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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1558 - ἔκδικος
- without law and justice
- exacting penalty from one
- an avenger, punisher
I lawless, unjust, ἔκδικα πάσχω A. Pr. 1093 (anap.); of persons, S. OC 920, Ael. NA 16.5 (Sup.). Adv. -κως A. Pr. 976, etc.
1. maintaining the right, avenging, ἔχει θεὸς ἔ. ὄμμα Batr. 97; ἔ. χρόνος AP 12.35 (Diocl.), cf. LXX Wi. 12.12.
2. Subst., avenger, Hdn. 7.4.5; αἱ Ἰβύκου ἔ. Plu. 2.509f.
3. public advocate or prosecutor, IG 9(1).61, Cic. Fam. 13.56.1, Michel 459 (Telmessus), BMus.Inscr. 481*.315 (Ephesus, ii A.D.).
4. generally, legal representative, POxy. 261.14 (i A.D.), Plin. Traj. 110, etc.
** ἔκδικος , -ον
[in LXX: Wisdom of Solomon 12:12, Sirach 30:6, 4 Maccabees 15:29*;]
1. without law, unjust.
2. exacting penalty from; as subst., an avenger: Romans 13:4; seq. περί , 1 Thessalonians 4:6 (in Papyri, a legal representative; Milligan, Th., l.c.).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
ἔκδικος is the regular term in the papyri for a legal representative, e.g. P Oxy II. 237vii .39 (A.D. 186) Διδύμη ἧς ἔκδικος ὁ ἀνὴρ Ἀπολλώνιος πρὸς Σαβεῖνον, ";Didyme, defended by her husband Apollonius, against Sabinus,"; ib. 261.14 (A.D. 55) συνεστακέναι αὐτὴν τὸν προγεγραμμένον υἱωνὸν Χα [ιρ ]ήμονα ἔγδικον ἐπὶ πάσης ἐξουσίας, ";that she has appointed her said grandson Chaeremon to appear for her before every authority"; (Edd.), and for a similar use in the inscrr. = ";advocatus,"; Michel 459.20 (ii/B.C. ad init.) ὑπέμεινεν ἑκουσίως [ἔκ ]δικος : see further Gradenwitz Einführung i. p. 160, Nägeli p. 33, and for the Bibl. usage Milligan on 1 Thessalonians 4:6. Ὁ ἔκδικος τῆς πόλεως, defensor civitatis, appears in Egypt early in iv/A.D. : see the notes on P Oxy XII. 1413.17, 1426.4. Moulton (Gr. ii. § 119 (c)) suggests that in ἔκδικος = ";avenger"; we may see the same force of ἐκ as in the recurrent legal phrase καθάπερ ἐγ δίκης, ";just as after a legal decision";; the ἔκδικος would thus be the man who carries out a sentence. Alternatively the classical compositum ἐκδικάζω, ";avenge,"; may have influenced the meaning of ἔκδικος with its derivatives.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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