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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #2030 - ἐπόπτης

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G1909) and a presumed derivative of (G3700)
Parts of Speech
masculine noun
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  1. an overseer, inspector
  2. spectator, eye witness of anything
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (1)
2 Peter 1
NAS (1)
2 Peter 1
CSB (1)
2 Peter 1
BSB (1)
2 Peter 1
ESV (1)
2 Peter 1
WEB (1)
2 Peter 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἐπόπτ-ης, ου, ὁ,



1. overseer, watcher, esp. of a god, Πυθῶνος Pi. N. 9.5, cf. Epich. 266; ὁ πάντων ἐ. θεός LXX Ezra 5:1; title of Poseidon, Paus. 8.30.1; of the Sun, OGI 666.25 (Egypt, i A. D.); δαίμονες ἐ. τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων Ti.Locr. 105a; ὥσπερ ἐπόπτας τῶν στρατηγουμένων D. 4.25; ἐ. γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης, of Pompey, JHS 27.64 (Cyzicus); of Augustus, IGRom. 4.309 (Pergam.); ἐ. εἰρήνης, of a police magistrate, POxy. 991 (iv A.D.).

2. simply, spectator, πόνων A. Pr. 301.

3. inspector, Cod.Just. 10.16.13 Intr.

II one admitted to the highest grade of the mysteries, IG 12.6.51, Plu. Alc. 22, etc., cf. ἐφόπται IG 12(8).205.3 (Samothrace): c. gen., μυστηρίων ἐ. Michel 1141 (ibid.); τινος PMag.Lond. 121.572: metaph., ἐ. τῆς ἐκείνου μεγαλειότητος 2 Peter 1:16.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἐπόπτης, ἐπόπτου, (from unused ἐπόπτω);

1. an overseer, inspector, see ἐπίσκοπος; (Aeschylus, Pindar, others; of God, in 2 Macc. 3:39 2Macc. 7:35; 3Macc. 2:21; Additions to Esther 5:1; ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 59, 3 [ET]).

2. a spectator, eye-witness of anything: so in 2 Peter 1:16; inasmuch as those were called ἐπόπται by the Greeks who had attained to the third (i. e. the highest) grade of the Eleusinian mysteries (Plutarch, Alcib. 22, and elsewhere), the word seems to be used here to designate those privileged to be present at the heavenly spectacle of the transfiguration of Christ.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

** ἐπόπτης , -ου , ,

[in LXX (of God): Ezra 5:1, 2 Maccabees 3:39; 2 Maccabees 7:35, 3 Maccabees 2:21 *;]

1. an overseer (LXX, ll. c.).

2. a spectator: 2 Peter 1:16 (of . as applied to God, v. parallels in Inscr., MM, Exp., xiv; of the use of this term in the mysteries, v. Mayor on 2Pe, l.c.; Thayer, s.v.).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

With the application of ἐπόπτης to God in the Greek Bible (e.g. Esther 5:1, 2 Maccabees 7:35) may be compared the corresponding use in the inscrr. Thus an inscr. from Cyzicus describes Pompey the Great as ἐπόπτης γῆς τε καὶ θαλάσσης (JHS xxvii. p. 64), and in Pergamene inscrr. the Emperor Augustus is similarly described, e.g. Cagnat IV. 309.2 (B.C. 29) θ ]εοῦ υἱὸν θεὸν Σεβαστό [ν, πάσης ] γῆ [ς κ ]αὶ θ [α ]λάσσης [ ]π [όπ ]τ [ην : cf. OGIS 666.25 (time of Nero) τὸν Ἥλιον Ἅρμαχιν ἐπόπτην καὶ σωτῆρα with reference to an Egyptian Sun-god, Preisigke 1323 (ii/A.D.) Θεῷ ὑψίστῳ καὶ πάντων ἐπόπτῃ καὶ Ἡλίῳ καὶ Νεμέσεσι, and the magic P Lond 121.351, .572 (iii/A.D.) (= I. pp. 95, 102). In P Oxy VI. 991 (A.D. 341) a petition (?) is addressed to a police official as ἐπόπτῃ ἰρήνης : cf. ib. XII. 1559.3 (A.D. 341). With the usage in 2 Peter 1:16 we may compare more particularly Michel 1141.1 (ii/B.C.) ἱεροποιοὶ καὶ μυστηρίων ἐπόπται, Syll 657.4 Ῥοδίων ἱεροποιοὶ μύσται καὶ [ ]πόπται εὐσεβεῖς, and ib. 658.3 ἐφόπται εὐσεβεῖς, all with reference to those initiated into the mysteries and hence ";eye-witnesses."; In the last passage the editor explains the aspirated form as due to the influence of ἐφοράω.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
εποπται επόπται ἐπόπται epoptai epóptai
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