Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #2228 -

Transliteration
Phonetics
ay
Origin
a primary particle of distinction between two connected terms
Parts of Speech
particle
TDNT
None
Definition
Thayer's
  1. either, or, than
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
  3. Parsing
KJV (346)
Matthew
68
Mark
35
Luke
46
John
12
Acts
37
Romans
25
1 Corinthians
50
2 Corinthians
11
Galatians
8
Ephesians
7
Philippians
2
Colossians
4
1 Thessalonians
2
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
7
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
5
James
6
1 Peter
8
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
6
NAS (341)
Matthew
67
Mark
31
Luke
44
John
14
Acts
35
Romans
27
1 Corinthians
50
2 Corinthians
13
Galatians
8
Ephesians
7
Philippians
1
Colossians
4
1 Thessalonians
2
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
5
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
4
James
8
1 Peter
9
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
5
HCS (307)
Matthew
59
Mark
27
Luke
39
John
12
Acts
33
Romans
26
1 Corinthians
41
2 Corinthians
14
Galatians
8
Ephesians
7
Philippians
1
Colossians
4
1 Thessalonians
2
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
4
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
4
James
8
1 Peter
6
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
5
BSB (346)
Matthew
70
Mark
33
Luke
46
John
12
Acts
35
Romans
27
1 Corinthians
49
2 Corinthians
14
Galatians
8
Ephesians
7
Philippians
1
Colossians
4
1 Thessalonians
3
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
5
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
4
James
8
1 Peter
8
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
5
ESV (303)
Matthew
58
Mark
28
Luke
37
John
12
Acts
32
Romans
25
1 Corinthians
42
2 Corinthians
11
Galatians
7
Ephesians
7
Philippians
2
Colossians
3
1 Thessalonians
2
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Hebrews
4
James
8
1 Peter
7
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
6
WEB (336)
Matthew
62
Mark
35
Luke
45
John
12
Acts
33
Romans
26
1 Corinthians
52
2 Corinthians
10
Galatians
8
Ephesians
7
Philippians
2
Colossians
5
1 Thessalonians
2
2 Thessalonians
1
1 Timothy
7
2 Timothy
1
Titus
2
Philemon
1
Hebrews
4
James
5
1 Peter
8
2 Peter
1
1 John
1
Revelation
6
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

(A), also ἠέ (in signf. A. 11 (or ἠέ) folld. by (or ἦε), v. infr.), Conj. with two chief senses, Disj. (or) and Comp. (than).

DISJUNCTIVE,

1. or, ἐγὼ.. ἢ ἄλλος Ἀχαιῶν Il. 2.231, cf. 397, 800, 4.142, 7.236, al.; θεόσυτος ἢ βρότειος ἢ κεκραμένη A. Pr. 116.

2. ἢ.. either.. or, ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντ' ἢ ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα Il. 1.27, cf. 151, 5.484, etc.; so .. ἤτοι.. Pi. N. 6.4, Fr. 138; ἤτοι.. .. A. Ag. 662, S. Ant. 1182, Th. 2.40, etc. (in Classical Gr. the alternative introduced by ἤτοι is emphasized, later no distn. is implied, Romans 6:16; ἤτοι.. .. .. PTeb. 5.59 (ii B.C.)); repeated any number of times, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι ἢ τεὸν ἢ Αἴαντος ἰὼν γέρας ἢ Ὀδυσῆος Il. 1.138, cf. Od. 15.84, S. Ant. 707; is prob. wrongly accented in codd. of Il. 2.289, Od. 3.348, 19.109, v. Adv. 1.3: ἢ πόλις βροτός θ' ὁμοίως A. Eu. 524 (lyr.) is exceptional.

3. or else, otherwise, εἰδέναι δεῖ περὶ οὗ ἂν ᾖ ἡ βουλή, ἢ παντὸς ἁμαρτάνειν ἀνάγκη Pl. Phdr. 237c; μή με λυπεῖτε, ἢ φεύξομ' ἐκ τῆς οἰκίης Herod. 5.74; ζῶντα κακῶς λέγειν ἐκώλυσε.., ἢ τρεῖς δραχμὰς ἀποτίνειν ἔταξε Lex Sol. ap. Plu. Sol. 21, cf. 24, IG 12.94.10, Them. Or. 21.260a.

II in Questions or Deliberations in Disj. form(the accentuation is (ἠέ) folld. by (ἦε), Hdn. Gr. 2.24, al., A.D. Conj. 224.28):

1 Direct questions, introduced by (ἠέ), ἢ δολιχὴ νοῦσος ἦ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα.. κατέπεφνεν; Od. 11.172; ἤ τι κατὰ πρῆξιν ἦ μαψιδίως ἀλάλησθε..; 3.72, cf. 1.408, 16.462, Il. 6.378, 15.735, 16.12, etc. without an introductory Particle, θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι; art thou a goddess or a mortal? Od. 6.149, cf. 1.226, 4.314, 372, 643, 20.130, 21.194, Il. 10.63, 425, 534, 15.203: accented , Hdn.Gr. 2.145, al., but freq. in codd. of Hom. and always in codd. of later writers: ἤκουσας ἢ οὐκ ἤκουσας ἢ κωφῇ λέγω; A. Th. 202; ἄρτι δὲ ἥκεις ἢ πάλαι; Pl. Cri. 43a; κακουργεῖν δεῖ ἢ οὔ; ib. 49c; preceded by πότερον, πότερον δοκεῖ σοι κάκιον εἶναι, τὸ ἀδικεῖν ἢ τὸ ἀδικεῖσθαι; Id. Grg. 474c, etc.

2. Indirect questions, freq. epexegetic of a preceding question and identical in form with direct questions. εἴπ' ἄγε,.. ἤ ῥ' ἐθέλει.., ἦ ἀπέειπε.. Il. 9.674; ὄφρα δαῶμεν ἢ ἐτεὸν Κάλχας μαντεύεται ἦε καὶ οὐκί 2.300; διάνδιχα μερμήριξεν ἢ ὅ γε.. ἐναρίζοι ἦε χόλον παύσειεν 1.190; later with εἰ.. A. Ch. 890, Ag. 478, S. OC 80, etc.; πότερον or πότερα.. .. Id. Pers. 148, 352, Ag. 630, etc.; sts. εἴτε.. E. El. 897; .. εἴτε S. Aj. 177. without introductory Particle, οὐδέ τι οἶδα ζώει ὅ γ' ἦ τέθνηκε Od. 11.464, cf. Il. 10.546, Od. 24.238.

COMPARATIVE,

1. than, as, after a Comp., Il. 11.162, etc.: after positive Adjs. which imply comparison, ἄλλος, ἕτερος ἤ.., S. OT 595, Tr. 835 (lyr.); ἐναντίος ἤ Pl. Grg. 481c; ἴδιόν τι πάσχειν πάθος ἢ οἱ ἄλλοι ibid.: after Advbs. or adverbial phrases, πλήν, πρίν, πρόσθεν, χωρίς (qq. v.), ἀλλά (v. ἀλλ' ἤ) ; τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ ἤ.. Id. Cri. 44a (f.l. in Smp. 173a); ἐν τῷ πέμπτῳ καὶ δεκάτῳ ϝέτει ἀπὸ τῶ ποτεχεῖ ϝέτεος ἢ Ἀριστίων ἐφορεύει Tab.Heracl. 1.121; παρὰ δόξαν ἢ ὡς αὐτὸς κατεδόκεε Hdt. 1.79, cf. 8.4; διαφερόντως ἤ.. Pl. Phd. 85b; οὐδ' ὅσον ἤ.. not so much as.., not more than.., Theoc. 9.21: after Verbs implying comparison, βούλεσθαι ἤ.. to wish rather than.., v. βούλομαι IV, αἱρέω B. 11.1b; so φθάνειν ἤ.. to come sooner than.., Il. 23.445, Od. 11.58; ἐπιθυμεῖν ἤ.. X. Cyr. 1.4.3; δέχεσθαι ἤ.. Lys. 10.21: less freq. after a word not implying comparison, δίκαιον ἡμέας ἔχειν.. (sc. μᾶλλον) ἤ περ Ἀθηναίους Hdt. 9.26; ἐμοὶ πικρὸς.. ἢ κείνοις γλυκύς S. Aj. 966 (s.v.l.); δεδικαιωμένος ἢ ἐκεῖνος Luke 18:14.

2. joining two Comparatives which refer to the same subject, πάντες κ' ἀρησαίατ' ἐλαφρότεροι πόδας εἶναι ἢ ἀφνειότεροι Od. 1.165; ταχύτερα ἢ σοφώτερα Hdt. 3.65; μανικώτεροι ἢ ἀνδρειότεροι Pl. Tht. 144b, cf. Ar. Ach. 1078.

3. rarely after a Sup., πλεῖστα θωμάσια ἔχει Αἴγυπτος ἢ ἄλλη πᾶσα χώρη Hdt. 2.35 (s.v.l.); πίθοιτό κεν ὔμμι μάλιστα ἢ ἐμοί A.R. 3.91.

4. ἢ οὐ is used when a neg. precedes, οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ἐπ' ἡμέας ἢ οὐ καὶ ἐπ' ὑμέας Hdt. 4.118, cf. 5.94, Th. 2.62, etc.: after an implied neg., ὠμὸν.. πόλιν ὅλην διαφθεῖραι μᾶλλον ἢ οὐ τοὺς αἰτίους Id. 3.36.

5. freq. omitted with numerals after πλείων, ἐλάττων, μείων, ἔτη.. πλείω ἑβδομήκοντα v.l. in Pl. Revelation 17:1-18 d; οὐ μεῖον πεντακοσίους X. An. 6.4.24: sts. with an inf. or conditional clause, τί γὰρ ἀνδρὶ κακὸν μεῖζον ἁμαρτεῖν E. Alc. 879; τίς εὐπραξία σπανιωτέρα.., εἰ [δύναμις] πάρεστιν (for ἢ δύναμιν παρεῖναι); Th. 1.33.

6. pleon. with a gen., τίς ἂν αἰσχίων εἴη ταύτης δόξα, ἢ δοκεῖν.. Pl. Cri. 44c, cf. Lys. 10.28.

7. the Disj. and Comp. uses are found together in Il. 15.511 βέλτερον, ἢ ἀπολέσθαι ἕνα χρόνον ἠὲ βιῶναι, ἢ δηθὰ στρεύγεσθαι ἐν αἰνῆ δηϊοτῆτι better, either to die once for all or win life, than long to toil in battle. [ ἢ οὐ, ἢ οὐκ combine by Synizesis into one syll. in Trag. and Com., A. Pr. 330, S. Aj. 334, Ar. Lys. 128; so usually in , Od. 1.298, al.; ἢ αὐτός Hes. Fr. 194; ἢ εἰ Alex. 201.]

(B),

1. an exclamation expressing disapproval, ἢ ἢ σιώπα Ar. Nu. 105; ἢ ἤ· τί δρᾶς; E. HF 906 (lyr.), cf. Suid.

2. to call attention, ποῦ Ξανθίας; ἢ Ξανθία where's Xanthias? hi, Xanthias! Ar. Ra. 271.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

,

disjunctive and comparative particle (Bl., § 36, 12; 77, 11);

1. disjunctive, or;

(a) between single words: Matthew 5:17, Mark 6:56, Luke 2:24, John 6:19, Romans 1:21, al.;

(b) before a sentence expressing a variation, denial or refutation of a previous statement, freq. in interrog. form: Matthew 7:4; Matthew 7:9 Mark 12:14, Luke 13:4, Romans 3:29; Romans 6:3; Romans 9:21, 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 9:6, 2 Corinthians 11:7; . . . , either . . . or, Matthew 6:24, Luke 16:13, 1 Corinthians 14:6;

(c) in a disjunctive question (as Lat. an after utrum): Matthew 9:5, Mark 2:9, Luke 7:19, al.; after πότερον , John 7:17; μή , 1 Corinthians 9:8; μήτι , 2 Corinthians 1:17; . . . . . . , Mark 13:35.

2. Comparative, than: after comparatives, Matthew 10:16, Luke 9:13, John 3:19, Romans 13:11, al.; after ἕτερον , Acts 17:21; θέλω (Kühner3, iv, 303), 1 Corinthians 14:19; πρὶν ἤ , before, seq. acc et inf., Matthew 1:18, Mark 14:30; after a positive adj. (Genesis 49:12; cf. Robertson, Gr., 661), Matthew 18:8-9, Mark 9:43; Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47.

3. With other particles: ἀλλ᾿ ἤ , see ἀλλά ; ἢ γάρ , see γάρ ; ἢ καί , or even, or also, Matthew 7:10, Luke 11:11-12, Romans 2:15; Romans 4:9, al.; ήτοι . . . ή , Romans 6:16 (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 11:19).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For this particle in interrogative sentences, where we should accent , and for which from ii/B.C. εἶ is a graphic equivalent, cf. the questions to the oracle, P Fay 137.2 f. (i/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 69) χρημάτισόν μοι, ἦ μείνωι ἐν Βακχιάδι; ἦ μέλω (l. μέλλω) ἐντυνχάνιν; ";answer me, Shall I remain in Bacchias? Shall I meet (him)";, BGU I. 229.8 (ii/iii A.D.) (see Berichtigungen i. p. 27) ἠ μὲν σοθήσωμαι (l. εἰ μὲν σωθήσομαι) ταύτης, ἧς ἐν ἐμοὶ ἀσθενίας, τοῦτόν μοι ἐξένικον (l. τοῦτό μοι ἐξένεγκον). For = ";or,"; see BGU IV. 1141.6 (B.C. 14) ἔπεμψας. . . ἵνα ἐπιγνῶσιν πρὸς ἃ ἔγραψά σοι ἠ (= εἰ) ἔστιν ἢ οὐ, and for . . . PSI IV 324.2 (B.C. 261–0) ἐάν τινες. . . διαγράφωσιν ὑμῖν ἢ τὰς τιμὰς ἢ τὸ παραβόλιον, παραλαμβάνετε κτλ. : the alternative is emphasized by the addition of τε. . . καί in IG XII. 2, 562.5 (Rom. time) εἰ δέ τις τολμήσ [ῃ ἐπι ]βαλέσθαι πτῶμα ἤτε ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους μου ἢ καὶ ἕτερός τις, δώσει κτλ. (cited by Radermacher Gr. p. 27). Ἤτοι. . , while found in classical Greek, is characteristic of Hellenistic speech (Radermacher ut s.), see e.g. P Tebt I. 5.59 (B.C. 118) ἤιτοι κώ (μας) ἢι γᾶς ἢ ἄλλας ἱερὰς πρ (οσόδους), P Ryl II. 154.85 (a contract of marriage—A.D. 66) ἤτοι τοῦ Χαιρήμονος ἀποπέμποντος τ [ ]ν Θαισάριον ἢ καὶ αὐτῆς ἑκουσίω [ς ἀ ]παλλασσομέν [η ]ς [ ]π᾽ αὐτοῦ : cf. Romans 6:16. The combination is common in Vett. Val. (e.g. p. 58.20), who also uses ἤπερ (P. 141.26) and ἤγουν (P. 138.12) for simple . Ἤτοι stands alone in PSI IV. 314.12 (A.D. 195) δραχμὰς ἑξακισχει [λί ]α ̣ς ἤ [τ ]οι τάλαντο ̣ν, P Oxy VI. 888.5 (iii/iv A.D.) διὰ τὸ μὴ παρεῖναι τοῖς ὀρφανοῖς ἐπιτρόπους ἤτοι κου [ράτορας. In PSI III. 158.68 (iii/A.D.?) the place of the particles is reversed—δ ̣ι ̣κ ̣ογράφους ἢ δικολόγους ἤτοι τούτων παραπλ [η ]σίους. For ἢ καί suggesting an afterthought, see P Lond 962.5 (A.D. 254 or 261) (= III. p. 210) δέξαι παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ δραχμὰς διακοσίας καὶ ἔχε αὐτὰς εἴς τε περιχωματισμὸν ἢ καὶ λόγον ὀψωνίων ὡς ἐὰν θέλῃς, ";receive from him two hundred drachmas and employ them for banking-up or (for that matter) for the payment of supplies, as you may wish,"; and for ἀλλ᾽ ἤ, as in 2 Corinthians 1:13, see s.v. ἀλλά, and cf. Blass-Debrunner Gr. § 448. 8.

A good parallel to θέλω. . . in 1 Corinthians 14:19 (cf. 2 Maccabees 14:42) is found in BGU III. 846.16 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 95) οὐκ οἶδες, ὅτι θέλω πη ̣ρο ̣̣ς γενέσται (l. γενέσθαι), εἲ (= ) γνοῦναι, ο ̣̓́π ̣ως ἀνθρόπῳ [ ]τ [ι ] ὀφείλω ὀβολόν; ";do you not know that I would rather be a cripple than be conscious that I am still owing any one an obolus?";

On the Semitic use of the positive of an adj. followed by , as in Mark 9:43 ff., see Wellhausen Einl..2 p. 21, where reference is also made to the corresponding use of after a verb with μᾶλλον implied in Mark 3:4, Luke 15:7 : in Matthew 18:13 μᾶλλον is expressed.

Πρὶν ἤ with inf., as in Matthew 1:18 al. (cf. Blass-Debrunner Gr. § 395) may be illustrated by PSI III. 171.25 (ii/B.C.) πρὶν ἢ τὰ λοι [π ]ὰ τη ̣̑[ς οἰ ]κοδομῆς τοῦ ὅρμου συντελεσθῆνα ̣ι ̣.

For πρότερον ἤ see PSI IV. 330.2 (B.C. 258–7) [ι ]μην οὖν σοὶ με ̣, ν ̣ γράφειν πρότερον ἢ ἀντιτεῖναι, and cf. ib. 343.3 (B.C. 256–5) μὴ θαυμάσηις ἐπὶ τῶι Νικόλαον ἀπελθεῖν προτοῦ ἢ τὸν λόγον συνθεῖναι, where the editor points out that προτοῦ = πρὸ τοῦ, and compares Syll 300.22 (B.C. 170) πρὸ τοῦ ἢ Γάϊος Λοκρέτιος τὸ στρατόπεδον πρὸς τὴν πόλιν Θίσβας προσήγαγεν = ";antequam . . . admovit.";

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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η ἤ ἢ e ē ḗ ḕ
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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