἔσεσθαι Εσεσθε έσεσθε έσεσθέ Ἔσεσθε ἔσεσθέ εση έση ἔσῃ εσμεν εσμέν ἐσμεν ἐσμέν ἐσμὲν εσομαι έσομαι έσομαί ἔσομαι εσομεθα εσόμεθα εσόμεθά ἐσόμεθα εσόμενα εσομένης εσομενον εσόμενον ἐσόμενον εσόμενος εσομένου εσονται έσονται έσονταί ἔσονται ἔσονταί εσται έσται ἔσται εστε εστέ έστε ἐστε ἐστέ ἐστὲ εστι εστί έστι ἐστί ΕΣΤΙΝ εστίν έστιν ἐστιν ἐστίν ἐστὶν ἔστιν εστω έστω ἔστω Εστωσαν έστωσαν Ἔστωσαν η ᾖ ἥκασιν ημεθα ήμεθα ἤμεθα ημεν ήμεν ἦμεν ημην ήμην ἤμην ΗΝ ἦν ης ᾖς ἦς ησαν ήσαν ήσάν ἦσαν ησθα ήσθα ἦσθα ητε ήτε ἦτε ητω ήτω ἤτω ίθι ισθι ίσθι ἴσθι ον ὂν οντα όντα ὄντα οντας όντας ὄντας οντες όντες ὄντες οντι όντι ὄντι οντος όντος ὄντος οντων όντων ὄντων ουκ ουσα ούσα οὖσα ουσαι ούσαι οὖσαι ουσαν ούσαν οὖσαν όυσαν ούσας ουση ούση οὔσῃ όυση ουσης ούσης οὔσης όυσης ούσι ουσιν ούσιν οὖσιν όυσιν ουσων ουσών οὐσῶν ω ὦ ωμεν ώμεν ὦμεν ων ὤν ὢν ωσί ώσι ώσί ωσιν ώσιν ὦσιν e ē ei eî êi ē̂i eie eiē eíe eíē eimi eimí eimì einai eînai eînaí êis ē̂is eisin eisín eisìn ekasin ēkasin emen êmen ēmen ēmēn ḗmen ḗmēn ē̂men emetha ēmetha ḗmetha eN ên ĒN ē̂n es ês ēs ē̂s esan êsan ēsan ē̂san ese esē ései ésēi esesthai ésesthai Esesthe Ésesthe ésesthé esmen esmén esmèn esomai ésomai esomenon esómenon esometha esómetha esontai ésontai ésontaí estai éstai este esté estè estha êstha ēstha ē̂stha esti estí ESTIN estín estìn éstin esto estō ésto éstō Estosan Estōsan Éstosan Éstōsan ete ête ēte ē̂te eto ētō ḗto ḗtō hekasin hēkasin hḗkasin isthi ísthi o ô ō ō̂ omen ômen ōmen ō̂men on òn ōn ṓn ṑn onta ónta ontas óntas ontes óntes onti ónti onton ontōn ónton óntōn ontos óntos osin ôsin ōsin ō̂sin ousa oûsa ousai oûsai ousan oûsan ouse ousē oúsei oúsēi ouses ousēs oúses oúsēs ousin oûsin ouson ousôn ousōn ousō̂n
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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εἶναι