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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #1777 - ἔνοχος

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G1758)
Parts of Speech
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  1. bound, under obligation, subject to, liable
    1. used of one who is held by, possessed with love, and zeal for anything
    2. in a forensic sense, denoting the connection of a person either with his crime, or with the penalty or trial, or with that against whom or which he has offended
      1. guilty, worthy of punishment
      2. guilty of anything
      3. of the crime
      4. of the penalty
      5. liable to this or that tribunal i.e. the punishment to by imposed by this or that tribunal
      6. of the place where punishment is to be suffered
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 502 ‑ אָלַף (aw‑lof');  1818 ‑ דָּם (dawm);  4191 ‑ מוּת (mooth);  7561 ‑ רָשַׁע (raw‑shah');  7563 ‑ רָשָׁע (raw‑shaw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (10)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
NAS (10)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
CSB (10)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
BSB (10)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
ESV (8)
Matthew 4
Mark 1
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
WEB (10)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
1 Corinthians 1
Hebrews 1
James 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἔνοχος, ον, = ἐνεχόμενος,


1. held in, bound by, τοιαύταις δόξαις Arist. Metaph. 1009b17; ταῖς εἰρημέναις βλάβαις Id. Pol. 1337b17; [ ἔθεσι γεροντικοῖς ] Apollod.Com. 7.2.

2. c. gen., connected with, κοιλίης Hp. 23.


1. as law-term, liable to, subject to, νόμοις, δίκαις, Pl. Lg. 869b; τῇ γραφῇ X. Mem. 1.2.64; τῇ κρίσει Matthew 5:22; τῷ ὅρκῳ PRyl. 82.14 (ii A. D.), etc.; τοῖς ἐπιτιμίοις τοῦ φόνου Antipho 4.1.6; ζημίαις Lys. 14.9; ταῖς ἀραῖς D. 19.201; δεσμῷ Id. 51.4; ὅρκῳ PHib. 1.65.22 (iii B. C.), etc.; ἔ. ἀνοίαις liable to the imputation of it, Isoc. 8.7; ἁμαρτήμασι Aeschin. 2.146; τοῖς αἰσχίστοις ἐπιτηδεύμασιν Id. 1.185.

2. ἔνοχος ψευδομαρτυρίοις liable to action for.., Pl. Tht. 148b: c. gen., ἔ. τοῦ φόνου Antipho 6.46; βιαίων, λιποταξίου (sc. δίκῃ, γραφῇ), Pl. Lg. 914e, Lys. 14.5; ἱεροσυλίας LXX 2 Maccabees 13:6; μοιχείας Vett. Val. 117.10; ἔ. θανάτου liable to the penalty of death, D.S. 27.4, Matthew 26:66 (but θανάτῳ Wilcken Chr. 13.11 (i A. D.)): c. inf., ἔ. ἔστω ἀποτῖσαι CIG 2832.8 (Aphrodisias).

3. less freq. with Preps., ἔ. ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς Decr. ap. And. 1.79; περὶ ταὐτά Arist. Rh. 1384b2; ἔνοχοι ἔντω ἐνς Ἀθαναίαν IG 4.554 (Argos, vi/v B. C.).

4. guilty, liable to the penalty for, ἔ. τῷ φόνῳ Antipho 1.11, Arist. Pol. 1269a3, cf. Rh. 1380a3: abs., Antipho 4.1.1, 6.17, Pl. Sph. 261a, etc. of property, subject to liability, PMasp. 312.86 (vi A. D.).

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἔνοχος, ἔνοχον, equivalent to ἐνεχόμενος, one who is held in anything, so that he cannot escape; bound, under obligation, subject to, liable: with the genitive of the thing by which one is bound, δουλείας, Hebrews 2:15; used of one who is held by, possessed with, love and zeal for anything; thus τῶν βιβλίων, Sir. prolog. 9; with the dative τοῖς ἐρωτικοις, Plutarch; (on supposed distinctions in meaning between the construction with the genitive and with the dative (e. g. 'the construction with the dative expresses liability, that with the genitive carries the meaning further and implies either the actual or the rightful hold.' Green) see Schäfer on Demosth. see p. 323; cf. Winers Grammar, § 28, 2; Buttmann, 170 (148)). As in Greek writings, chiefly in a forensic sense, denoting the connection of a person either with his crime, or with the penalty or trial, or with that against whom or which he has offended; so a. absolutely guilty, worthy of punishment: Leviticus 20:9, 11, 13, 16, 27; 1 Macc. 14:45.

b. with the genitive of the thing by the violation of which guilt is contracted, guilty of anything: τοῦ σώματος καί τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου, guilty of a crime committed against the body and blood of the Lord, 1 Corinthians 11:27 (see Meyer; Winer's Grammar, 202 (190f)); πάντων, namely, ἐνταλμάτων, James 2:10; οἱ ἔνοχοί σου, Isaiah 54:17.

c. with the genitive of the crime: αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος (an eternal sin), Mark 3:29 L T Tr text WH; (τῶν βιαίων, Plato, legg. 11, 914 e.; κλοπῆς, Philo de Jos. § 37; ἱεροσυλίας, 2 Macc. 13:6; Aristotle, oec. 2 (p. 1349{a}, 19), and in other examples; but much more often in the classics with the dative of the crime; cf. Passow or (Liddell and Scott) under the word).

d. with the genitive of the penalty: θανάτου, Mark 14:64; Matthew 26:66; Genesis 26:11; αἰωνίου κρίσεως, Mark 3:29 Rec.; δεσμοῦ (others, dative), Demosthenes, p. 1229, 11.

e. with the dative of the tribunal; liable to this or that tribunal i. e. to punishment to he imposed by this or that tribunal: τῇ κρίσει, τῷ συνεδρίῳ, Matthew 5:21f; ἔνοχος γραφή, to be indicted, Xenophon, mem. 1, 2, 64; cf. Bleek, Br. an d. Hebrew ii. 1, p. 340f; (Winers Grammar, 210 (198)).

f. by a use unknown to Greek writers it is connected with εἰς and the accusative of the place where the punishment is to be suffered: εἰς τήν γηνναν τοῦ πυρός, a pregnant construction (Winers Grammar, 213 (200); 621 (577)) (but cf. Buttmann, 170 (148) (who regards it as a vivid circumlocution for the dative; cf. Green, Critical Notes (at the passage) 'liable as far' in respect of penal consequence 'as the fiery G.')) viz. to go away or be cast into etc. Matthew 5:22.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἔνοχος , -ον

(= ἐνεχόμενος ),

(in LXX for H7561 hi., etc.;]

1. held in, bound by: c. gen. (cl. c. dat.), δουλείας , Hebrews 2:15.

2. In law-phrases;

(a) liable to a charge or action (cl. c. dat., of crime): c. dat., of the tribunal (MM, Exp., xiii), Matthew 5:21-22; seq. εἰς (Field, Notes, 4 f.), Matthew 5:22;

(b) c. gen., of the punishment (Genesis 26:11): θανάτου , Matthew 26:66, Mark 14:64;

(c) c. gen. (cl. c. dat„ rarely c. prep.; MM, Exp., xiii), of the crime (2 Maccabees 13:6): Mark 3:29;

(d) c. gen., of the thing injured, guilty (absol., in Cl.): 1 Corinthians 11:27, James 2:10 (cf. Isaiah 54:17; DB, ii, 268a).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Wellhausen’s assertion (Einl. p. 33 f.) that . τῇ κρίσει in Matthew 5:28 is ";ungriechisch"; is sufficiently ruled out by Grimm’s apt parallel . τῇ γραφῇ, ";liable to be indicted,"; from Xenophon (Mem. i. 2. 64) : Blass Gr. p. 106 makes the dative in Mt l.c. ";the commoner classical construction."; The dat. of the crime, also classical, is found in Hellenistic, as P Eleph 23.19 (B.C. 223–2) . τῆι ἀσεβείαι τοῦ ὅρκου, and other exx. cited under ἀσέβεια : the phrase ἢ ἔνοχος εἴην τῷ ὅρκῳ recurs very frequently, e.g. P Oxy I. 82.7(mid. iii/A.D.), P Ryl II. 82.14 (A.D. 113), ib. 88.25 (A.D. 156), P Fay 24.17 (A.D. 158). In an edict of the Prefect Aulus Avillius Flaccus (i/A.D.) we find θανάτωι ἔνοχος ἔσ [τωι, which prompts Wilcken (Archiv. i. p. 170, n..8) to observe on Matthew 26:66 that the Prefect writes better Greek than the Evangelist. ";Or is the illogical genitive θανάτου only a MS. corruption due to the fusion of u and o vowels in the later vernacular ?"; The gen. in 1 Corinthians 11:27 is claimed by Deissmann (LAE p. 116) as a Cilician provincialism of Paul. For an ex. of ., with the dat. of the penalty, contemporary with the NT writings, see P Oxy II. 275.32 (a contract of apprenticeship—A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 57) ἐὰν δὲ καὶ αὐτὸ [ς ὁ ] Πτολεμαῖος μὴ ἐγδιδάξῃ τὸν παῖ [δ ]α, ἔνοχος ἔστω τοῖς ἴσοις ἐπιτε [ ]μοις, ";but if Ptolemaeus himself does not teach the boy thoroughly, let him be liable to like penalties"; : cf. Ach. Tat. viii. 10 δυσὶ θανάτοις ἔνοχ. From the inscrr. we have Michel 827 A. .50 (mid. iii/B.C.) ἔνοχοι ἔστωσαν τῶι κατὰ τὸν τῆς οἰκονομίας νόμωι. Vett. Val. p. 117.10 κατάμοιχοι γίνονται ἢ ἔνοχοι μοιχείας shows the gen. of the crime, as in Mark 3:29, Genesis 26:11, 2 Maccabees 13:6.

For the subst. ἐνοχή = ";obligatio,"; see P Iand 48.11 (A.D. 582) with the editor’s note, and Wenger Stellvertretung, p. 262.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
ενοχοι ένοχοι ένοχοί ἔνοχοι ενοχον ένοχον ἔνοχον ενοχος ένοχος ένοχός ἔνοχος ἔνοχός ενόχου ενσιτούνται ενσκολιευόμενος enochoi énochoi enochon énochon enochos énochos énochós
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