Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1909 - ἐπί
- upon, on, at, by, before
- of position, on, at, by, over, against
- to, over, on, at, across, against
δ' οὔατ' ἀλεῖψαι ἑταίρων Od. 12.47; ἐπ' οὔατα πᾶσιν ἄλειψα ib. 177; κηρὸν.. ὅν σφιν ἐπ' ὠσὶν ἄλειψ' ib. 200; ὁπόταν.. λεαίνῃ ἐπαλείφουσα τὰ τραχυνθέντα Pl. Ti. 66c; ἐ. χρόαν ἐτέραν ἐφ' ἑτέραν Arist. Sens. 440a9: prov., τοὺς τοίχους τοὺς δύο ἐ. 'run with the hare and hunt with the hounds', Paus. 6.3.15: —
1. Pass., τὸ ἐπαλειφθέν Pl. Ly. 217c; ἐπαλήλιπται ὁ κύτταρος Arist. HA 555a6; χρυσὸς ἐπαληλιμμένος J. AJ 17.10.2.
2. metaph., from anointing athletes, prepare for contest, stir up, irritate, τινὰ ἐπί τινα Plb. 2.51.2; ἐ. τινάς τινι set them upon him, D.L. 2.38; μέθυσμα ἐ. θυμούς Ph. 1.680; so perh. in physical sense, irritate, Hp. Mul. 1.99, Epid. 5.20.
(before a smooth breathing ἐπ᾿ , before a rough breathing ἐφ᾿ ), prep. c. gen., dat., acc (acc most freq. in NT), with primary sense of superposition, on, upon.
I. C. gen.,
1. of place, answering the question, where?
(a) of the place on which, on, upon: ἐπὶ (τ .) γῆς , Matthew 6:10; Matthew 6:19 al.; τ . κεφαλῆς , 1 Corinthians 11:10; τ . τ . νεφελῶν , Matthew 24:30, al.; like ἐν , in constr. prægn. after verbs of motion: βάλλειν , Mark 4:26; σπείρειν , Mark 4:31; ἔρχεσθαι , Hebrews 6:7, al.; fig., ἐπ᾿ ἀληθείας (ΜΜ , s.v. ἀ .); of the subject of thought or speech, Galatians 3:16; of power or authority, over, πάντων , Romans 9:5; τ . γάζης , Acts 8:27; ἐξουσία ἐπί , Revelation 2:26; Revelation 20:6;
(b) of vicinity, at, by: τ . θαλάσσης , John 6:9; τ . ὁδοῦ , Matthew 21:19; τοῦ βάτου , Mark 12:26 (v. Swete, in l); c. gen. pers., in the presence of, before, Matthew 28:14, Acts 23:30, 1 Corinthians 6:1, al. 2
2. Of time,
a) c. gen. pers., in the time of: ἐπὶ Ἐλισαίου , Luke 4:27; ἐπὶ λΚλαυδίου , Acts 11:28; ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως , when A. was high priest, Mark 2:26;
b) c. gen. rei, at, at the time of: Matthew 1:11, Hebrews 1:2, 2 Peter 3:3; ἐπὶ τ . προσευχῶν μου (ἡμῶν ), Romans 1:10, Ephesians 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:2, Philemon 1:4.
II. C. dat., of place, answering the question, where?
(a) lit., on, upon: Matthew 9:16; Matthew 14:8, al.; after verbs of motion (v. supr., I, 1, (a)), Matthew 9:16 Acts 8:16 above, Luke 23:38; at, by, Mark 13:29, John 5:2, Acts 5:9, al.;
(b) metaph., upon, on the ground of, Luke 4:4 (LXX); in the matter of, Mark 6:52 (v. Swete, in L); upon, of, concerning, Ac 5:35, 46; of the ground, reason or motive (Bl, § 38, 2; 43, 3), Matthew 18:3; Matthew 19:9 Romans 12:12, al.; ἐφ᾿ ᾧ , for the reason that, because, Romans 5:12, 2 Corinthians 5:4; after verbs of motion, over, Matthew 18:13, Romans 16:19, al.; of a condition (cl.), Romans 8:20, 1 Corinthians 9:10; ἐπὶ δυσὶ μάρτυσιν (v. Westc. on Hebrews 9:10), Hebrews 10:28; of purpose or aim, Ephesians 2:10, Philippians 4:10; of authority, over, Matthew 24:47, Luke 12:44; of hostility, c. dat. pers. (cl.), against, Luke 12:52; in addition to (cl.), 2 Corinthians 7:13; of an adjunct, in, at, on, Philippians 1:3; Philippians 2:17.
III. C. acc,
1. of place of motion upon or over, answering the question, whither?
(a) lit., upon, over: Matthew 14:28-29, Luke 5:19, al. mult.; in NT also, answering the question, where? (as c. gen., dat.), Mark 4:38; Mark 11:2, Luke 2:25, John 1:32; ἐπὶ τ . αὐτό ,, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1, al.; of motion to a vicinity, to, Mark 16:2, Acts 8:36, al.;
(b) metaph. (in WH. " the acc is more widely prevalent than it strictly should be," Bl., § 43, 1); of blessings, evils, etc., coming upon one, c. acc pers., Matthew 10:13; Matthew 12:28, Acts 2:17, John 18:4, Ephesians 5:6, al.; of addition (dat. in cl.), λύπη ἐπὶ λύπην , Philippians 2:27; ἐπικαλεῖν ὄνομα ἐπί (see ἐπικαλέω ), Acts 15:17, James 2:7; καλεῖν ἐπί to call after, Luke 1:59; of number or degree: ἐπί τρίς (cl. εἰς τ .), thrice, Acts 10:16; Acts 11:10; ἐπὶ πλεῖον , the more, further, Acts 4:17, 2 Timothy 2:16; 2 Timothy 3:9 (v. also infr., 2, (a)); ἐφ᾿ ὅσον (v. infr., ib.), forasmuch as, Matthew 25:40; Matthew 25:45, Romans 11:13; of power, authority, control, Luke 1:33, Acts 7:10, Romans 5:14, Hebrews 3:6, al.; of the direction of thoughts and feelings, unto, towards, Luke 1:17; Luke 23:28, Acts 9:35; Acts 9:42 Romans 11:22, Galatians 4:9, Ephesians 2:7, 1 Timothy 5:5, al.; of purpose, for, Matthew 3:7, Luke 23:48; ἐφ᾿ ὅ πάρει (Rec. ἐφ᾿ ῷ ), Matthew 26:50; of hostility, against, Matthew 24:7, Mark 3:24-26; Mark 10:11; Mark 13:8, Luke 9:5, John 13:18, Acts 7:54, 1 Corinthians 7:36, 2 Corinthians 1:23; of reference, concerning, for (cl. usually dat.), Mark 9:12; Mark 15:24, John 19:24, Romans 4:9.
2. Of time,
(a) during, for: Luke 4:25 (WH, txt., omits ἐπί ), Acts 13:31; Acts 16:18, Hebrews 11:30, al.; ἐφ᾿ ὅσον (χρόνον ), as long as, for so long time as, Mark 9:15, Romans 7:1, al. (for ἐφ᾿ ὅ . in another sense, v. supr., 1, (b) ἐφ᾿ ἱκανόν (vs. ἱ ), Acts 20:11; ἐπὶ πλεῖον (v. supr., 1, (b)), yet longer, further, Acts 20:9; Acts 24:4;
(b) on, about, towards (cl. εἰς ): Luke 10:35 Acts 3:1; Acts 4:5.
IV. In composition, ἐπί signifies: up, ἐπαίρω ; upon, ἐπίγειος , ἐπιδημέω , ἐπικαθίζω ; towards, ἐπιβλέπω , ἐπεκτείνω ; over (of superintendence), ἐπιστάτης ; again, in addition, ἐπαιτέω , ἐπισυνάγω ; against, ἐπιορκέω , ἐπιβουλή .
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The uses of ἐπί in Hellenistic Greek are hardly less varied than those of ἐν. From one point of view, indeed, they are even more varied, as ἐπί is the only preposition which continues to be largely represented with all three cases. According to Moulton (Proleg. p. 107) the figures in the NT are—gen. 216, dat. 176, acc. 464. In accordance with the general development of the use of the acc., the instances with this case are far the most numerous, and often occur where we might have expected the gen. or dat., while the constructions with these two cases are frequently interchanged, as will be seen from some of the exx. cited below. It will be kept in view that, as with the other prepositions, the treatment of ἐπί here makes no attempt at being exhaustive, but must be supplemented by the special dissertations of Kuhring and Ross berg. It is hoped, however, that sufficient evidence has been adduced to throw light on the main usages of the preposition in the NT.
(1) c. gen.—For the common local sense ";at,"; ";on,"; ";upon,"; see P Par 47.16 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ἐ ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι, P Tebt I. 33.7 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἐπὶ τῶν καθηκόντων τόπων, ib. II. 397.25 (A.D. 198) ἐπὶ ξένης εἶναι, and P Giss I. 21.13 μένε ἐπὶ ἑαυτοῦ, ";stay at home."; The sense of ";near,"; ";in the vicinity of"; appears in P Ryl II. 127.9 (A.D. 29) κοιμωμένου μου ἐπὶ τῆς θύρας : cf. Acts 5:23 and see John 6:19; John 21:1 ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, where the rendering ";near the sea,"; or, as we should say, ";on the shore,"; is to be preferred (cf. Abbott Joh. Gr. p. 261). In P Lond 1168.5 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 136) ἐν τοῖς ἀπὸ λίβος μέρεσι ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις, ἐπί is almost = ";with."; The local force still underlies the meaning of such a phrase as ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας (cf. Mark 12:14) in the census paper P Oxy II. 255.16 (A.D. 48) (= Selections, p. 47), where it is stated that the return is ";sound"; and rests ";on a true basis";—ἐ ]ξ [ὑ ]γιοῦς καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας. Cf. also P Lille I. 26.4 (iii/B.C.) τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν γ [ῆν ἑτο ]ι ̣μάζω, εἰ μὴ ἀκολουθεῖς ἅπαντα καθὼς ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς τ [ο ]ῦ [εἰς τὸ ] ι ̄ε ̄ ἔτος σπόρου μεμισθῶσθαι τοῖς γεωγοῖς, where ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς refers to the conditions laid down in the agreement, and P Grenf II. 77.29 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 121) (γίνεται) ἐπὶ του ̣ͅ λ ̣[όγο ]υ τῆς ὅλης δα [πά ]νης = ";total of the account for the whole outlay."; An even more elliptical usage is found in Mark 12:26 ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου, ";in the place concerning the Bush"; (RV).
The preposition is used of ";oversight,"; ";authority,"; as in Matthew 24:45, Acts 8:27, Romans 9:5, in such passages as P Tebt I. 5.88 (B.C. 118) ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν προ (σόδων), BGU IV. 1120.1 (B.C. 5) πρωτάρχωι ἐπὶ τοῦ κριτηρίου, P Oxy I. 99.14 (A.D. 55) τραπέζης ἐφ᾽ ἧς Σαρα [πί ]ων καὶ μέτοχοι, P Lond 1159.49 (A.D. 145–47) (= III. p. 113) ἐπὶ οἴνου καὶ ὄξου οἱ πρόοντες, and the libellus BGU I. 287.1 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115) where the magistrates who presided over the sacrifices are referred to—τοῖς ἐπὶ [τ ]ῶν θυσιῶν ᾑρημένοις. In P Leid Wv. 39 (ii/iii A.D.) ἔσεθε (l. ἔσεσθε) ἀμφότεροι ἐπὶ πάσης ἀνάγκης, the editor translates ";supra omnem necessitatem,";
From this we may pass to the judicial reference, as in Matthew 28:14 (ὑπό BD), in P Par 46.15 (B.C. 153) διὸ καὶ ἡγούμενος δεῖν ἐπ᾽ ἄλλου μὲν μηθενὸς αὐτῶι διακριθῆναι, ἐπὶ σοῦ δ᾽ αὐτοῦ, γέγραφά σοι κτλ., P Oxy I. 38.11 (A.D. 49–50) (= Selections, p. 53) καθὰ π ̣[α ]ρῆλθον ἐπὶ τοῦ γενομένου τοῦ νομοῦ στρατηγοῦ Πασίωνος, ";I accordingly brought an action before Pasion, who was ex-strategus of the nome,"; and BGU III. 909.23 (A.D. 359) ἀξιῶ ἀχθῆναι ἐπὶ σοῦ τ [οὺ ]ς προειρημένους Ἄριον καὶ. . Ἀγάμμωνα. See also P Oxy I. 37i. 3 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 48) ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος, [Π ]εσοῦρι [ς ] πρὸς Σαραεῦν, ";in court, P. versus S."; : cf. Acts 25:10. Akin to this is the usage in an oath, as P Petr III. 56(d).12 (iii/B.C.) ὤμοσά σοι τὸν πάτριον ὅρκον ἐπὶ τοῦ ποταμο ̣υ ̣ͅ. In P Par 63.39 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) ὅ ]ρκους παρ᾽ ὑμῶν λ ̣αβεῖν μὴ μόνον ἐπὶ τῶ [ν ] θεῶν ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ ̣ τῶν βασιλέων, Mahaffy is unable (p. 38 f.) to discover any distinction between the prepositions, and translates ";to exact oaths from you not only by the gods, but also by the kings."; In BGU I. 153.27 (A.D. 152) ἀπογράψασθαι ἐν τῇ τῶν καμήλων ἀπογραφῇ. . . ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματος αὐτῶν, the reference is to ";the entering on the list of a camel under the name of its new owner"; (Deissmann BS, p. 197 n..2).
A good parallel to ἐπί = ";concerning,"; ";in the case of,"; as in Galatians 3:16, is afforded by P Tebt I. 5.78 (B.C. 118) προστε ]τάχασι δὲ καὶ τὰ εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ Ἄπιος καὶ Μνήσ ̣ιος ζ ̣ητεῖν ἐκ τοῦ βα (σιλικοῦ) [ὡ ]ς ̣ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀποτεθεωμένων, ";and they have decreed that the expenses for the burial of Apis and Mnesis should be demanded from the Crown revenues, as in the case of the deified personages"; (Edd.) : cf. ib. 7.6 (B.C. 114) τὰ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐνεστηκότα, ";the state of the matter concerning them"; (Edd.), and Menander Fragm. p. 188 οὐδεὶς ἐφ᾽ αὑτοῦ τὰ κακὰ συνορᾷ, Πάμφιλε, | σαφῶς, ἑτέρου δ᾽ ἀσχημονοῦντος ὄψεται, ";no one clearly sees evil in his own case, but when another misbehaves, he’ll see it."; See also such phrases as P Tebt I. 27.54 (B.C. 113) ἐπὶ τοῦ βελτίστου, ";in the best possible manner"; (but cf. ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας above), P Strass I. 70.16 (A.D. 138) ὡ ̣ς ἐπὶ τ ̣ω ̣ν ̣ ὁ ̣μοίω ̣[ν, ";as in similar cases,"; and BGU IV. 1098.44 (c. B.C. 20) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το [ῦ κα ]ιροῦ κοινῶς κρίνωσι, ";under the circumstances.";
This last ex. leads naturally to the temporal use of ἐπί : cf. e.g. P Meyer 6.14 (A.D. 125) ἐπὶ τῆς τριακάδ [ο ]ς ̣ το [ῦ ] Παῦνι μην ̣ός : also P Petr II. 11(1).2 (iii/B.C.) (=Selections, p. 7) ὅπως τῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος σχολῆς ἀπολυθῶ, ";that I may be relieved from my present occupation,"; where ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος is practically = ἐν τῷ παρόντι. With such passages as Mark 2:26, Acts 11:28, where ἐπί = ";in the time of"; cf. P Amh II. 43.2 (B.C. 173) ἔτους ὀγ ̣δ ̣ο ̣ο ̣υ ἐφ᾽ ἱερέως Ἡρακλείδου, P Tebt I. 61(b).70 (B.C. 118–7) ἐν τῶι κ ̄θ ̄ (ἔτει) ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀ [δε ]λφοῦ, P Tor I. 1v. 5 (B.C. 116) τοῦ κ ̄η ̄ (ἔτους) Παχὼν ἐπὶ τοῦ Φιλομήτορος, and OGIS 90.16 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προσέταξεν δὲ [Ptolemy V. Epiphanes] καὶ περὶ τῶν ἱερέων, ὅπως μηθὲν πλεῖον διδῶσιν εἰς τὸ τελεστικὸν οὗ ἐτάσσοντο ἕως τοῦ πρώτου ἔτους ἐπὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ [Ptolemy IV. Philo-pator], where, as against Dittenberger ad l., Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 320 f.) has shown that this use of ἐπί c. gen. carries back the dating to the beginning of the previous reign, i.e. ";until the first year of his father’s reign."; On the importance of this in connexion with the chronological statement in the Prologue to Ecclesiasticus, see Wilcken ut s. and Deissmann BS, p. 339 ff. For the temporal use of ἐπί with an abstract noun, as in Romans 1:10, etc., see P Tebt I. 58.31 (B.C. 111) μή ποτε ἐπὶ τοῦ διαλόγου χειμασθω ̣̑μεν, ";in order that we may not come to grief at the audit"; (Edd.).
(2) c. dat.—The idea of ";in"; or ";at"; (as in Mt 24.88) and ";on"; or ";upon"; (as in Mark 6:25; Mark 6:28) may be illustrated by P Tebt I. 6.27 (B.C. 140–39) ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείαι καὶ ἐπὶ χώραι, ";at Alexandria and in the country,"; P Petr III. 1 ii. 3 (B.C. 235) οὐλὴ. . ἐπ᾽ ὀφρύι δεξιαῖ. See also P Oxy I. 115.3 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) ἔκλαυσα ἐπὶ τῶι εὐμοίρωι ὡς ἐπὶ Διδυμᾶτος ἔκλαυσα, where the dat. and gen. are interchanged in the same sentence. Ἐπί is common with the dat. = ";with a view to,"; as in Galatians 5:18, e.g. P Tebt I. 44.6 (B.C. 114) ὄντος μου ἐπὶ θεραπείαι ἐν τῷ αὐτόθι μεγάλωι Ἰσιείωι, ";while I was in the great temple of Isis here for medical treatment"; (see the editor’s note), P Oxy IX. 1203.23 (late i/A.D.) πάντα τὰ. . ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμῶν ἀδικίᾳ πραχθέντα, ";all the things done to our hurt,"; P Oxy I. 71 i. 10 (A.D. 303) κακουργίαν ἐπὶ ἀποστερέσι τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ, ";a fraud to my detriment.";
Similarly with abstract nouns denoting manner, as in Romans 4:18—P Tor I. 1 v. 1 (B.C. 116) περιεσπακέναι. . ἐπὶ τῆι πάσηι συκοφαντίαι καὶ διασεισμῶι, ib. I. vi. 3 κακοτρόπως καὶ ἐπὶ ῥαιδιουργίαι, P Oxy II. 237 vi. 21 (A.D. 186) ἐπὶ φθόνῳ δὲ μόνον λοιδορούμενος. In P Eleph 1.6, .8 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 2f.) the irregularity in elision between ἐπὶ αἰσχύνηι and ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει may be noted, its avoidance in the first instance being due to the tendency in the Κοινή to isolate words for the sake of greater clearness : see Helbing Gramm. p. 12 f., and cf. Mayser Gr. p. 155 ff. In P Oxy III. 531.6 (ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι (l. -ωμαι), the meaning is ";until I come to you auspiciously,"; much like the Latin ";quod bonum faustumque sit."; See also ἐφ᾽ ἡμισείᾳ = ";equally,"; cited s.v. ἥμισυς.
The thought of ";on account of"; underlies such passages as BGU I. 260.3 (A.D. 90) ἀπέχωι παρά σου ἃς ὤφιλές μοι ἐπ᾽ ἐνυκήσι (l. ἐνοικήσει) κατὰ δημόσ [ιον ] χρη [μ ]α ̣[τ ]ισμὸν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς ἑχακοσίας, Wilcken Ostr 1131 (A.D. 212) ἔλαβον ἐπὶ προ [χρείᾳ ] πυροῦ ἀρτ (άβην) μίαν ὑπ (ὲρ) μηνὸς Χύακ. An interesting ex. occurs in the letter of the Emperor Claudius in which he acknowledges the gift of a ";golden crown";—ἐπὶ τῇ κατὰ Βρετάννων νείκῃ, ";on the occasion of his victory over the Britons"; (P Lond 1178.12 = III. p. 216, Selections, p. 99) : cf. Luke 5:5. This construction is common after verbs of feeling, as in P Eleph 13.3 (B.C. 223–2) ἣν (sc. ἐπιστολὴν) ἀναγνοὺς ἐχάρην ἐπὶ τῶι με αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατὰ σέ, and P Lond 42.10 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 10) ἐπὶ μὲν τῶι ἐρρῶσθα [ί ] σε εὐθέως τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχαρίστουν.
Another usage which deserves notice is afforded by such a passage as P Meyer 6.22 (A.D. 125) μετηλλαχότος δὲ τοῦ Φιλίππου ἐπὶ κληρονόμωι υἱῷ Ἀφροδεισίῳ, where the meaning is that when Philip died he left as heir his son Aphrodisius : cf. P Ryl II. 76.3 (late ii/A.D.) Ἑρμιόνης. . τελευτησάσης. . ἐπί τε ἐμοὶ καὶ τοῖς ὁμομητρίοις ἀδελφοῖς κληρονόμοις, ib. 121.7 (ii/A.D.) ἐτελεύτησεν Ἡρᾶς. . ἐπ᾽ ἀφήλικι υἱῷ, ";leaving his son a minor.";
For ἐφ᾽ ᾧ = ";on condition that"; see P Tebt I, 108.4 (B.C. 93 or 60) where the owner leases certain arourae—ἐφ᾽ ᾧ δώ (σει) σπέρμα (ἀρτάβας) ι ̄ε ̄, ";on condition that he (the owner) shall supply 15 artabae for seed,"; and P Tebt II. 381.16 (A.D. 123) where a mother bequeaths her property to her daughter—ἐφ᾽ ὧι. . ποιήσεται τὴν τῆς μητρὸς κηδίαν καὶ περιστολὴν ὡς καθήκει, ";on condition that she shall perform the obsequies and laying out of her mother as is fitting."; In P Hib I. 77.6 (B.C. 249) the meaning is rather ";to the effect that";—συντετάγμεθα γὰρ περὶ τ ̣ῶν τ ̣ελωνικῶν ἐφ᾽ ὧ ̣ι [τοῖς θε ]ο ̣ῖ ̣ς ̣ [τὰ ] ἱερὰ σωθήσεσθαι καθὰ καὶ πρότερον, ";for we have received instructions with regard to the collection of taxes that the sacred revenues (?) are to be preserved for the gods as in former times"; (Edd.).
Examples of ἐπί construed with the inf. are P Ryl II. 153.21 (A.D. 138–61) where a father in his will nominates certain guardians—ἐπὶ τῷ αὐτ [ο ]υ ̣̀ς ̣ τρέφειν κ [αὶ ] ἱματίζειν τὸν προγεγραμμένον μου υἱὸν καὶ κληρονόμον, ";on condition that they shall provide my aforesaid son and heir with food and clothing,"; and P Lond 932.19 (A.D. 211) (= III. p. 149) ἐπὶ τῷ καὶ αὐτοὺς ὅσα ὀφείλει ὁ πατὴρ δάνεια. . ἀποδιδόναι : and with reference to time P Oxy II. 294.3 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 34) ἐπὶ τῷ γεγονέναι ἐν Ἀλεξανδρίᾳ, ";on my arrival in Alexandria.";
Ἐπί c. dat. marks a point of time in P Tebt I. 5.66 (B.C. 118) πρὸς τὰς ἐπὶ ἐνίοις καιροῖς ἀπῃτημέν [α ]ς ̣ [καρ ]πείας, ";for the emoluments demanded on certain occasions,"; P Oxy II. 275.20 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 56) ἐπὶ συνκλεισμῷ τοῦ ὅλου χρόνου, ";at the expiry of the whole period,"; P Lond III. 954.18 (A.D. 260) (= III. p. 154) ἐπὶ τέλει δ [ὲ ] τοῦ πενταετοῦς χρόνου παραδ [ώσω ] σο [ι, and the late P Amh II. 157 (A.D. 612) τοῦ χρυσίου τῆς καταβολῆς ἐπὶ μη (νὶ) Φαῶφι. Cf. also P Tebt I.69.27 (B.C. 114) ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτῳ. The idea of ";in addition to,"; as in Luke 3:20, 2 Corinthians 7:13, Colossians 3:14, appears in such a construction as P Eleph 5.17 (B.C. 284–3) μη (νὸς) Τῦβι τρίτηι ἐπ᾽ εἰκάδι.
The manner in which the gen. and dat. alternate is seen in P Lond 171 (b).18 (iii/A.D.) (= II. p. 176) ἀξιῶ λυθῆναι ἐπί σου κατὰ τὸ ἔθος, a request by a widow that the will of her late husband may be opened ";in your presence according to custom,"; as compared with P Ryl II. 109.10 (A.D. 235) ἐπὶ παρόντι σοι διὰ βοηθοῦ, ";you being represented by an assistant,"; and in ἐπὶ παρόντων ὑμῶν of the libellus P Meyer 15.6 (A.D. 250), which appears as ἐπὶ παροῦσιν ὑμεῖν in the similar document BGU I. 287.8 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115).
(3) c. acc.—The usage after verbs of motion hardly needs illustration, but see OGIS 90.20 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προενοήθη δὲ καὶ ὅπως ἐξαποσταλῶσιν δυνάμεις. . . ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐπελθόντας ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατά τε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὴν ἤπειρον, where, as the editor points out, the use of ἐπί, not εἰς, Αἴγυπτον shows that the invading army had not yet entered the country. For other exx. of ἐπί followed by the acc. of a person see P Par 26.41 (B.C. 163-2) (= Selections, p. 17) δεόμεθα οὖν ὑμῶν. . . ἀποστεῖλαι ἡμῶν τὴν ἔντευξιν ἐπὶ Διονύσιον τῶν φίλων καὶ στρατηγόν, P Oxy IV. 743.25 (B.C. 2) παραγενομ (ένου) γὰρ Δαμᾶτος εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν ἤλθαμεν ἐπὶ Ἐπαφρόδειτον, and P Meyer 3.16 (A.D. 148) ἵν᾽ οὖν τὸ κελευσθ (ὲν) εἰδῇς καὶ εὐθέως ἐπὶ τὸν κρά (τιστον) ἐπίτροπ (ον) καταντήσῃς [ἐ ]πέστειλά σοι.
This last ex. brings us to the more distinctively judicial usage, as BGU I. 22.36 (A.D. 114) (= Selections, p. 76) διὸ ἀξιῶ ἀκθῆναι (l. ἀχθῆναι, and cf. Matthew 10:18, Acts 18:12) τοὺς ἐνκαλουμένους ἐπὶ σὲ πρὸς δέουσ (αν) ἐπέξοδον, ";I beg therefore that you will cause the accused to be brought before you for fitting punishment,"; and, before an abstract noun, P Oxy II. 294.18 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35) εἵνα σὺν αὐτῷ ἐπὶ διαλογισμὸν ε ̣̀λ ̣[θ ]ω, ";in order that I may come along with him to the inquiry"; : cf. Matthew 3:7, Luke 23:48.
The phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, as in Acts 1:15; Acts 2:47, is perpetually recurring, especially in accounts, where it represents an addition sum, ";together,"; ";in all,"; e.g. P Tebt I. 14.20 (B.C. 114) ἀξίας ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ χα (λκοῦ) (ταλάντου) α ̄, ";of which the total value is one talent of copper"; (Edd.), P Fay 102.6 (c. A.D. 105) γί (νονται) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ (ὀβολοὶ) τ ̄π ̄α ̄, and P Oxy IV. 716.14 (A.D. 186) where one-sixth of a slave owned by one man and a half owned by two others are reckoned as τὸ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ δίμοι [ρ ]ον μέρος, ";together two-thirds"; : also the Messenian inscr. Syll 653.66 (B.C. 91) ἐγδιδόντες ἄν τε δοκεῖ συνφέρον εἶμεν ἐ [πὶ ] τὸ αὐτὸ πάντα τὰ θύματα. For the possibility that in Acts 2:47 the phrase = ";greatly"; in accordance with another meaning of the Aramaic word which lay behind Luke’s translation, see Torrey’s Harvard study on The Composition and Date of Acts (Milford, 1916), p. 10 ff.
The thought of degree attained, as in 2 Timothy 2:16, may be seen in P Par 63.124 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 28) τοῖς μὲν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον ̣ διαλαμβάνουσι, ";to those who put a less favourable interpretation upon it,"; P Tebt I. 27.80 (B.C. 113) αἰεὶ δέ τινος ἐπὶ τὸ βελτίον προσεπινοουμένου, ";by the continual invention of further improvements"; (Edd.), Cagnat IV. 247.35 (c. B.C. 150) ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξειν. In P Tebt I. 33.6 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) we find purpose implied—ἀνάπλουν. . . ἐπὶ θεωρίαν ποιούμενος, ";making the voyage to see the sights"; (cf. Luke 23:48), and similarly with the inf. construction in BGU IV. 1124.21 (B.C. 18) the apprenticeship of a boy—ἐ ̣π ̣ι ̣, τ ̣ο ̣, μανθάνειν τὴν ἡλοκοπικὴ (ν) τέχνην. Cf. P Petr II. 11(2).3 (mid. iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski.2, p. 6) ἀπογέγραμμαι δὲ ἐπὶ τελώνιον, ";I am enrolled for the purpose of taxation"; in certain particulars which are stated—contrast Matthew 9:9 ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον of place.
The temporal use = ";for,"; ";during,"; as in Luke 4:25, Acts 13:31, 1 Corinthians 7:39, may be seen in BGU IV. 1058.9 (B.C. 13) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔτη δύο ἀπὸ Φαρμοῦθι [τοῦ ἐνεσ ]τῶτος ι ̄ε ̄ (ἔτους) Καίσαρος, P Oxy II. 275.9 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 55) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἐνιαυτὸν ἕνα ἀπὸ τῆς ἐνεστώσης ἡμέρας, ib. .15 ἐπὶ τὸν ὅλον χρόνον, P Tebt II. 381.19 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 79) ἐφ᾽ ὃν δὲ χρόνον περίεστιν ἡ μήτηρ Θαῆσις, ";as long as her mother Thaesis lives,"; and P Heid 6.27 (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 127) ἐπὶ μέγιστον χρόνον.
On the survival of ἐπί in MGr in adverbial expressions, see Thumb Handbook, p. 98.
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