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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #1909 - ἐπί

Root Word (Etymology)
a root
Parts of Speech
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  1. upon, on, at, by, before
  2. of position, on, at, by, over, against
  3. to, over, on, at, across, against
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (869)
Matthew 125
Mark 77
Luke 160
John 33
Acts 153
Romans 31
1 Corinthians 19
2 Corinthians 21
Galatians 7
Ephesians 11
Philippians 8
Colossians 6
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 7
2 Timothy 5
Titus 2
Philemon 2
Hebrews 29
James 8
1 Peter 10
2 Peter 3
1 John 1
3 John 1
Revelation 140
NAS (163)
Matthew 12
Mark 15
Luke 42
John 3
Acts 35
Romans 5
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 6
Ephesians 2
Philippians 2
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 2
1 Timothy 3
Hebrews 8
James 2
1 Peter 2
Revelation 17
CSB (836)
Matthew 117
Mark 71
Luke 155
John 35
Acts 153
Romans 30
1 Corinthians 17
2 Corinthians 21
Galatians 7
Ephesians 11
Philippians 7
Colossians 6
1 Thessalonians 5
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 8
2 Timothy 4
Titus 2
Philemon 2
Hebrews 25
James 8
1 Peter 9
2 Peter 3
1 John 1
3 John 1
Jude 1
Revelation 133
BSB (890)
Matthew 122
Mark 72
Luke 161
John 36
Acts 169
Romans 31
1 Corinthians 19
2 Corinthians 24
Galatians 8
Ephesians 11
Philippians 7
Colossians 6
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 8
2 Timothy 6
Titus 2
Philemon 2
Hebrews 29
James 8
1 Peter 9
2 Peter 3
1 John 1
3 John 1
Jude 1
Revelation 144
ESV (762)
Matthew 106
Mark 68
Luke 141
John 25
Acts 142
Romans 25
1 Corinthians 13
2 Corinthians 19
Galatians 7
Ephesians 11
Philippians 8
Colossians 4
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 6
2 Timothy 5
Titus 2
Hebrews 29
James 8
1 Peter 9
2 Peter 2
1 John 1
Revelation 121
WEB (878)
Matthew 121
Mark 80
Luke 166
John 36
Acts 159
Romans 33
1 Corinthians 19
2 Corinthians 21
Galatians 8
Ephesians 11
Philippians 8
Colossians 6
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 7
2 Timothy 3
Titus 2
Philemon 2
Hebrews 27
James 7
1 Peter 10
2 Peter 3
1 John 1
Revelation 138
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


δ' οὔατ' ἀλεῖψαι ἑταίρων Od. 12.47; ἐπ' οὔατα πᾶσιν ἄλειψα ib. 177; κηρὸν.. ὅν σφιν ἐπ' ὠσὶν ἄλειψ' ib. 200; ὁπόταν.. λεαίνῃ ἐπαλείφουσα τὰ τραχυνθέντα Pl. Ti. 66c; ἐ. χρόαν ἐτέραν ἐφ' ἑτέραν Arist. Sens. 440a9: prov., τοὺς τοίχους τοὺς δύο ἐ. 'run with the hare and hunt with the hounds', Paus. 6.3.15:

1. Pass., τὸ ἐπαλειφθέν Pl. Ly. 217c; ἐπαλήλιπται ὁ κύτταρος Arist. HA 555a6; χρυσὸς ἐπαληλιμμένος J. AJ 17.10.2.

2. metaph., from anointing athletes, prepare for contest, stir up, irritate, τινὰ ἐπί τινα Plb. 2.51.2; ἐ. τινάς τινι set them upon him, D.L. 2.38; μέθυσμα ἐ. θυμούς Ph. 1.680; so perh. in physical sense, irritate, Hp. Mul. 1.99, Epid. 5.20.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἐπί (before a rough breathing ἐφ' (occasionally in manuscripts ἐπ'; see e. g. Psalm 145:3 ()), and also in some instances before a smooth breathing (as ἐφ' ἐλπίδι, Acts 2:26 L; Romans 8:20-21Tdf.); see ἀφειδον. It neglects elision before proper names beginning with a vowel (except Αἴγυπτον Acts 7:10, 18) and (at least in Tdf.s text) before some other words, see the Proleg., p. 94f; cf. Winers Grammar, § 5, 1 a.; Buttmann, p. 10), a preposition (from the Sanskrit local prefix ἀρι; Curtius, § 335), joined to the genitive, the dative, and the accusative; its primary signification is upon (Latinsuper; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 374 (350) note)).

A. with the genitive (cf. Winers Grammar, § 47, g.; Buttmann, 336 (289));

I. of place; and

1. of the place on which;

a. upon the surface of (Latinin orsuper with the abl., German auf with the dative); after verbs of a biding, remaining, standing, going, coming, etc.; of doing anything: ἐπί κλίνης, Matthew 9:2; Luke 17:34; ἐπί τοῦ δώματος, Matthew 24:17; Luke 17:31; ἐπ' ἐρημίας (cf. on a desert), Mark 8:4; ἐπί τῶν νεφελῶν, Matthew 24:30; Matthew 26:64; ἐπί (τῆς) γῆς, Matthew 6:10; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 23:9; Matthew 28:18; Luke 21:25; Acts 2:19, and very often; ἐπί τῆς θαλάσσης, on (the surface of) the sea, Matthew 14:25 R G; 26 L T Tr WH; Mark 6:48 (49); Revelation 5:13, and, according to the interpretations of many, John 6:19; but cf. Baumg.-Crusius at the passage (per contra, cf. Lücke at the passage; Meyer on Matthew, the passage cited) (Job 9:8; βαδίζειν ἐφ' ὕδατος, Lcian. philops. 13; ἐπί τοῦ πελαγους διαθεοντες, v. h. 2, 4; (Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 3, 16); on a different sense of the phrase ἐπί γῆς θαλάσσης see 2 a. below (Winer's Grammar, 374 (351))); ποιεῖν σημεῖα ἐπί τῶν ἀσθενούντων, to be seen upon the bodies of men, externally, (on the sick (cf. Winer's Grammar, 375 (351))), John 6:2; ἐκάθισα and κάθημαι (καθέζομαι) ἐπί, Matthew 19:28; Matthew 23:2; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 25:31; Matthew 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 20:9; Revelation 9:17, etc.; ἔστην, ἕστηκα ἐπί, Luke 6:17; Acts 21:40; Revelation 10:5, 8; where parts of the body are spoken of: ἐπί χειρῶν, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11; ἐπί τῆς κεφαλῆς, John 20:7; 1 Corinthians 11:10; Revelation 10:1 R G (others, accusative); ; σινδόνα ἐπί γυμνοῦ, Mark 14:51; ἐπί τοῦ μετώπου (or μετώπων), Revelation 7:3; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 13:16 (Rec., others, accusative); Revelation 14:9.

b. Like the preposition ἐν (see the exposition under the word ἐν, I. 7, p. 212{a}), so also ἐπί with the genitive is used after verbs expressing motion to indicate the rest following the motion; thus after βάλλειν, Mark 4:26; Matthew 26:12; σπείρειν, Mark 4:31; τιθέναι, John 19:19; Acts 5:15; (Luke 8:16 L T Tr WH); ἐπιτιθεναι, Luke 8:16 (R G); καθιεναι, Acts 10:11; πίπτειν, Mark 9:20; Mark 14:35; ἐπιγράφειν, Hebrews 10:16 R G; ἑλκύειν, John 21:11 R G; ἔρχεσθαι, Hebrews 6:7; Revelation 3:10; (anatellein], Luke 12:54 T Tr marginal reading WH); γενόμενος ἐπί τοῦ τόπου (cf. our having arrived on the spot), Luke 22:40 (cf. Winer's Grammar, p. 376 (352) and see below, C. I. 1 b. at the end). κρεμαν τινα ἐπί (Hebrew עַל תָּלָה, Genesis 40:19; Deuteronomy 21:22, etc.), for which the Latin hassuspendere ex,de,a, andalicui, Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; Galatians 3:13.

c. figuratively used of that upon which anything rests (like our upon) (cf. Winers Grammar, 375 (351); Buttmann, 336 (289); Ellicott on 1 Timothy as below): ἵνα σταθῇ ἐπί στόματος etc. (עַל־פִּי יָקוּם, Deuteronomy 19:15), resting on the declaration, etc., Matthew 18:16; 2 Corinthians 13:1; more simply ἐπί μαρτύρων, 1 Timothy 5:19; in the adverb phrase ἐπ' ἀληθείας (on the ground of truth), see ἀλήθεια, I. 1. (c. akin is its use (with a personal or a reflexive pronoun) to denote dependence, as in λογιζέσθω ἐφ' (others ἀφ' which see II. 2 d. aa.) ἑαυτοῦ, 2 Corinthians 10:7 T Tr WH (for himself, i. e. apart from and independently of others; R. V. with himself); cf. Kühner, 2:432; Liddell and Scott, under the word A. I. 1 d.)

d. figuratively used of things, affairs, persons, which one is set over, over which he exercises power; Latinsupra, our over (cf. below, B. 2 b. and C. I. 2 e.): ἐπί πάντων, Romans 9:5; Ephesians 4:6 (where ἐπί, διά and ἐν are distinguished); καθίστημι τινα ἐπί τίνος, Matthew 24:45; Matthew 25:21, 23; Luke 12:42; Acts 6:3 (Genesis 39:4, 5; 1 Macc. 6:14 1 Macc. 10:37, etc.; Plato, rep. 5, p. 460 b., etc.); δίδωμι τίνι ἐξουσίαν ἐπί τίνος, Revelation 2:26; ἔχω ἐξουσίαν ἐπί τίνος, Revelation 20:6; βασιλεύειν ἐπί τίνος, Matthew 2:22 R G Tr brackets; Revelation 5:10; ἔχειν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ βασιλέα, Revelation 9:11; ἔχειν βασιλείαν ἐπί τῶν βασιλέων, Revelation 17:18; ὅς ἦν ἐπ' τῆς γάζης, who was over the treasury, Acts 8:27; ἐπί τοῦ κοιτῶνος, he who presided over the bedchamber, the chamberlain, Acts 12:20 (Passow, i., 2, p. 1035a gives many examples from Greek authors (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word A. III. 1; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 474; Sophocles Lexicon, under the word); for examples from the O. T. Apocrypha see Wahl, Clavis Apocr., p. 218a).

e. of that to which the mental act looks or refers: λέγειν ἐπί τίνος, to speak upon (of) a thing, Galatians 3:16 (Plato, Charm., p. 155 d.; legg. 2, p. 662 d.; Aelian v. h. 1, 30;scribere super re, Cicero, ad Att. 16, 6;disserere super, Tacitus, ann. 6, 28; cf. Winers Grammar, 375 (351); (Buttmann, 336 (289))).

f. of one on whom an obligation has been laid: εὐχήν ἔχειν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ, have (taken) on themselves a vow, have bound themselves by a vow, Acts 21:23 (WH text ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν (see ἀπό, II. 2 d. aa.)).

2. used of vicinity, i. e. of the place at, near, hard by, which (German bei,an);

a. properly, κόλπος ἐπί ποσιδηιου, Herodotus 7, 115; ἐπί τῶν θυρῶν (Acts 5:23 L T Tr WH) (1 Macc. 1:55; (Plutarch, G. Gracch. 14, 3, p. 841 c.)); cf. Matthiae, ii., p. 1366 § 584; Passow, under the word, p. 1034b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, I. 1 a., at the end). But the examples of this signification adduced from the N. T. (with the exception of Acts, the passage cited) (and most of those from Greek authors also) are such as to allow the rendering of ἐπί by super also, over or above (so Winer's Grammar, 374f (351)): ἐπί τῆς θαλάσσης at the sea, upon the shore, or above the sea, for the shore overhung the sea, John 6:19 (?(cf. 1 a. above)); (Exodus 14:2; Deuteronomy 1:40; 1 Macc. 14:34 1 Macc. 15:11; Polybius 1, 44, 4; cf. the FrenchBoulogne sur mer,Chalons sur Marne (English Stratford on Avon), etc.; ἐπί τοῦ ποταμοῦ Ezekiel 1:1; (Xenophon, an. 4, 3, 28); ἐπί τοῦ Ιορδάνου, 2 Kings 2:7); ἐσθίειν ἐπί τῆς τραπέζης τίνος (German über Jemands Tische essen (cf. English over one's food, over one's cups, etc.)), food and drink placed upon the table, Luke 22:30 cf. Luke 22:21; συκῆν ἐπί τῆς ὁδοῦ, a fig tree above (i. e. higher than) the way, Matthew 21:19.

b. before, with the genitive of a person, in the presence of one as spectator, or auditor (Winers Grammar, 375 (351); Buttmann, 336 (289)): Matthew 28:14 (L Tr WH marginal reading ὑπό); Mark 13:9; Acts 24:19, 20; Acts 25:9; Acts 26:2; 1 Corinthians 6:1, 6; 2 Corinthians 7:14; 1 Timothy 6:13 (some bring this under II. below; see μαρτυρέω); ἐπί τοῦ βήματος Καίσαρος, Acts 25:10.

c. ἐπί τοῦ (Rec. τῆς) βάτου at the bush, i. e. at the place in the sacred volume where the bush is spoken of, Mark 12:26 (see ἐν, I. 1 d.).

II. of Time when; with the genitive of a person in the time or age of a man (in the days of); at the time when an office was held by one; under the administration of (cf. Winers Grammar, 375 (352); Buttmann, 336 (289)): Mark 2:26; Luke 3:2; Luke 4:2; Acts 11:28; (1 Macc. 13:42 1 Macc. 14:27 (for other examples in which this phrase is equivalent to in or of the reign etc. of, and is preceded by a specification of the year etc., see B. D. American edition, p. 651 note{b}); 2 Macc. 8:19 2Macc. 15:22; for numerous examples from Greek writings see Passow, i., 2, p. 1035, floss fully in Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II.)). with the genitive of a tiring, at the time of any occurrence: ἐπί τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος, at the time of the deportation to Babylon, Matthew 1:11; (on Luke 12:54 T Tr marginal reading WH see δυσμή); of the time when any occupation is (or was) carried on: ἐπί τῶν προσευχῶν μου, Latin in precibus meis, at my prayers, when I am praying, Romans 1:10 (9); Ephesians 1:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Philemon 1:4. of time itself, ἐπ' ἐσχάτων and (according to another reading) ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν (literally, at the end of the days): 2 Peter 3:3; Hebrews 1:2 (1) (for the Hebrew הַיָמִים בְּאַחֲרִית, Genesis 49:1; Numbers 24:14; Jeremiah 37:24 (); Micah 4:1; Daniel 10:14); ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τοῦ χρόνου, Jude 1:18 L T Tr WH; (τῶν χρόνων, 1 Peter 1:20 L T Tr WH).

B. with the dative, used of place (Winers Grammar, 392f (366f); Buttmann, 336f (289f)); and

1. properly;

a. of the place where or in which (Latinin with the abl., German auf with the dative) (English on, etc.), where continuance, position, situation, etc., are spoken of: ἐφ' (L text T Tr WH ὅπου) κατέκειτο, Mark 2:4; λίθος ἐπί λίθῳ (λίθον T Tr WH), Mark 13:2; ἐπί πίνακι, Matthew 14:8, 11; Mark 6:25; ἐπί τοῦ κραββάτοις, Mark 6:55; ἀνακλῖναι πάντας ἐπί τῷ χόρτῳ, Mark 6:39; ἐπέκειτο ἐπ' αὐτῷ, lay upon it, John 11:38; ἐφ' ἵπποις, Revelation 19:14.

b. of the place in which (Latinin with the abl., German auf with the accusative), after verbs expressing motion toward a place, to denote a remaining in the place after the motion (English upon, at, etc.): βάλλειν λίθον ἐπιτινι, the dative of person, John 8:7 Rec.; οἰκοδομεῖν, Matthew 16:18; ἐποικοδόμειν, Ephesians 2:20; ἐπιβάλλειν, Matthew 9:16 (Luke 5:36 ἐπιβάλλειν ἐπί τί); ἐπιρράπτειν, Mark 2:21 (where L T Tr WH have ἐπί with the accusative); ἐπιπίπτειν, Acts 8:16.

c. of the place above which (Latinsuper, German über (English over)): ἐπ' αὐτῷ, over his head, Luke 23:38 (for which Matthew 27:37 ἐπάνω τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ).

d. of the place at, or by, or near which: ἐπί θύραις and ἐπί τῇ θύρα, Matthew 24:33; Mark 13:29; Acts 5:9 (and often in Greek writings; cf. Passow, under the word, p. 1037a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I. 1 a.; cf. A. I. 2 a. above)); ἐπί τῇ προβατικῇ, John 5:2; ἐπί τῷ ποταμῷ, Revelation 9:14; ἐπί τῇ στοά, Acts 3:11; ἐπ' (L T Tr WH παῥ) αὐτοῖς ἐπιμεῖναι, Acts 28:14.

2. Metaphorically;

a. of that upon which any action, effect, condition, rests as a basis or support; properly, upon the ground of; and α. of that upon which anything is sustained or upheld: ζῆν ἐπί τίνι, to sustain life on (by) a thing, Matthew 4:4 (where L Tr, the second time, ἐν; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 389 (364) note)); Luke 4:4 (Deuteronomy 8:3 for עַל חָיָה; Plato, Alcib. 1, p. 105 c.; Plutarch, de cup. divit. 7, p. 526 d.; Alciphron, epistles 3, 7, etc.); συνιέναι ἐπί τοῖς ἄρτοις, to understand by reasoning built upon the loaves, Mark 6:52 (cf. Winers Grammar, 392 (367); Buttmann, 337 (290)). β. of that upon which anything rests (our upon): ἐπ' ἐλπίδι (see in ἐλπίς, 2), supported by hope, in hope (cf; Winer's Grammar, § 51, 2f.), Acts 2:26; Romans 4:18; 1 Corinthians 9:10 (differently in ε. below); to do anything ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι τίνος, relying upon the name i. e. the authority of anyone (cf. Winer's Grammar, 393 (367)): ἐλεύσονται ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι μου, appropriating to themselves the name of Messiah, which belongs to me, Matthew 24:5; Mark 13:6; Luke 21:8 (in which passage λέγοντες, ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμί Χριστός is added by way of explanation); βαπτίζεσθαι ἐπί (L Tr WH ἐν) τῷ ὀνόματι Χριστοῦ, so as to repose your hope and confidence in his Messianic authority, Acts 2:38; δέχεσθαι τινα ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι μου, to receive one because he bears my name, is devoted to my authority and instruction, Matthew 18:5; Mark 9:37; Luke 9:48. to do anything upon the name of Christ, his name being introduced, appeal being made to his authority and command: as κηρύσσειν, διδάσκειν, etc., Luke 24:47; Acts 4:17, 18; Acts 5:28, 40; δύναμιν ποιεῖν, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλειν, using his name as a formula of exorcism (cf. Winer's Grammar, 393 (367)), Mark 9:39; Luke 9:49 (WH Tr marginal reading ἐν). γ. of that upon which as a foundation any superstructure is reared: νομοθετεῖσθαι, Hebrews 7:11 (ἐπ' αὐτῇ, for which L T Tr WH have ἐπ' αὐτῆς); ; after verbs of trusting, believing, hoping, etc.: ἀρκεῖσθαι ἐπί τίνι, 3 John 1:10; παρρησιάζεσθαι, Acts 14:3; πεποιθέναι, Matthew 27:43 L text WH marginal reading; Luke 11:22; Luke 18:9; Mark 10:24 (T WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); 2 Corinthians 1:9; Hebrews 2:13; πιστεύειν, Luke 24:25; Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11, etc.; ἐλπίζειν (see ἐλπίζω) (cf. C. I. 2 g. α. below). δ. of the reason or motive underlying words and deeds, so that ἐπί is equivalent to for, on account of (Winers Grammar, 394 (368); Buttmann, 337 (290)): Matthew 19:9 R G T Tr WH text; Luke 5:5 (ἐπί τῷ ῤήματι σου, at thy word, German auf; (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 48, c. d.; in reliance on)); Acts 3:16 (WH omit); (L Tr marginal reading have the genitive); ; 1 Corinthians 8:11 (ἀπολλυσθαι ἐπί τίνι, German zu Grunde gehen über etc. (cf. Winers Grammar, 394 (368) note, but L T Tr WH read ἐν)); Philippians 3:9; after αἰνεῖν, Luke 2:20; δοξάζειν, Acts 4:21; 2 Corinthians 9:13 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); μαρτυρεῖν, Hebrews 11:4; εὐχαριστεῖν etc. to give thanks for, 1 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 9:15; Philippians 1:5; 1 Thessalonians 3:9. ἐφ' (equivalent to ἐπί τούτῳ, ὅτι for that, on the ground of this, that) because that, because, Romans 5:12 (on the various interpretations of this passage see Dietzsch, Adam und Christus. Bonn 1871, p. 50ff); 2 Corinthians 5:4 (Rec.st ἐπειδή); Philippians 3:12 (ἐφ' σατανᾶςοὐκ ἴσχυσε θανατῶσαι αὐτούς, Theophilus of Antioch ad Antol. 2, 29, p. 138, Otto edition; ἐφ' Γενναδιον ἔγραψεν, for the reason that he had accused Gennadius, Synes. epistle 73; cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 710; the better Greeks commonly used ἐφ' οἷς in the same sense, cf. Winers Grammar, 394 (368); (Fritzsche or Meyer on Romans, the passage cited; Ellicott on Philippians, the passage cited)). Used especially after verbs signifying a mental affection or emotion, where we also often say over (for examples from Greek writings see Passow, i. 2, p. 1039b; Krüger, § 68, 41, 6; (cf. Winers Grammar, 393 (368)

c.)): as ἀγαλλιαν, Luke 1:47; χαίρειν, Matthew 18:13; Luke 1:14; Luke 13:17; Romans 16:19, etc.; χαρά ἔσται, Luke 15:7; χαράν (Rec. χάριν) ἔχω, Philemon 1:7; παρακαλεῖν, παρακαλεῖσθαι, 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 7:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:7; κλαίειν, Luke 19:41 R G; κοπετόν ποιεῖν, Acts 8:2; κόπτεσθαι, Revelation 18:9 (T Tr WH text the accusative); ὀδύνασθαι, Acts 20:38; ὀλολύζειν, James 5:1; στυγνάζειν, Mark 10:22; συλλυπεῖσθαι, Mark 3:5; μετανοεῖν ἐπί, to grieve over, repent of, 2 Corinthians 12:21; σπλαγχνίζεσθαι, Matthew 14:14 G L T Tr WH; Mark 6:34 R G; Luke 7:13 (Tdf. the accusative); μακροθύμειν, Matthew 18:26 (Tr the accusative), 29 (L Tr the accusative); Luke 18:7 (see μακροθυμέω, 2); James 5:7; ὀργίζεσθαι, Revelation 12:17 (Lachmann omits ἐπἰ; ἐκπλήσσεσθαι, Matthew 7:28; Mark 1:22; Luke 4:32; Acts 13:12; διαταράσσεσθαι, Luke 1:29; ἐξίστασθαι, Luke 2:47; θαμβεῖσθαι, Mark 10:24; θάμβος, Luke 5:9; Acts 3:10; θαυμάζειν, Mark 12:17; Luke 2:33; Luke 4:22; Luke 9:43; Luke 20:26; Acts 3:12; καυχᾶσθαι, Romans 5:2; ἐπαισχύνεσθαι, Romans 6:21; παραζηλουν and παροργίζειν τινα ἐπί τίνι, Romans 10:19. ε. of the rule, or condition (Winers Grammar, 394 (368)

d.): ἐπ' ἐλπίδι, a hope being held out or given, Romans 8:20; Titus 1:2 (differently in β. above); ἐπί δυσίν ... μάρτυσιν, on condition that two witnesses testify to the matter in question (at (the mouth of) two etc.; cf. Winer's Grammar, 392 (367)), Hebrews 10:28; ἐπί νεκροῖς, equivalent to ὄντων νεκρῶν (in the case of the dead), if anyone has died, Hebrews 9:17. ζ. of the purpose and end (unto, for; Winers Grammar, 394 (368)

e.): ἐπ' ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ, to worship and profess his name, Acts 15:14 Rec.; καλεῖν τινα ἐπί τίνι, Latinad aliquid, Galatians 5:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:7 (ἐπί ξένια, Xenophon, an. 7, 6, 3; cf. Winer's Grammar, as above); κτισθεντε ἐπί ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς, Ephesians 2:10; φρονεῖν ἐπί τίνι to take thought for a thing, Philippians 4:10; ἐφ' (by a later Greek impropriety for ἐπί τίνι, cf. Winers Grammar, § 24, 4; (Buttmann, § 139, 59; but on the extreme doubtfulness of this alleged use of ὅς in direct questions, see present T. D. Woolsey in the Bibliotheca Sacra for Apr. 1874, p. 314ff)) πάρει; for what purpose art thou come? Vulg. ad quid (others,quod)venisti? Matthew 26:50 R (but G L T Tr WH ἐφ' , see C. I. 2 g. γ. αα. below) (Theoph. ἐπί ποιῶ σκόπω; cf. Herodotus 7, 146 πυθόμενος, ἐπ' ὁισι ἦλθον; (but the view of many ancient expositors which explains the passage by an aposiopesis: that for which thou hast come — do is thoroughly established by Dr. Woolsey, as above)). of the issue or undesigned result: λογομαχεῖν ἐπί καταστροφή τῶν ἀκουόντων, 2 Timothy 2:14; (τοῖς ἐπί ὠφέλεια πεποιημενοις ἐπί βλάβη χρῆσθαι, Xenophon, mem. 2, 3, 19). εε. of the pattern or standard (A. V. after; Winer's Grammar, 394 (368) f.): καλεῖν τινα ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι τίνος, to call one after the name of another, Luke 1:59 (Nehemiah 7:63 (Winer's Grammar, 410 (382))); ἐπί τῷ ὁμοιώματι τίνος after the likeness of a thing, Romans 5:14.

b. of that over which one is placed, for its care or administration: ἐπί τοῖς ὑπάρχουσι τινα καθιστάναι, Luke 12:44 (cf. A. I. 1 d. above (also C. I. 2 e. below); Lob. ad Phryn., p. 474f; Bernhardy (1829), p. 249; (Winers Grammar, 393 (367)


e. used of a hostile aim, against (for examples from Greek writings from Homer down, see Passow, i. 2, p. 1036a; (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I. 1 c.; Winers Grammar, 392 (367); Buttmann, 337 (290))): Luke 12:52f; θλῖψις γενομένη ἐπί Στεφάνῳ (Στεφάνου, L Tr marginal reading), Acts 11:19 (A. V. about).

d. of that to which anything is added (so that it is, as it were, upon it); in addition to; over and above (Winers Grammar, 393 (367f)

b.): 2 Corinthians 7:13 (L T Tr WH ἐπί δέ τῇ παρακλήσει ὑμῶν (but L T Tr WH ἡμῶν) περισσοτέρως κτλ., but in addition to the comfort given (us) by you, we rejoiced the more exceedingly etc. (A. V. in etc. (of condition))); κερδαίνειν τί ἐπί τίνι, Matthew 25:20, 22 R G; ἔχειν λύπην ἐπί λύπη, Philippians 2:27 Rec. (Euripides, Iph. T. 197 φόνος ἐπί φόνῳ, Troad. 596 ἐπί δ' ἀλγεσιν ἀλγεα, Sophocles O. C. 544 ἐπί νόσῳ νόσον; (cf. Meyer on Philippians, the passage cited; but G L T Tr WH give the accusative, see C. I. 2 e. below)); προστιθεναι ἐπί, Luke 3:20; ἐπί πᾶσι τούτοις, besides all this, Luke 16:26 (L marginal reading T Tr marginal reading WH ἐν; see ἐν, I. 5 e., p. 211a); Ephesians 6:16 (L text T Tr WH ἐν (and there is no τούτοις); see ἐν, as above); Colossians 3:14 (Sir. 37:15; 1 Macc. 10:42; (classic examples in Wetstein (1752) on Luke, the passage cited)); add also Hebrews 8:1 (see Lünem. at the passage); Hebrews 9:10; 1 Corinthians 14:16.

e. of that which is connected as an adjunct (especially of time) with the principal matter under consideration (in German generallybei, i. e. at, on, etc.) (Winer's Grammar, 392 (367)): ἐυχαριστο τῷ Θεῷ μου ἐπί πάσῃ τῇ μνεία ὑμῶν, at every mention of you, as often as I call you to mind, Philippians 1:3 (but see Meyer, Ellicott, Lightfoot at the passage, and under the word πᾶς, I. 2); σπένδομαι ἐπί τῇ θυσία, while engaged in (busied over) the sacrifice, Philippians 2:17; ἐπί συντέλεια τῶν αἰώνων, Hebrews 9:26; ἐπί τῇ πρώτη διαθήκη, Philippians 2:15; σπείρειν and θερίζειν ἐπ' εὐλογίαις, so that blessings attend, i. e. bountifully, freely, 2 Corinthians 9:6; ἐπί πάσῃ τῇ ἀνάγκη, 1 Thessalonians 3:7; ἐπί τῷ παροργισμῷ ὑμῶν while your anger lasts, Ephesians 4:26; ἐπί τούτῳ meanwhile, i. e. while this was going on ((?), upon this), John 4:27.

f. of the object of an action, and α. where the German usesan (English on (nearly equivalent to to)): πράσσειν τί ἐπί τίνι, Acts 5:35 (like δραν τί ἐπί τίνι, Herodotus 3, 14; Aelian n. an. 11, 11); cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 250 bottom; (but see Buttmann, 337 (290)); γέγονεν ἐπ' αὐτῇ, Mark 5:33 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets ἐπί); ἀναπληροῦσθαι, Matthew 13:14 Rec. β. where the German saysüber, (English upon, of, concerning), after verbs of writing, speaking, thinking: γεγραμμένα ἐπ' αὐτῷ, John 12:16 (Herodotus 1, 66); προφητεύειν, Revelation 10:11; μαρτυρεῖν, R G T Tr text WH text (see μαρτυρέω, a.) (δόξα ἐπί τῇ εὐσέβεια, an opinion about, on, piety, 4 Macc. 5:17 (18)).

C. with the accusative (Winers Grammar, § 49,1.; Buttmann, 337f (290f));

I. of place;

1. properly;

a. of the place above, over, which, our up on, on to: after verbs signifying motion and continuance, ἐλθεῖν, περιπατεῖν ἐπί τά ὕδατα, Matthew 14:28f; ἐπί τήν θάλασσαν, Matthew 14:25 L T Tr WH, 26 R G (πλεῖν ἐπί Πόντον, Homer, Odyssey 1, 183); ἀναπεσεῖν ἐπί τήν γῆν, Matthew 15:35; ἐπί τό στῆθος τίνος, John 21:20; ἀνακλιθῆναι ἐπί τούς χόρτους, Matthew 14:19 R G; κατοικεῖν ἐπί πᾶν τό πρόσωπον (L T Tr WH παντός προσώπου (cf. πᾶς, I. 1 c.)) τῆς γῆς, Acts 17:26; καθῆσθαι, Luke 21:35; ἦλθε λιμός ἐφ' ὅλην τήν γῆν, Acts 7:11; σκότος ἐγένετο ἐπί πᾶσαν τήν γῆν, Matthew 27:45. over i. e. along: εἱστήκει ἐπί τόν αἰγιαλόν, Matthew 13:2 (Winers Grammar, 408 (380); differently in d. below).

b. of motion to a place whose surface is occupied or touched (German auf with the accusative), upon, unto, etc.; after verbs of going, coming, ascending, descending, falling, etc.: πορεύεσθαι ἐπί τήν ὁδόν, Acts 8:26; Acts 9:11; ἐπί τάς διεξόδους, Matthew 22:9; προέρχεσθαι, Acts 20:13 (here Tr WH marginal reading προσέρχεσθαι); φεύγειν, Matthew 24:16 (where L Tr WH text εἰς); ἐξέρχεσθαι, Luke 8:27; ἐξιέναι, Acts 27:43; ἐπιβαίνειν, Matthew 21:5; ἀναβαίνειν, Luke 5:19; Luke 19:4; Acts 10:9; Revelation 20:9; καταβαίνειν, Luke 22:44 (L brackets WH reject the passage); Revelation 16:21; ἀπέρχεσθαι, Luke 23:33 (L Tr WH ἔρχεσθαι); πίπτειν ἐπί τούς πόδας, Acts 10:25; ἐπί πρόσωπον, to fall upon the face, Matthew 17:6; Matthew 26:39; Luke 5:12; Luke 17:16; 1 Corinthians 14:25; Revelation 7:11. After verbs of placing, leading, bringing, building, laying, throwing, etc.: τιθέναι, Matthew 5:15; Luke 11:33; ἐπιτιθεναι, Matthew 23:4; Luke 15:5; Acts 15:10, etc.; τιθέναι τά γόνατα ἐπί, Acts 21:5; οἰκοδομεῖν, Matthew 7:24, 26; Luke 6:49; Romans 15:20; ἐποικοδόμειν, 1 Corinthians 3:12; θεμελιοῦν, Luke 6:48; βάλλειν, John 8:59; Revelation 2:24; Revelation 14:16; Revelation 18:19; ἐπιβάλλειν, Luke 5:36 (ἐπιβάλλειν ἐπί τίνι, Matthew 9:16); ἐπιβάλλειν τάς χεῖρας ἐπί τινα, Matthew 26:50, etc. (see ἐπιβάλλω, 1 a.); ἐπιρρίπτειν, Luke 19:35 and tropically 1 Peter 5:7; ῥαπίζειν, Matthew 5:39 (L T Tr text WH εἰς); τύπτειν, Luke 6:29 (Tdf. εἰς); ἀναβιβάζειν, Matthew 13:48 (not Lachmann text); ἐπιβιβάζειν, Luke 10:34; κατάγειν, Luke 5:11; σωρεύειν, Romans 12:20; διδόναι, Luke 7:44; Luke 19:23; Revelation 8:3; ἀναφέρειν, 1 Peter 2:24; κρεμαν, Matthew 18:6 (L T Tr WH περί); γράφειν, Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12; Revelation 19:16; ἐπιγράφειν, Hebrews 8:10. After verbs which include another verb signifying motion, or transfer, or entrance into (where German usesauf orüber; our on, to, etc.): ἀνατέλλειν, Matthew 5:45; βρέχειν, ibid.; πνεηιν, Revelation 7:1 (here we see the difference between ἐπί with the genitive to blow over a thing, German über, and ἐπί with the according to blow on a thing, to come blowing upon it, German einen anwehen,wehend auf einen kommen); (apparently nearly the same view of the distinction between the cases is take, by Thiersch § 274, 6; Hermann on Euripides, Alcest. 845. But Krüger (sec. 68, 40, 3), Kühner, (ii. § 438, L 1 b.), others, regard ἐπί with the accusative as denoting merely movement toward a place, while ἐπί with the genitive involves the idea of actual or intended arrival; cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. I. 1. Still others hold the two expressions to be substantially synonymous: e. g. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram. § 147 (p. 417 English translation); Matthiae, § 584; Passow, p. 1034a; — especially in the N. T., see Winers Grammar, 409f (382); 408 (381) note; Buttmann, 338 (291). On the variations of case with this preposition in the Rev. cf. Alford on ); διασωθῆναι ἐπί τήν γῆν, Acts 27:44.

c. It is used of persons over whom anything is done, that thereby some benefit may accrue to them (German über with the dative) (Winer's Grammar, 408 (381) note): ὀνομάζειν τό ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ ἐπί τινα, to name the name of Jesus (as a spell, a magic formula) over one, namely, that help may come to him from that name, Acts 19:13; προσεύχεσθαι ἐπί τινα, James 5:14.

d. As εἰς (which see C. 2, p. 186a), so ἐπί also stands after verbs of rest and continuance (Buttmann, 337f (290f); Winer's Grammar, § 49, 50:1): καθεύδειν ἐπί τί, Mark 4:38; στῆναι, Revelation 11:11; σταθῆναι ἐπί τί, Revelation 12:18 (Revelation 13:1); ἑστηκεναι, John 21:4 (ἐπί τόν αἰγιαλόν L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; otherwise where many are spoken of; see a. at the end, above); Revelation 14:1; καθῆσθαι, John 12:15; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2 (Rec. dative); (L T Tr WH text genitive); ; κεκαθικεναι, καθίσαι, Mark 11:2; Luke 19:30; John 12:14; Revelation 20:4; καθίσεσθαι, Matthew 19:28; σκηνουν, Revelation 7:15; κεῖσθαι, 2 Corinthians 3:15; κατακεῖσθαι, Luke 5:25 T Tr WH; εἶναι ἐπί τό αὐτό, to be together, assembled, in the same place: Luke 17:35; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1, 44to come together, of sexual intercourse, 1 Corinthians 7:5 G L T Tr WH; συνελθεῖν ἐπί τό αὐτό have convened, come together, to the same place, 1 Corinthians 14:23 (L text ἐλθεῖν); simply ἐπί τό αὐτό namely, ὄντες, together, Acts 3:1 (but L T Tr WH (so R. V.) connect ἐπί τήν α. here with Acts 2:47); 2 Samuel 2:13 (cf. Buttmann, 338 (291)).

e. used of motion or arrival into the vicinity of a place (not to the place itself); near; to, as far as; (German an,bei,zu,hin ...zu): ἐπί τό μνημεῖον (or μνῆμα), Mark 16:2; Luke 24:12 (L Tr brackets; T omits; WH reject the verse), 22,24; ἐπί τούς ἀναβαθμούς, Acts 21:35; ἔρχεσθαι ἐπί τί ὕδωρ, Acts 8:36; ἐπί τήν πύλην, Acts 12:10; ἐπιστηναι ἐπί τόν πυλῶνα, Acts 10:17; καταβαίνειν ἐπί τήν θάλασσαν, John 6:16, etc., etc.; with the accusative of a person to, near to one: John 19:33; Acts 25:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Revelation 16:14; especially to judges, kings, etc., equivalent to to their tribunal: Matthew 10:18; Luke 12:58; Luke 21:12; Luke 23:1; Acts 9:21; Acts 16:19. also in pregnant construction after verbs of sitting, standing, etc.: καθῆσθαι ἐπί τό τελώνιον, Matthew 9:9; Mark 2:14; ἑστηκεναι ἐπί, Revelation 3:20; Revelation 15:2; ἐπιστηναι ἐπί, Acts 10:17; Acts 11:11; ἐπί τήν δεξιάν on the right hand, Revelation 5:1.

f. of mere direction toward a terminus (so that the terminus itself is not reached): πορεύεσθαι ἐπί τό ἀπολωλός, to recover it (where we say after), Luke 15:4; ἐκτείνειν τάς χεῖρας ἐπί, against one, to take him, Luke 22:53; toward one, in pointing him out, Matthew 12:49; ἐξέρχεσθαι ἐπί λῃστήν, to take a robber, Matthew 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 22:52, cf. Luke 14:31.

2. It is used metaphorically,

a. with the accusative of a person after verbs of coming, falling, bringing, etc. α. of evils befalling (falling 'upon') one, and of perturbations coming upon the mind: τό αἷμα τίνος (the penalty for slaying him) ἥκει or ἔρχεται ἐπί τινα, Matthew 23:35; Matthew 27:25; ἐπάγειν τό αἷμα τίνος ἐπί τινα, Acts 5:28; ἔρχεσθαι and ἥκειν ἐπί τινα, of other evils, John 18:4; Ephesians 5:6; Revelation 3:3; after γίνεσθαι, Luke 1:65; Luke 4:36; Acts 5:5; ἐπέρχεσθαι (ἐπεισέρχεσθαι L T Tr WH), Luke 21:35; ἐπιπίπτειν, Luke 1:12; Acts 13:11 (L T Tr WH πίπτειν); (L Tr πίπτειν); Romans 15:3 (from Psalm 68:10 ()); Revelation 11:11 (Rec. πίπτειν); ἐπιστηναι, Luke 21:34. β. of blessings coming upon one: after ἐρχεσται, Matthew 10:13; ἐπιπίπτειν, of a trance, Acts 10:10 (L T Tr WH γίνεσθαι); ἐπισκηνουν, 2 Corinthians 12:9; ἔφθασεν and ἤγγικεν, ἐφ' ὑμᾶς (upon you namely, from heaven (cf. Winer's Grammar, 407 (380) note)) βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ, Matthew 12:28; Luke 10:9; Luke 11:20. the Holy Spirit is said at one time ἐπί τινα ἐκχεῖσθαι, Acts 2:17; Acts 10:45; Titus 3:6; at another, ἀποστέλλεσθαι (or ἐξαποστέλλεσθαι T Tr WH), Luke 24:49; again, ἐπέρχεσθαι, Acts 1:8; once more, καταβαίνειν, Mark 1:10 (L text T Tr WH εἰς); Luke 3:22; John 1:33; ἔπεσεν κλῆρος ἐπί τινα, Acts 1:26; after words of rest and continuance: χάρις ἦν ἐπί τινα, Luke 2:40; Acts 4:33; ἐπαναπαύεσθαι, Luke 10:6; the Holy Spirit is said at one time ἐπί τινα μένειν, descending upon one to remain on him, John 1:32f (Buttmann, 338 (291)); and again ἀναπαύεσθαι, 1 Peter 4:14.

b. of one upon whom anything is imposed, as a burden, office, duty, etc.: τήν μέριμναν ἐπιρρίπτειν ἐπί Θεόν, 1 Peter 5:7; συντελεῖν διαθήκην ἐπί τινα, to put a covenant UPON one, to be kept by him, Hebrews 8:8, (in Psalm 82:6 () פ עַל בְּרִית כָּרַת ... is to make a covenant AGAINST one).

c. of that to which anything is added (English upon (nearly equivalent to after)): λύπη ἐπί λύπην, Philippians 2:27 G L T Tr WH (Psalm 68:27 (); Ezekiel 7:26; (especially Isaiah 28:10, 13; cf. Latinsuper in Livy 1, 50; 22, 54 etc.); see above, B. 2 d.); (so some take οἶκος ἐπ' οἶκον, Luke 11:17, Buttmann, 338 (291); see οἶκος, 2); ἐπικάλειν ὄνομα ἐπί τινα (see ἐπικαλέω, 2 (and Buttmann, 338 (291))), to call (put) a name upon one, Acts 15:17; James 2:7.

d. of the number or degree reached; Latinusque ad (Winer's Grammar, § 49, 50:3 a.): ἐπί σταδίους δώδεκα, Revelation 21:16 (Rst T Tr WH text, genitive) (Xenophon, mem. 1, 4, 17; an. 1, 7, 15; Polybius 3, 54, 7; Song of the Three 23); ἐπί τρίς, Vulg. per ter, for three times, thrice: Acts 10:16; Acts 11:10 (so εἰς τρίς, Herodotus 1, 86; Xenophon, an. 6, 4, 16. 19; Cyril 7, 1, 4 etc. (cf. Winer's Grammar, 422 (394))); ἐπί πλεῖον more widely, to a greater degree, further, the more (differently below, II. 1): Acts 4:17; (Acts 20:9 WH marginal reading); 2 Timothy 2:16; 2 Timothy 3:9; ἐφ' ὅσον, forasmuch as, inasmuch as, (differently II. 1 below): Matthew 25:40, 45; Romans 11:13.

e. of care, power, control over anything (German über with the accusative) (Winer's Grammar, § 49, 1. 3 b.) (cf. above, A. I. 1 d. and B. 2 b.): βασιλεύειν ἐπί τινα (Hebrew עַל מָשַׁל), Luke 1:33; Luke 19:14, 27; Romans 5:14; ἡγούμενον ἐπ' Αἴγυπτον, Acts 7:10; καθίστημι, Hebrews 2:7 R ((from Psalm 8:7), L Tr WH brackets); ἐπί τόν οἶκον αὐτοῦ namely, ἐστι, Hebrews 3:6; ἱερέα μέγαν ἐπί τόν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ namely, καθεστηκοτα, Hebrews 10:21; κατιησταναι δικαστήν ἐπί, Luke 12:14 (ἄρχοντα, Xenophon, Cyril 4, 5 at the end); ἐξουσία, Luke 10:19; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 16:9; Revelation 22:14; φυλάσσειν φυλακάς, Luke 2:8; of usurped dignity: ὑπεραίρεσθαι ἐπί πάντα λεγόμενον Θεόν, 2 Thessalonians 2:4 cf. Daniel 11:36f (others refer the use in Thessalonians, the passage cited to g. γ. ββ. below). Akin to this is the expression πιστός ἐπί τί (because fidelity is as it were spread over the things intrusted to its care), Matthew 25:21.

f. of the end which the mind reaches or to which it is led; Latinad, to, unto: ἐπιστρέφειν, ἐπιστρέφεσθαι ἐπί τινα, especially to God, Luke 1:17; Acts 9:35; Acts 11:21; Acts 14:15; Acts 26:20; Galatians 4:9; 1 Peter 2:25.

g. of direction toward a person or a thing; α. after verbs of trusting and hoping (German auf, upon; see above, B. 2 a. γ.): after ἐλπίζειν, 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 3:5 R G; 1 Timothy 5:5 (and often in the Sept.); πιστεύειν, Acts 9:42; Acts 11:17; Acts 16:31; Acts 22:19; Romans 4:24; πιστός, Hebrews 6:1; πεποιθέναι, Matthew 27:43 (where L text WH marginal reading ἐπί with the dative).β. of the feelings, affections, emotions, German über, over: κόπτομαι, Revelation 1:7; Revelation 18:9 (R G L WH marginal reading with the dative); κλαίω, Luke 23:28; Revelation 18:9; εὐφραίνεσθαι, Revelation 18:20 (G L T Tr WH with the dative). unto, toward, Latinerga: σπλαγχνίζομαι, Matthew 15:32; Mark 8:2; Mark 9:22; (μακροθυμέω, Matthew 18:26 Tr, 29 L Tr); χρηστός, Luke 6:35; χρηστότης, Romans 11:22; Ephesians 2:7. γ. of the direction of the will and action; αα. of purpose and end (Winer's Grammar, § 49, l. 3 d.): ἐπί τό βάπτισμα αὐτοῦ, to receive his baptism, Matthew 3:7; ἐπί θεωρίαν ταύτην, Luke 23:48; ἐφ' πάρει, Matthew 26:50 G L T Tr WH (see above, B. 2 a. ζ.); where aim and result coalesce: ἐπί τό συμφέρον, Hebrews 12:10. ββ. of things done with hostility; against: after ἀποτομία, Romans 11:22; ἀναστῆναι, Mark 3:26; ἐγείρεσθαι, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:10; ἐπεγείρειν διωγμόν, Acts 13:50; μερισθῆναι, Matthew 12:26; Mark 3:24f; ἐπαίρειν τί ἐπί, John 13:18; μάρτυρ, 2 Corinthians 1:23; μαρτύριον, Luke 9:5; ἀσχημονεῖν, 1 Corinthians 7:36 (εἰς τινα, Dionysius Halicarnassus, 2, 26); μοιχᾶσθαι, Mark 10:11; τολμᾶν, 2 Corinthians 10:2; βρύχειν ὀδόντας, Acts 7:54. γγ. of that to which one refers in writing or speaking (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 49, 50 l. d.): after λέγειν, Hebrews 7:13; οὖν μακαρισμός ... ἀκροβυστίαν, namely, λέγεται (Winers Grammar, 587 (546), cf. Buttmann, 394 (338)), Romans 4:9; προφητεία, 1 Timothy 1:18; on Mark 9:12f see γράφω, 2 c. δδ. upon, i. e. in reference to; for: after βάλλειν κλῆρον, Mark 15:24; John 19:24; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 686 (who compares Psalm 21:19 (), and remarks that an Attic writer would have said ἐπί τίνι).

II. of Time (Winer's Grammar, § 49, l. 2);

1. of time during or for (`for the space of') which (German auf,während): ἐπί ἔτη τρία, Luke 4:25 (R G T WH marginal reading); ἐπί ἡμέρας πλείους, Acts 13:31; add also Acts 16:18; Acts 17:2; Acts 18:20; Acts 19:10; Hebrews 11:30, etc., and often in Greek writings from Homer down; cf. Passow, under the word, p. 1044 (Liddell and Scott, under the word C. II.); ἐφ' ὅσον χρόνον for so long time as, Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 7:39; Galatians 4:1; and simply ἐφ' ὅσον as long as (differently in I. 2 d. above), Matthew 9:15; 2 Peter 1:13; ἐφ' ἱκανόν long enough, for a considerable time, Acts 20:11; ἐπί πλεῖον somewhat long, too long (differently in I. 2 d. above): Acts 20:9 (not WH marginal reading, see as above); .

2. about, toward (German gegen): ἐπί τήν αὔριον on the morrow, Luke 10:35; Acts 4:5; ἐπί τήν ὥραν τῆς προσευχῆς, Acts 3:1; ἐπί τό πρωι< Mark 15:1 (R G); rarely so in Greek writings, as Arrian exp. Al. 3, 18, 11 (7) ἐπί (others ὑπό) τήν ἕω.

D. In Composition ἐπί denotes:

1. continuance, rest, influence upon or over any person or thing: ἐπίγειος, ἐπουράνιος, ἐπιδημέω, ἀπαναπαύομαι, etc.

2. motion, approach, direction toward or to anything: ἐπακούω, ἐπιβοάω, ἐπιβλέπω, ἐπεκτείνω, etc.

3. imposition: ἐπικαθίζω, ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιβιβάζω, ἐπιβαρέω, ἐπιγράφω, ἐπιρρίπτω, ἐπιτάσσω, etc.

4. accumulation, increase, addition: ἐπεισαγωγή, ἐπισυνάγω, ἐπισωρεύω, ἐπικαλέω (by a cognomen), etc.

5. repetition: ἐπαιτέω, ἐπαναμιμνῄσκω, etc.

6. up, upward: ἐπαίρω, ἐπανάγω, ἐπαφρίζω, etc.

7. against: ἐπιβουλή, ἐπανίστημι, ἐπίορκος, ἐπιορκέω, etc.

8. superintendence: ἐπιστάτης.

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(before a smooth breathing ἐπ᾿ , before a rough breathing ἐφ᾿ ), prep. c. gen., dat., acc (acc most freq. in NT), with primary sense of superposition, on, upon.

I. C. gen.,

1. of place, answering the question, where?

(a) of the place on which, on, upon: ἐπὶ (τ .) γῆς , Matthew 6:10; Matthew 6:19 al.; τ . κεφαλῆς , 1 Corinthians 11:10; τ . τ . νεφελῶν , Matthew 24:30, al.; like ἐν , in constr. prægn. after verbs of motion: βάλλειν , Mark 4:26; σπείρειν , Mark 4:31; ἔρχεσθαι , Hebrews 6:7, al.; fig., ἐπ᾿ ἀληθείας (ΜΜ , s.v. .); of the subject of thought or speech, Galatians 3:16; of power or authority, over, πάντων , Romans 9:5; τ . γάζης , Acts 8:27; ἐξουσία ἐπί , Revelation 2:26; Revelation 20:6;

(b) of vicinity, at, by: τ . θαλάσσης , John 6:9; τ . ὁδοῦ , Matthew 21:19; τοῦ βάτου , Mark 12:26 (v. Swete, in l); c. gen. pers., in the presence of, before, Matthew 28:14, Acts 23:30, 1 Corinthians 6:1, al. 2

2. Of time,

a) c. gen. pers., in the time of: ἐπὶ Ἐλισαίου , Luke 4:27; ἐπὶ λΚλαυδίου , Acts 11:28; ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως , when A. was high priest, Mark 2:26;

b) c. gen. rei, at, at the time of: Matthew 1:11, Hebrews 1:2, 2 Peter 3:3; ἐπὶ τ . προσευχῶν μου (ἡμῶν ), Romans 1:10, Ephesians 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:2, Philemon 1:4.

II. C. dat., of place, answering the question, where?

(a) lit., on, upon: Matthew 9:16; Matthew 14:8, al.; after verbs of motion (v. supr., I, 1, (a)), Matthew 9:16 Acts 8:16 above, Luke 23:38; at, by, Mark 13:29, John 5:2, Acts 5:9, al.;

(b) metaph., upon, on the ground of, Luke 4:4 (LXX); in the matter of, Mark 6:52 (v. Swete, in L); upon, of, concerning, Ac 5:35, 46; of the ground, reason or motive (Bl, § 38, 2; 43, 3), Matthew 18:3; Matthew 19:9 Romans 12:12, al.; ἐφ᾿ ᾧ , for the reason that, because, Romans 5:12, 2 Corinthians 5:4; after verbs of motion, over, Matthew 18:13, Romans 16:19, al.; of a condition (cl.), Romans 8:20, 1 Corinthians 9:10; ἐπὶ δυσὶ μάρτυσιν (v. Westc. on Hebrews 9:10), Hebrews 10:28; of purpose or aim, Ephesians 2:10, Philippians 4:10; of authority, over, Matthew 24:47, Luke 12:44; of hostility, c. dat. pers. (cl.), against, Luke 12:52; in addition to (cl.), 2 Corinthians 7:13; of an adjunct, in, at, on, Philippians 1:3; Philippians 2:17.

III. C. acc,

1. of place of motion upon or over, answering the question, whither?

(a) lit., upon, over: Matthew 14:28-29, Luke 5:19, al. mult.; in NT also, answering the question, where? (as c. gen., dat.), Mark 4:38; Mark 11:2, Luke 2:25, John 1:32; ἐπὶ τ . αὐτό ,, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1, al.; of motion to a vicinity, to, Mark 16:2, Acts 8:36, al.;

(b) metaph. (in WH. " the acc is more widely prevalent than it strictly should be," Bl., § 43, 1); of blessings, evils, etc., coming upon one, c. acc pers., Matthew 10:13; Matthew 12:28, Acts 2:17, John 18:4, Ephesians 5:6, al.; of addition (dat. in cl.), λύπη ἐπὶ λύπην , Philippians 2:27; ἐπικαλεῖν ὄνομα ἐπί (see ἐπικαλέω ), Acts 15:17, James 2:7; καλεῖν ἐπί to call after, Luke 1:59; of number or degree: ἐπί τρίς (cl. εἰς τ .), thrice, Acts 10:16; Acts 11:10; ἐπὶ πλεῖον , the more, further, Acts 4:17, 2 Timothy 2:16; 2 Timothy 3:9 (v. also infr., 2, (a)); ἐφ᾿ ὅσον (v. infr., ib.), forasmuch as, Matthew 25:40; Matthew 25:45, Romans 11:13; of power, authority, control, Luke 1:33, Acts 7:10, Romans 5:14, Hebrews 3:6, al.; of the direction of thoughts and feelings, unto, towards, Luke 1:17; Luke 23:28, Acts 9:35; Acts 9:42 Romans 11:22, Galatians 4:9, Ephesians 2:7, 1 Timothy 5:5, al.; of purpose, for, Matthew 3:7, Luke 23:48; ἐφ᾿ ὅ πάρει (Rec. ἐφ᾿ ῷ ), Matthew 26:50; of hostility, against, Matthew 24:7, Mark 3:24-26; Mark 10:11; Mark 13:8, Luke 9:5, John 13:18, Acts 7:54, 1 Corinthians 7:36, 2 Corinthians 1:23; of reference, concerning, for (cl. usually dat.), Mark 9:12; Mark 15:24, John 19:24, Romans 4:9.

2. Of time,

(a) during, for: Luke 4:25 (WH, txt., omits ἐπί ), Acts 13:31; Acts 16:18, Hebrews 11:30, al.; ἐφ᾿ ὅσον (χρόνον ), as long as, for so long time as, Mark 9:15, Romans 7:1, al. (for ἐφ᾿ ὅ . in another sense, v. supr., 1, (b) ἐφ᾿ ἱκανόν (vs. ), Acts 20:11; ἐπὶ πλεῖον (v. supr., 1, (b)), yet longer, further, Acts 20:9; Acts 24:4;

(b) on, about, towards (cl. εἰς ): Luke 10:35 Acts 3:1; Acts 4:5.

IV. In composition, ἐπί signifies: up, ἐπαίρω ; upon, ἐπίγειος , ἐπιδημέω , ἐπικαθίζω ; towards, ἐπιβλέπω , ἐπεκτείνω ; over (of superintendence), ἐπιστάτης ; again, in addition, ἐπαιτέω , ἐπισυνάγω ; against, ἐπιορκέω , ἐπιβουλή .

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The uses of ἐπί in Hellenistic Greek are hardly less varied than those of ἐν. From one point of view, indeed, they are even more varied, as ἐπί is the only preposition which continues to be largely represented with all three cases. According to Moulton (Proleg. p. 107) the figures in the NT are—gen. 216, dat. 176, acc. 464. In accordance with the general development of the use of the acc., the instances with this case are far the most numerous, and often occur where we might have expected the gen. or dat., while the constructions with these two cases are frequently interchanged, as will be seen from some of the exx. cited below. It will be kept in view that, as with the other prepositions, the treatment of ἐπί here makes no attempt at being exhaustive, but must be supplemented by the special dissertations of Kuhring and Ross berg. It is hoped, however, that sufficient evidence has been adduced to throw light on the main usages of the preposition in the NT.

(1) c. gen.—For the common local sense ";at,"; ";on,"; ";upon,"; see P Par 47.16 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι, P Tebt I. 33.7 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἐπὶ τῶν καθηκόντων τόπων, ib. II. 397.25 (A.D. 198) ἐπὶ ξένης εἶναι, and P Giss I. 21.13 μένε ἐπὶ ἑαυτοῦ, ";stay at home."; The sense of ";near,"; ";in the vicinity of"; appears in P Ryl II. 127.9 (A.D. 29) κοιμωμένου μου ἐπὶ τῆς θύρας : cf. Acts 5:23 and see John 6:19; John 21:1 ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, where the rendering ";near the sea,"; or, as we should say, ";on the shore,"; is to be preferred (cf. Abbott Joh. Gr. p. 261). In P Lond 1168.5 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 136) ἐν τοῖς ἀπὸ λίβος μέρεσι ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις, ἐπί is almost = ";with."; The local force still underlies the meaning of such a phrase as ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας (cf. Mark 12:14) in the census paper P Oxy II. 255.16 (A.D. 48) (= Selections, p. 47), where it is stated that the return is ";sound"; and rests ";on a true basis";— ]ξ [ ]γιοῦς καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας. Cf. also P Lille I. 26.4 (iii/B.C.) τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν γ [ῆν ἑτο ]ι ̣μάζω, εἰ μὴ ἀκολουθεῖς ἅπαντα καθὼς ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς τ [ο ] [εἰς τὸ ] ι ̄ε ̄ ἔτος σπόρου μεμισθῶσθαι τοῖς γεωγοῖς, where ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς refers to the conditions laid down in the agreement, and P Grenf II. 77.29 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 121) (γίνεται) ἐπὶ του ̣ͅ λ ̣[όγο ]υ τῆς ὅλης δα [πά ]νης = ";total of the account for the whole outlay."; An even more elliptical usage is found in Mark 12:26 ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου, ";in the place concerning the Bush"; (RV).

The preposition is used of ";oversight,"; ";authority,"; as in Matthew 24:45, Acts 8:27, Romans 9:5, in such passages as P Tebt I. 5.88 (B.C. 118) ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν προ (σόδων), BGU IV. 1120.1 (B.C. 5) πρωτάρχωι ἐπὶ τοῦ κριτηρίου, P Oxy I. 99.14 (A.D. 55) τραπέζης ἐφ᾽ ἧς Σαρα [πί ]ων καὶ μέτοχοι, P Lond 1159.49 (A.D. 145–47) (= III. p. 113) ἐπὶ οἴνου καὶ ὄξου οἱ πρόοντες, and the libellus BGU I. 287.1 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115) where the magistrates who presided over the sacrifices are referred to—τοῖς ἐπὶ [τ ]ῶν θυσιῶν ᾑρημένοις. In P Leid Wv. 39 (ii/iii A.D.) ἔσεθε (l. ἔσεσθε) ἀμφότεροι ἐπὶ πάσης ἀνάγκης, the editor translates ";supra omnem necessitatem,";

From this we may pass to the judicial reference, as in Matthew 28:14 (ὑπό BD), in P Par 46.15 (B.C. 153) διὸ καὶ ἡγούμενος δεῖν ἐπ᾽ ἄλλου μὲν μηθενὸς αὐτῶι διακριθῆναι, ἐπὶ σοῦ δ᾽ αὐτοῦ, γέγραφά σοι κτλ., P Oxy I. 38.11 (A.D. 49–50) (= Selections, p. 53) καθὰ π ̣[α ]ρῆλθον ἐπὶ τοῦ γενομένου τοῦ νομοῦ στρατηγοῦ Πασίωνος, ";I accordingly brought an action before Pasion, who was ex-strategus of the nome,"; and BGU III. 909.23 (A.D. 359) ἀξιῶ ἀχθῆναι ἐπὶ σοῦ τ [οὺ ]ς προειρημένους Ἄριον καὶ. . Ἀγάμμωνα. See also P Oxy I. 37i. 3 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 48) ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος, [Π ]εσοῦρι [ς ] πρὸς Σαραεῦν, ";in court, P. versus S."; : cf. Acts 25:10. Akin to this is the usage in an oath, as P Petr III. 56(d).12 (iii/B.C.) ὤμοσά σοι τὸν πάτριον ὅρκον ἐπὶ τοῦ ποταμο ̣υ ̣ͅ. In P Par 63.39 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) ]ρκους παρ᾽ ὑμῶν λ ̣αβεῖν μὴ μόνον ἐπὶ τῶ [ν ] θεῶν ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ ̣ τῶν βασιλέων, Mahaffy is unable (p. 38 f.) to discover any distinction between the prepositions, and translates ";to exact oaths from you not only by the gods, but also by the kings."; In BGU I. 153.27 (A.D. 152) ἀπογράψασθαι ἐν τῇ τῶν καμήλων ἀπογραφῇ. . . ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματος αὐτῶν, the reference is to ";the entering on the list of a camel under the name of its new owner"; (Deissmann BS, p. 197 n..2).

A good parallel to ἐπί = ";concerning,"; ";in the case of,"; as in Galatians 3:16, is afforded by P Tebt I. 5.78 (B.C. 118) προστε ]τάχασι δὲ καὶ τὰ εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ Ἄπιος καὶ Μνήσ ̣ιος ζ ̣ητεῖν ἐκ τοῦ βα (σιλικοῦ) [ ]ς ̣ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀποτεθεωμένων, ";and they have decreed that the expenses for the burial of Apis and Mnesis should be demanded from the Crown revenues, as in the case of the deified personages"; (Edd.) : cf. ib. 7.6 (B.C. 114) τὰ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐνεστηκότα, ";the state of the matter concerning them"; (Edd.), and Menander Fragm. p. 188 οὐδεὶς ἐφ᾽ αὑτοῦ τὰ κακὰ συνορᾷ, Πάμφιλε, | σαφῶς, ἑτέρου δ᾽ ἀσχημονοῦντος ὄψεται, ";no one clearly sees evil in his own case, but when another misbehaves, he’ll see it."; See also such phrases as P Tebt I. 27.54 (B.C. 113) ἐπὶ τοῦ βελτίστου, ";in the best possible manner"; (but cf. ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας above), P Strass I. 70.16 (A.D. 138) ̣ς ἐπὶ τ ̣ω ̣ν ̣ ̣μοίω ̣[ν, ";as in similar cases,"; and BGU IV. 1098.44 (c. B.C. 20) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το [ῦ κα ]ιροῦ κοινῶς κρίνωσι, ";under the circumstances.";

This last ex. leads naturally to the temporal use of ἐπί : cf. e.g. P Meyer 6.14 (A.D. 125) ἐπὶ τῆς τριακάδ [ο ]ς ̣ το [ ] Παῦνι μην ̣ός : also P Petr II. 11(1).2 (iii/B.C.) (=Selections, p. 7) ὅπως τῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος σχολῆς ἀπολυθῶ, ";that I may be relieved from my present occupation,"; where ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος is practically = ἐν τῷ παρόντι. With such passages as Mark 2:26, Acts 11:28, where ἐπί = ";in the time of"; cf. P Amh II. 43.2 (B.C. 173) ἔτους ὀγ ̣δ ̣ο ̣ο ̣υ ἐφ᾽ ἱερέως Ἡρακλείδου, P Tebt I. 61(b).70 (B.C. 118–7) ἐν τῶι κ ̄θ ̄ (ἔτει) ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀ [δε ]λφοῦ, P Tor I. 1v. 5 (B.C. 116) τοῦ κ ̄η ̄ (ἔτους) Παχὼν ἐπὶ τοῦ Φιλομήτορος, and OGIS 90.16 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προσέταξεν δὲ [Ptolemy V. Epiphanes] καὶ περὶ τῶν ἱερέων, ὅπως μηθὲν πλεῖον διδῶσιν εἰς τὸ τελεστικὸν οὗ ἐτάσσοντο ἕως τοῦ πρώτου ἔτους ἐπὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ [Ptolemy IV. Philo-pator], where, as against Dittenberger ad l., Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 320 f.) has shown that this use of ἐπί c. gen. carries back the dating to the beginning of the previous reign, i.e. ";until the first year of his father’s reign."; On the importance of this in connexion with the chronological statement in the Prologue to Ecclesiasticus, see Wilcken ut s. and Deissmann BS, p. 339 ff. For the temporal use of ἐπί with an abstract noun, as in Romans 1:10, etc., see P Tebt I. 58.31 (B.C. 111) μή ποτε ἐπὶ τοῦ διαλόγου χειμασθω ̣̑μεν, ";in order that we may not come to grief at the audit"; (Edd.).

(2) c. dat.—The idea of ";in"; or ";at"; (as in Mt 24.88) and ";on"; or ";upon"; (as in Mark 6:25; Mark 6:28) may be illustrated by P Tebt I. 6.27 (B.C. 140–39) ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείαι καὶ ἐπὶ χώραι, ";at Alexandria and in the country,"; P Petr III. 1 ii. 3 (B.C. 235) οὐλὴ. . ἐπ᾽ ὀφρύι δεξιαῖ. See also P Oxy I. 115.3 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) ἔκλαυσα ἐπὶ τῶι εὐμοίρωι ὡς ἐπὶ Διδυμᾶτος ἔκλαυσα, where the dat. and gen. are interchanged in the same sentence. Ἐπί is common with the dat. = ";with a view to,"; as in Galatians 5:18, e.g. P Tebt I. 44.6 (B.C. 114) ὄντος μου ἐπὶ θεραπείαι ἐν τῷ αὐτόθι μεγάλωι Ἰσιείωι, ";while I was in the great temple of Isis here for medical treatment"; (see the editor’s note), P Oxy IX. 1203.23 (late i/A.D.) πάντα τὰ. . ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμῶν ἀδικίᾳ πραχθέντα, ";all the things done to our hurt,"; P Oxy I. 71 i. 10 (A.D. 303) κακουργίαν ἐπὶ ἀποστερέσι τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ, ";a fraud to my detriment.";

Similarly with abstract nouns denoting manner, as in Romans 4:18—P Tor I. 1 v. 1 (B.C. 116) περιεσπακέναι. . ἐπὶ τῆι πάσηι συκοφαντίαι καὶ διασεισμῶι, ib. I. vi. 3 κακοτρόπως καὶ ἐπὶ ῥαιδιουργίαι, P Oxy II. 237 vi. 21 (A.D. 186) ἐπὶ φθόνῳ δὲ μόνον λοιδορούμενος. In P Eleph 1.6, .8 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 2f.) the irregularity in elision between ἐπὶ αἰσχύνηι and ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει may be noted, its avoidance in the first instance being due to the tendency in the Κοινή to isolate words for the sake of greater clearness : see Helbing Gramm. p. 12 f., and cf. Mayser Gr. p. 155 ff. In P Oxy III. 531.6 (ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι (l. -ωμαι), the meaning is ";until I come to you auspiciously,"; much like the Latin ";quod bonum faustumque sit."; See also ἐφ᾽ ἡμισείᾳ = ";equally,"; cited s.v. ἥμισυς.

The thought of ";on account of"; underlies such passages as BGU I. 260.3 (A.D. 90) ἀπέχωι παρά σου ἃς ὤφιλές μοι ἐπ᾽ ἐνυκήσι (l. ἐνοικήσει) κατὰ δημόσ [ιον ] χρη [μ ]α ̣[τ ]ισμὸν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς ἑχακοσίας, Wilcken Ostr 1131 (A.D. 212) ἔλαβον ἐπὶ προ [χρείᾳ ] πυροῦ ἀρτ (άβην) μίαν ὑπ (ὲρ) μηνὸς Χύακ. An interesting ex. occurs in the letter of the Emperor Claudius in which he acknowledges the gift of a ";golden crown";—ἐπὶ τῇ κατὰ Βρετάννων νείκῃ, ";on the occasion of his victory over the Britons"; (P Lond 1178.12 = III. p. 216, Selections, p. 99) : cf. Luke 5:5. This construction is common after verbs of feeling, as in P Eleph 13.3 (B.C. 223–2) ἣν (sc. ἐπιστολὴν) ἀναγνοὺς ἐχάρην ἐπὶ τῶι με αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατὰ σέ, and P Lond 42.10 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 10) ἐπὶ μὲν τῶι ἐρρῶσθα [ ] σε εὐθέως τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχαρίστουν.

Another usage which deserves notice is afforded by such a passage as P Meyer 6.22 (A.D. 125) μετηλλαχότος δὲ τοῦ Φιλίππου ἐπὶ κληρονόμωι υἱῷ Ἀφροδεισίῳ, where the meaning is that when Philip died he left as heir his son Aphrodisius : cf. P Ryl II. 76.3 (late ii/A.D.) Ἑρμιόνης. . τελευτησάσης. . ἐπί τε ἐμοὶ καὶ τοῖς ὁμομητρίοις ἀδελφοῖς κληρονόμοις, ib. 121.7 (ii/A.D.) ἐτελεύτησεν Ἡρᾶς. . ἐπ᾽ ἀφήλικι υἱῷ, ";leaving his son a minor.";

For ἐφ᾽ ᾧ = ";on condition that"; see P Tebt I, 108.4 (B.C. 93 or 60) where the owner leases certain arourae—ἐφ᾽ ᾧ δώ (σει) σπέρμα (ἀρτάβας) ι ̄ε ̄, ";on condition that he (the owner) shall supply 15 artabae for seed,"; and P Tebt II. 381.16 (A.D. 123) where a mother bequeaths her property to her daughter—ἐφ᾽ ὧι. . ποιήσεται τὴν τῆς μητρὸς κηδίαν καὶ περιστολὴν ὡς καθήκει, ";on condition that she shall perform the obsequies and laying out of her mother as is fitting."; In P Hib I. 77.6 (B.C. 249) the meaning is rather ";to the effect that";—συντετάγμεθα γὰρ περὶ τ ̣ῶν τ ̣ελωνικῶν ἐφ᾽ ὧ ̣ι [τοῖς θε ]ο ̣ ̣ς ̣ [τὰ ] ἱερὰ σωθήσεσθαι καθὰ καὶ πρότερον, ";for we have received instructions with regard to the collection of taxes that the sacred revenues (?) are to be preserved for the gods as in former times"; (Edd.).

Examples of ἐπί construed with the inf. are P Ryl II. 153.21 (A.D. 138–61) where a father in his will nominates certain guardians—ἐπὶ τῷ αὐτ [ο ]υ ̣̀ς ̣ τρέφειν κ [αὶ ] ἱματίζειν τὸν προγεγραμμένον μου υἱὸν καὶ κληρονόμον, ";on condition that they shall provide my aforesaid son and heir with food and clothing,"; and P Lond 932.19 (A.D. 211) (= III. p. 149) ἐπὶ τῷ καὶ αὐτοὺς ὅσα ὀφείλει ὁ πατὴρ δάνεια. . ἀποδιδόναι : and with reference to time P Oxy II. 294.3 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 34) ἐπὶ τῷ γεγονέναι ἐν Ἀλεξανδρίᾳ, ";on my arrival in Alexandria.";

Ἐπί c. dat. marks a point of time in P Tebt I. 5.66 (B.C. 118) πρὸς τὰς ἐπὶ ἐνίοις καιροῖς ἀπῃτημέν [α ]ς ̣ [καρ ]πείας, ";for the emoluments demanded on certain occasions,"; P Oxy II. 275.20 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 56) ἐπὶ συνκλεισμῷ τοῦ ὅλου χρόνου, ";at the expiry of the whole period,"; P Lond III. 954.18 (A.D. 260) (= III. p. 154) ἐπὶ τέλει δ [ ] τοῦ πενταετοῦς χρόνου παραδ [ώσω ] σο [ι, and the late P Amh II. 157 (A.D. 612) τοῦ χρυσίου τῆς καταβολῆς ἐπὶ μη (νὶ) Φαῶφι. Cf. also P Tebt I.69.27 (B.C. 114) ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτῳ. The idea of ";in addition to,"; as in Luke 3:20, 2 Corinthians 7:13, Colossians 3:14, appears in such a construction as P Eleph 5.17 (B.C. 284–3) μη (νὸς) Τῦβι τρίτηι ἐπ᾽ εἰκάδι.

The manner in which the gen. and dat. alternate is seen in P Lond 171 (b).18 (iii/A.D.) (= II. p. 176) ἀξιῶ λυθῆναι ἐπί σου κατὰ τὸ ἔθος, a request by a widow that the will of her late husband may be opened ";in your presence according to custom,"; as compared with P Ryl II. 109.10 (A.D. 235) ἐπὶ παρόντι σοι διὰ βοηθοῦ, ";you being represented by an assistant,"; and in ἐπὶ παρόντων ὑμῶν of the libellus P Meyer 15.6 (A.D. 250), which appears as ἐπὶ παροῦσιν ὑμεῖν in the similar document BGU I. 287.8 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115).

(3) c. acc.—The usage after verbs of motion hardly needs illustration, but see OGIS 90.20 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προενοήθη δὲ καὶ ὅπως ἐξαποσταλῶσιν δυνάμεις. . . ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐπελθόντας ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατά τε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὴν ἤπειρον, where, as the editor points out, the use of ἐπί, not εἰς, Αἴγυπτον shows that the invading army had not yet entered the country. For other exx. of ἐπί followed by the acc. of a person see P Par 26.41 (B.C. 163-2) (= Selections, p. 17) δεόμεθα οὖν ὑμῶν. . . ἀποστεῖλαι ἡμῶν τὴν ἔντευξιν ἐπὶ Διονύσιον τῶν φίλων καὶ στρατηγόν, P Oxy IV. 743.25 (B.C. 2) παραγενομ (ένου) γὰρ Δαμᾶτος εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν ἤλθαμεν ἐπὶ Ἐπαφρόδειτον, and P Meyer 3.16 (A.D. 148) ἵν᾽ οὖν τὸ κελευσθ (ὲν) εἰδῇς καὶ εὐθέως ἐπὶ τὸν κρά (τιστον) ἐπίτροπ (ον) καταντήσῃς [ ]πέστειλά σοι.

This last ex. brings us to the more distinctively judicial usage, as BGU I. 22.36 (A.D. 114) (= Selections, p. 76) διὸ ἀξιῶ ἀκθῆναι (l. ἀχθῆναι, and cf. Matthew 10:18, Acts 18:12) τοὺς ἐνκαλουμένους ἐπὶ σὲ πρὸς δέουσ (αν) ἐπέξοδον, ";I beg therefore that you will cause the accused to be brought before you for fitting punishment,"; and, before an abstract noun, P Oxy II. 294.18 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35) εἵνα σὺν αὐτῷ ἐπὶ διαλογισμὸν ε ̣̀λ ̣[θ ]ω, ";in order that I may come along with him to the inquiry"; : cf. Matthew 3:7, Luke 23:48.

The phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, as in Acts 1:15; Acts 2:47, is perpetually recurring, especially in accounts, where it represents an addition sum, ";together,"; ";in all,"; e.g. P Tebt I. 14.20 (B.C. 114) ἀξίας ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ χα (λκοῦ) (ταλάντου) α ̄, ";of which the total value is one talent of copper"; (Edd.), P Fay 102.6 (c. A.D. 105) γί (νονται) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ (ὀβολοὶ) τ ̄π ̄α ̄, and P Oxy IV. 716.14 (A.D. 186) where one-sixth of a slave owned by one man and a half owned by two others are reckoned as τὸ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ δίμοι [ρ ]ον μέρος, ";together two-thirds"; : also the Messenian inscr. Syll 653.66 (B.C. 91) ἐγδιδόντες ἄν τε δοκεῖ συνφέρον εἶμεν ἐ [πὶ ] τὸ αὐτὸ πάντα τὰ θύματα. For the possibility that in Acts 2:47 the phrase = ";greatly"; in accordance with another meaning of the Aramaic word which lay behind Luke’s translation, see Torrey’s Harvard study on The Composition and Date of Acts (Milford, 1916), p. 10 ff.

The thought of degree attained, as in 2 Timothy 2:16, may be seen in P Par 63.124 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 28) τοῖς μὲν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον ̣ διαλαμβάνουσι, ";to those who put a less favourable interpretation upon it,"; P Tebt I. 27.80 (B.C. 113) αἰεὶ δέ τινος ἐπὶ τὸ βελτίον προσεπινοουμένου, ";by the continual invention of further improvements"; (Edd.), Cagnat IV. 247.35 (c. B.C. 150) ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξειν. In P Tebt I. 33.6 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) we find purpose implied—ἀνάπλουν. . . ἐπὶ θεωρίαν ποιούμενος, ";making the voyage to see the sights"; (cf. Luke 23:48), and similarly with the inf. construction in BGU IV. 1124.21 (B.C. 18) the apprenticeship of a boy— ̣π ̣ι ̣, τ ̣ο ̣, μανθάνειν τὴν ἡλοκοπικὴ (ν) τέχνην. Cf. P Petr II. 11(2).3 (mid. iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski.2, p. 6) ἀπογέγραμμαι δὲ ἐπὶ τελώνιον, ";I am enrolled for the purpose of taxation"; in certain particulars which are stated—contrast Matthew 9:9 ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον of place.

The temporal use = ";for,"; ";during,"; as in Luke 4:25, Acts 13:31, 1 Corinthians 7:39, may be seen in BGU IV. 1058.9 (B.C. 13) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔτη δύο ἀπὸ Φαρμοῦθι [τοῦ ἐνεσ ]τῶτος ι ̄ε ̄ (ἔτους) Καίσαρος, P Oxy II. 275.9 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 55) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἐνιαυτὸν ἕνα ἀπὸ τῆς ἐνεστώσης ἡμέρας, ib. .15 ἐπὶ τὸν ὅλον χρόνον, P Tebt II. 381.19 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 79) ἐφ᾽ ὃν δὲ χρόνον περίεστιν ἡ μήτηρ Θαῆσις, ";as long as her mother Thaesis lives,"; and P Heid 6.27 (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 127) ἐπὶ μέγιστον χρόνον.

On the survival of ἐπί in MGr in adverbial expressions, see Thumb Handbook, p. 98.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
από εν επ επ' ἐπ' επ΄ επι επί ἐπί ἐπὶ εφ εφ' ἐφ' εφ΄ πρὸς ep ep' eph eph' epi epí epì pros pròs
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