Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #2596 - κατά

Transliteration
katá
Phonetics
kat-ah'
Origin
a primary particle
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
None
Definition
Thayer's
  1. down from, through out
  2. according to, toward, along
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
  3. Parsing
KJV (458)
Matthew
36
Mark
18
Luke
42
John
10
Acts
85
Romans
50
1 Corinthians
24
2 Corinthians
25
Galatians
18
Ephesians
24
Philippians
10
Colossians
14
2 Thessalonians
4
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
8
Titus
8
Philemon
3
Hebrews
38
James
5
1 Peter
11
2 Peter
4
1 John
1
2 John
1
3 John
1
Jude
4
Revelation
8
NAS (291)
Matthew
21
Mark
10
Luke
25
John
5
Acts
50
Romans
34
1 Corinthians
13
2 Corinthians
16
Galatians
14
Ephesians
21
Philippians
2
Colossians
9
2 Thessalonians
3
1 Timothy
5
2 Timothy
7
Titus
6
Philemon
1
Hebrews
21
James
3
1 Peter
8
2 Peter
4
1 John
1
2 John
1
Jude
3
Revelation
8
HCS (430)
Matthew
36
Mark
22
Luke
40
John
9
Acts
80
Romans
46
1 Corinthians
23
2 Corinthians
22
Galatians
16
Ephesians
21
Philippians
8
Colossians
12
2 Thessalonians
4
1 Timothy
5
2 Timothy
7
Titus
8
Philemon
3
Hebrews
34
James
5
1 Peter
10
2 Peter
4
1 John
1
2 John
1
3 John
1
Jude
4
Revelation
8
BSB (473)
Matthew
37
Mark
23
Luke
43
John
10
Acts
90
Romans
50
1 Corinthians
24
2 Corinthians
26
Galatians
17
Ephesians
24
Philippians
11
Colossians
14
2 Thessalonians
4
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
7
Titus
8
Philemon
3
Hebrews
41
James
5
1 Peter
10
2 Peter
4
1 John
1
2 John
1
3 John
1
Jude
4
Revelation
9
ESV (376)
Matthew
31
Mark
13
Luke
29
John
8
Acts
72
Romans
43
1 Corinthians
19
2 Corinthians
18
Galatians
14
Ephesians
23
Philippians
10
Colossians
13
2 Thessalonians
4
1 Timothy
6
2 Timothy
7
Titus
8
Hebrews
35
James
5
1 Peter
5
2 Peter
4
1 John
1
Revelation
8
WEB (480)
Matthew
34
Mark
20
Luke
44
John
11
Acts
92
Romans
51
1 Corinthians
24
2 Corinthians
27
Galatians
18
Ephesians
24
Philippians
10
Colossians
14
2 Thessalonians
4
1 Timothy
7
2 Timothy
8
Titus
7
Philemon
3
Hebrews
42
James
4
1 Peter
14
2 Peter
4
1 John
2
2 John
1
3 John
1
Jude
4
Revelation
10
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

κατά

[ κᾰτᾰ ], poet. καταί acc. to A.D. Synt. 309.28, found in Compds., as καταιβάτης: Pr with gen. or acc.:

downwards. WITH GEN.,

I denoting motion from above, down from, βῆ δὲ κατ' Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων, κατ' Ἰδαίων ὀρέων, βαλέειν κ. πέτρης, Il. 22.187, 16.677, Od. 14.399; κατ' οὐρανοῦ εἰλήλουθας Il. 6.128; καθ' ἵππων ἀΐξαντε ib. 232; δάκρυα.. κ. βλεφάρων Χαμάδις ῥέε 17.438; ἵεις σαυτὸν κ. τοῦ τείχους Ar. V. 355; ἁλόμενοι κ. τῆς πέτρας X. An. 4.2.17; κ. τῶν πετρῶν ὦσαι Pl. Phdr. 229c; κ. κρημνῶν ῥιφέντες Id. Lg. 944a: for κατ' ἄκρης v. ἄκρα: Μοῖσα κ. στόματος Χέε νέκταρ Theoc. 7.82 (but perh. in sense 11.1).

II denoting downward motion,

1 down upon or over, κ. Χθονὸς ὄμματα πήξας Il. 3.217; of the dying, κατὰ.. ὀφθαλμῶν κέχυτ' ἀχλύς a cloud settled upon the eyes, 5.696, cf. 20.321; τὸν δὲ κατ' ὀφθαλμῶν.. νὺξ ἐκάλυψεν 13.580; φᾶρος κὰκ κεφαλῆς εἴρυσσε down over.., Od. 8.85; [ κόπρος ] κ. σπείους κέχυτο.. πολλή 9.330; ὕδωρ κ. Χειρός, v. Χείρ; μύρον κ. τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες Pl. R. 398a; νάρκη μου κ. τῆς Χειρὸς καταχεῖται Ar. V. 713; κ. τῆς τραπέζης καταπάσας τέφραν Id. Nu. 177; ξαίνειν κ. τοῦ νώτου πολλὰς [ πληγάς ] D. 19.197; ἐσκεδασμένοι κ. τῆς Χώρας Plb. 1.17.10; οἱ κ. νώτου πονοῦντες Id. 3.19.7; ῥόπαλον ἤλασα κὰκ κεφαλῆς Theoc. 25.256; κ. κόρρης παίειν, = ἐπὶ κόρρης, Luc. Cat. 12, al. Geom., along, upon, πίπτειν κατ' [ εὐθείας ] Archim. Sph.Cyl. 1 Def. 2; αἱ γωνίαι κ. κύκλων περιφερειῶν ἐνεχθήσονται will move on.., ib.1.23, al., cf. Aristarch.Sam. 1.

2. down into, νέκταρ στάξε κ. ῥινῶν Il. 19.39; of a dart, κ. γαίης ᾤχετο 13.504, etc.; ἔθηκε κατ' ὄχθης μείλινον ἔγχος 21.172; ψυχὴ κ. Χθονὸς ᾤχετο 23.100; κ. γᾶς under ground, Pi. O. 2.59; κατ' ὕδατος under water, Hdt. 2.149; [ ποταμὸς ] δὺς κ. τῆς γῆς Pl. Phd. 113c, cf. Ti. 25d; κ. γῆς σύμεναι A. Eu. 1007 (anap.); κ. Χθονὸς κρύψαι to bury. S. Ant. 24; ὁ κ. γῆς one dead and buried, X. Cyr. 4.6.5; οἱ κ. Χθονὸς θεοί A. Pers. 689, etc.; θεοὶ[οἱ] κ. γᾶς Id. Ch. 475 (lyr.), etc.; so κ. θαλάσσης ἀφανίζεσθαι, καταδεδυκέναι, Hdt. 7.6, 235; also βᾶτε κατ' ἀντιθύρων go down by or through.., S. El. 1433.

3. later, towards a point, τοξεύειν κ. σκοποῦ to shoot at, Hdn. 6.7.8; κατ' ἰχνῶν τινος ὁδεύειν Luc. Rh. Proverbs 9:1-18.

4. of vows or oaths, by, καθ' ἡμῶν ὀμνύναι D. 29.26, cf. 54.38; ἐπιορκήσασα κ. τῶν παίδων Lys. 32.13; esp. of the victims, etc., over which the oath is taken, ὀμνυόντων τὸν ἐπιχώριον ὅρκον καθ' ἱερῶν τελείων Foed. ap. Th. 5.47, cf. Arist. Ath. 29.5, Foed.Delph.Pell. 1 A 9, etc.; κ. τῶν νικητηρίων εὐξάμενοι D. Ephesians 1:16; also κατ' ἐξωλείας ὀμνύναι to imprecate destruction on oneself, Id. 21.119; κατ' ἐξ. ἐπιορκεῖν Id. 57.22. to make a vow towards, i.e. make a vow of offering.., κ. Χιλίων εὐχὴν ποιήσασθαι Χιμάρων Ar. Eq. 660.

5. in hostile sense, against, A. Ch. 221, S. Aj. 304, etc.; κ. πάντων φύεσθαι D. 18.19; esp. of judges giving sentence against a person, A. Th. 198, S. Aj. 449, etc.; ψεύδεσθαι κατά τινος Lys. 22.7; λέγειν κατά τινος κακά S. Ph. 65, cf. X. HG 1.5.2, etc.; of speeches, [ λόγος ] κ. Μειδίου, etc. (opp. πρὸς Λεπτίνην, in reply to L.); δῶρα εἰληφέναι κατά τινος Din. 3.6, cf. 18.

6. of Time, for, μισθοῦν κ. εἴκοσι ἐτῶν IG 12.94.37; κ. βίου for life, Tab.Heracl. 1.50; κὰπ παντὸς Χρόνοι IG 9(2).517.20 (Larissa) (but κ. παντὸς τοῦ Χρόνου σκέψασθε D. 22.72 falls under 7); κ. παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος ἀείμνηστον Lycurg. 7.

7. in respect of, concerning, μὴ κατ' ἀνθρώπων σκόπει μόνον τοῦτο Pl. Phd. 70d; κ. τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶν τοιαῦτα εὑρήσομεν Id. Sph. 253b; οἱ κ. Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοι praises bestowed on D., Aeschin. 3.50; ἐρεῖν or λέγειν κατά τινος to say of one, Pl. Ap. 37b, Prt. 323b, etc.; εἰ κ. θηλείας φαίης A.D. Synt. 198.10; εἴπερ ἕν γέ τι ζητεῖς κ. πάντων Pl. Men. 73d, cf. 74b; ὅπερ εἴρηται καθόλου κ. πασῶν τῶν πολιτειῶν Arist. Pol. 1307b2; freq. in the Logic of Arist., κατά τινος λέγεσθαι or κατηγορεῖσθαι to be predicated of.., Int. 16b10, Cat. 1b10, etc.; καταφῆσαί (or ἀποφῆσαί) τι κατά τινος to affirm (or deny) of.., Metaph. 1007b21; so κ. τινὸς ὑπάρχειν Int. 16b13: and in Adv. καθόλου (q.v.).

WITH Acc.,

I

1. of motion downwards, κ. ῥόον down stream, Od. 14.254, Il. 12.33; opp. ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόν, Hdt. 2.96; κ. τὸν ποταμόν, κ. τὸ ὑδάτιον, Id. 1.194, Pl. Phdr. 229a; κατ' οὖρον ἰέναι, ῥεῖν, down (i.e. with) the wind, A. Th. 690, S. Tr. 468; κ. πνεῦμα, κατ' ἄνεμον ἵστασθαι to leeward, Arist. HA 535a19, 560b13, Dsc. 4.153.

2. with or without signf. of motion, on, over, throughout a space, freq. in Hom., καθ' Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον Ἄργος Od. 1.344; κατ' Ἀχαΐδα, κ. Τροίην, Il. 11.770, 9.329; κατ' ἠερόεντα κέλευθα Od. 20.64; κ. πόντον, κῦμα, ὕλην, Il. 4.276, 6.136, 3.151; κ. πτόλιν Od. 2.383; κ. ἄστυ, οἶκον, Il. 18.286, 6.56; κ. ὅμιλον, στρατόν, 3.36, 1.229; κ. κλισίας τε νέας τε ib. 487; πόλεμον κάτα δακρυόεντα 17.512; κ. ὑσμίνην, μόθον, κλόνον, 5.84, 18.159, 16.331; τὸ ὕδωρ κ. τοὺς ταφροὺς ἐχώρει X. Cyr. 7.5.16, etc. (in later Gr.of motion to a place, κ. τὴν Ἰταλίαν Zos. 3.1); καθ' Ἑλλάδα A. Ag. 578; κ. πτόλιν Id. Th. 6; αἱ σκηναὶ αἱ κ. τὴν ἀγοράν D. 18.169; τὰ κατ' ἀγροὺς Διονύσια Aeschin. 1.157, etc.; κ. τὸ προάστιον Hdt. 3.54; τύμβον κατ' αὐτόν A. Th. 528, cf. Supp. 869 (lyr.): Geom., at a point, Euc. 1.1,al.; τέμνειν [ σφαῖραν ] κ. κύκλον in a circle, Archim. Aren. 1.17; also, in the region of, οἱ κ. τὸν ἥλιον γινόμενοι ἀστέρες Gem. 12.7: freq. in Hom. in describing the place of a wound, βαλεῖν κ. στῆθος, γαστέρα, etc., Il. 11.108, 16.465, al.; νύξε κ. δεξιὸν ὦμον 5.46; οὔτασε κατ' ἰσχίον 11.339; so βαλεῖν κατ' ἀσπίδα, κ. ζωστῆρα, 5.537, 615; βέλος κ. καίριον ἦλθεν struck upon a vital part, v.l. in 11.439: metaph., ἄχος κ. φρένα τύψε 19.125: generally, κ. φρένα καὶ κατὰ θυμόν in heart and soul, 4.163, al.

3. opposite, over against, κ. Σινώπην πόλιν Hdt. 1.76, cf. 2.148, Th. 2.30, etc.; ἀνὴρ κατ' ἄνδρα A. Th. 505; μολὼν.. μοι κ. στόμα Id. Ch. 573; κατ' ὀφθαλμούς τινος LXX 2 Kings 12:11; οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι κ. Λακεδαιμονίους ἐγένοντο X. HG 4.2.18; κατ' Ἀχαιοὺς ἀντετάχθησαν ibid.; ἐν συμποσίῳ.., περίμενε, μέχρις ἂν γένηται κατὰ σέ Epict. Ench. 15, cf. D.L. 7.108.

II

1. distributively, of a whole divided into parts, κρῖν' ἄνδρας κ. φῦλα, κ. φρήτρας by tribes, by clans, Il. 2.362; κ. σφέας μαχέονται by themselves, separately, ib. 366, cf. Th. 4.64; ἐσκήνουν κ. τάξεις X. Cyr. 2.1.25; αὐτὴ καθ' αὑτήν A. Pr. 1013; κ. κώμας κατοικημένοι in separate villages, Hdt. 1.96; κατ' ἑωυτοὺς ἕκαστοι ἐτράποντο each to his own home, Id. 5.15; κ. πόλεις ἀποπλεῦσαι, διαλυθῆναι, Th. 1.89, 3.1: στρατιὰ κ. ἕνδεκα μέρη κεκοσμημένη Pl. Phdr. 247a; later οἱ κατ' ἄνδρα λόγοι PLond. 2.259.72 (i A. D.), cf. D.Chr. 32.6, etc.; ἡ κατ' οἰκίαν ἀπογραφή PLond. 3.904.20 (ii A.D.), etc.; κατ' ἔπος word by word, Ar. Ra. 802; κατ' ὄνομα individually, 3 John 1:14, etc.; παῖδα κ. κρήνην at each fount a boy, Lyr.Alex.Adesp. 37.13, cf. POxy 2108.9 (iii A.D.).

2. of Time, καθ' ἡμέραν, κατ' ἦμαρ, day by day, daily, v. ἡμέρα 111; καθ' ἑνιαυτόν, κατ' ἔτος, Test.Epict. 6.24, Luke 2:41, etc.; κ. μῆνα POxy. 275.18 (i A.D.).

3. of Numbers, by so many at a time, καθ' ἕνα one at a time, individually, Hdt. 7.104 (later τὸ καθ' ἕν detailed list, PTeb. 47.34 (ii B.C.), etc.); κ. μίαν τε καὶ δύο by ones and twos, Hdt. 4.113; δύο μνέαι τεταγμέναι κατ' ἄνδρα αἰχμάλωτον ἕκαστον Id. 6.79; ἐκ τῶν συμμάχων ἐξελέγετο κατ' ὀλίγους Id. 8.113; κ. τὰς πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι μνᾶς πεντακοσίας δραχμὰς εἰσφέρειν to pay 500 drachmae on every 25 minae, D. 27.7; κ. διακοσίας καὶ τριακοσίας ὁμοῦ τι τάλαντον διακεχρημένον in separate sums of 200 and 300 drachmae, Id. 27.11; of ships, κ. μίαν (sc. ναῦν) in column, Th. 2.90; κ. μίαν ναῦν ἐπιτάττειν Plb. 1.26.12, cf. Th. 2.84: Geom., μετρεῖν, μετρεισθαι κατά.., measure, be measured a certain number of times, Euc. 7 Def. 8,9,al.; μετρεῖν κ. τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας as many times as there are units in B, Id. 7.16.

III

1. of direction towards an object or purpose, πλεῖν κ. πρῆξιν on a business, for or after a matter, Od. 3.72, 9.253; πλάζεσθαι κ. ληΐδα to rove in search of booty, 3.106; κ. ληΐην ἐκπλῶσαι Hdt. 2.152; ἔβη κ. δαῖτα Il. 1.424; ἐπιδημεῖν κατ' ἐμπορίαν IG 22.141.32, cf. Arist. Ath. 11.1; κ. Χρέος τινὸς ἐλθεῖν come to seek his help, consult him, Od. 11.479, etc.; ἵεται κ. τὴν φωνήν Hdt. 2.70; κ. θέαν ἥκειν to have come for the purpose of seeing, Th. 6.31; κ. πλοῦν ἤδη ὤν Id. 7.31; καθ' ἁρπαγὴν ἐσκεδασμένοι X. An. 3.5.2; κ. τί; for what purpose? why? Ar. Nu. 239.

2. of pursuit, κ. πόδας τινὸς ἐλαύνειν Hdt. 9.89; simply κ. τινά after him, Id. 1.84; ἰέναι κ. τοὺς ἄλλους Id. 9.53; κατ' ἴχνος on the track, S. Aj. 32, A. Ag. 695 (lyr.); ὥσπερ κατ' ἴχνη κ. τὰ νῦν εἰρημένα ζῆν Pl. Phd. 115b.

3. Geom., in adverbial phrases, κ. κάθετον in the same vertical line, Archim. Quadr. 6; κατ' εὐθεῖάν τινι in the same straight line with.., Papp. 58.7. of fitness or conformity, in accordance with, κ. θυμόν Il. 1.136; καθ' ἡμέτερον νόον after our liking, 9.108; κ. νόον πρήξωμεν Hdt. 4.97; κ. μοῖραν as is meet and right, Il. 1.286; κατ' αἶσαν, κ. κόσμον, 10.445, 472; κ. νόμον Hes. Th. 417; κὰν νόμον Pi. O. 8.78; κ. τοὺς νόμους IG 22.1227.15; αἰτίαν καθ' ἥντινα

IV

1. for what cause, A. Pr. 228; κατ' ἔχθραν, κ. φθόνον, for (i.e. because of) hatred, envy, Id. Supp. 336, Eu. 686; καθ' ἡδονήν τι δρᾶν, ποιεῖν, do as one pleases, Th. 2.37, 53; κ. τὸ ἔχθος τὸ Θεσσαλῶν Hdt. 8.30, cf. 9.38; κ. φιλίαν, κατ' ἔχθος, Th. 1.60, 103, etc.; κατ' ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν, ὅτι δέ.. for no other reason but that.., Pl. Phdr. 229d; κ. δύναμιν to the best of one's power, Hdt. 3.142, etc. (κὰδ δ. Hes. Op. 336); κ. τρόπον διοικεῖν arrange suitably, Isoc. 2.6,al.; κατ' εὐνοίην with goodwill, Hdt. 6.108; κ. τὰ παρηγγελμένα X. An. 2.2.8, etc.; in quotations, according to, κατ' Αἰσχύλον Ar. Th. 134; κ. Πίνδαρον Pl. Phdr. 227b, etc.

2. in relation to, concerning, τὰ κατ' ἀνθρώπους = τὰ ἀνθρώπινα, A. Eu. 930, 310; τὰ κ. τὸν Τέλλον Hdt. 1.31; τὰ κ. τὴν Κύρου τελευτήν ib. 214; τὰ κ. πόλεμον military matters, Aeschin. 1.181; αἱ κ. τὴν πόλιν οἰκονομίαι (opp. αἱ πολεμικαὶ πράξεις) the management of public affairs, Din. 1.97; τὰ κ. τὰς θυσίας SIG 506.7 (Delph., iii B.C.); so τὸ κατ' ὑμέας as far as concerns you, Hdt. 7.158; τὸ κατ' ἐμέ as far as I am concerned, D. 18.247; κ. τοῦτο in this respect, Hdt. 5.3, etc.; κ. ταὐτά in the same way, Id. 2.20; καθ' ὅτι so far as, Th. 1.82, etc.

3. in Comparisons, corresponding with, after the fashion of, κρομύοιο λοπὸν κ. like the coat of an onion, dub. in Od. 19.233; μέλος κ. Φοίνισσαν ἐμπολὰν πέμπεται Pi. P. 2.67; κ. Μιθραδάτην answering to the description of him, Hdt. 1.121; τὴν ἰδέαν κ. πνιγέα like an oven in appearance, Ar. Av. 1001; κηδεῦσαι καθ' ἑαυτόν to marry in one's own rank of life, A. Pr. 890; οὐ κατ' ἄνθρωπον φρονεῖν Id. Th. 425; λέγω κατ' ἄνδρα, μὴ θεόν, σέβειν ἐμέ Id. Ag. 925; οὐ κατὰ σέ none of your sort, Chionid. 1 (but ἵνα προσείπω σε κατὰ σέ to address you in your own style, Pl. Grg. 467c); τὸ κατ' ἐμὲ καὶ οὐ κατ' ἐμέ Arr. Epict. 1.28.5; οὐ κ. τὰς Μειδίου λῃτουργίας D. 21.169; ἡ βασιλεία κ. τὴν ἀριστοκρατίαν ἐστί Arist. Pol. 1310b3: freq. after a Comp., μέζων ἢ κατ' ἀνθρώπων φύσιν Hdt. 8.38, cf. Pl. Revelation 20:1-15 e, etc.; μείζω ἢ κ. δάκρυα too great for tears, Th. 7.75; ἤθεα βαθύτερα ἢ κ. Θρήϊκας morerefined than was common among the Thracians, Hdt. 4.95. by the favour of a god, etc., κ. δαίμονα Pi. O. 9.28, cf. P. 8.68; κ. θεῖον Ar. Eq. 147 codd. (κ. θεὸν Cobet); κ. τύχην τινά D. 48.24. of round numbers (v. infr. v11.2), nearly, about, κ. Χίλια ἑξακόσια ἔτεα 1600 years more or less, Hdt. 2.145, cf. 6.44, al.; κατ' οὐδέν next to nothing, Pl. Plt. 302b.

κατά, = κατὰ τά, IG 22.334.15; cf. κά. κᾆτα, Att. crasis for καὶ εἶτα, v. εἶτα sub fin. κατάβα, for κατάβηθι, aor. 2 imper. of καταβαίνω.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

καπά

(bef. a vowel κατ᾿ , καθ᾿ ; on the freq. neglect of elision, v. Tdf., Pr., 95; WH, App., 146a), prep. c. gen., acc,

down, downwards.

I. C. gen. (WM, § 47, k; B1., § 42, 2).

1. C. gen. rei, in local sense;

(a) down, down from: Matthew 8:32, Mark 5:13, Luke 8:33, 1 Corinthians 11:4;

(b) throughout (late usage; B1., l.c.): κ . ὅλης κ .τ .λ ., Luke 4:14; Luke 23:5, Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37;

(c) in a peculiar adjectival phrase: ἡ κ . βάθους πτωχεία , deep or extreme poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2.

2. C. gen. pers., usually in hostile sense;

(a) against (in cl. only after verbs of speaking, witnessing, etc.): opp. to ὑπέρ , Mark 9:40; μετά , Matthew 12:30; after ἐπιθυμεῖν , Galatians 5:17; λαλεῖν , Acts 6:13; διδάσκειν , Acts 21:28; ψεύδεσθαι , James 3:14; after verbs of accusing, etc., Matthew 5:23, Luke 23:14, Romans 8:33, al.; verbs of fighting, prevailing, etc., Matthew 10:35, Acts 14:2, 1 Corinthians 4:6, al.;

(b) of swearing, by: ὄμνυμι κ . Bl., § 34, 1), Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:16, cf. Matthew 26:63.

II. C. acc (WM, § 49 d; B1., § 42, 2).

1. Of motion or direction;

(a) through, throughout: Luke 8:39; Luke 9:6; Luke 10:4, Acts 8:1; Acts 8:36 al.;

(b) to, towards, over against: Luke 10:32 (Field, Notes, 62), Acts 2:10; Acts 16:7, Galatians 2:11, Philippians 3:14, al.;

(c) in adverbial phrases, at, in, by, of: κατ᾿ οἶκον , at home, Acts 2:46; κατ᾿ ἰδίαν (see ἴδιος ); καθ᾿ ἑαντόν , Acts 28:16, Romans 14:22, James 2:17; c. prop. pers., Acts 17:28; Acts 18:15, Romans 1:15, Ephesians 1:15, al.

2. Of time, at, during, about: Acts 8:26; Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23, Romans 9:9, Hebrews 1:10, al.

3. Distributive;

(a) of place: κ . τόπους , Matthew 24:7, al.; κ . πόλιν , Luke 8:1; Luke 8:4 al.; κ . ἐκκλησίαν , Acts 14:23;

(b) of time: κ . ἔτος , Luke 2:41; ἑορτήν , Matthew 27:15, al.;

(c) of numbers, etc.: καθ᾿ ἕνα πάντες , 1 Corinthians 14:31 (on καθ᾿ εἷς , see εἷς ); κ . ἑκατόν , Mark 6:40; κ . μέρος , Hebrews 9:5; κ . ὄνομα , John 10:3.

4. Of fitness, reference, conformity, etc.;

(a) in relation to, concerning: Romans 1:3-4; Romans 7:22; Romans 9:3-5, 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18, Philippians 1:12; κ . πάντα , Acts 17:22, Colossians 3:20; Colossians 3:22 Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15;

(b) according to, after, like: Mark 7:5, Luke 2:27; Luke 2:29, John 7:24, Romans 8:4; Romans 14:15, Ephesians 2:2, Colossians 2:8, James 2:8, al.

III. In composition, κ . denotes,

1. down, down from (καταβαίνω , etc.), hence, metaph.;

(a) victory or rule over (καταδουλόω , -κυριεύω , etc.);

(b) "perfective" action (M, Pr., 111 ff.).

2. under (κατακαλύπτω , etc.).

3. in succession (καθεξῆς ).

4. after, behind (καταλείπω ).

5. Hostility, against (καταλαλέω ).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

κατά, the favourite preposition of Polybius, by whom it is often used in place of ἐν, εἰς, and περί (Krebs Präp. p. 4), is also found with considerable variety of application in the NT, where it occurs 73 times c. gen., and 391 times c. acc. (cf, Proleg. p. 105). Brugmann (Kurze Vergleichende Grammatik, p. 479) considers that the earliest use of the word was ";along"; something, so as to remain in connexion and contact with the object, and from this most of the senses found in the NT can be derived.

I. (1) Turning to the construction c. gen. we find that the meaning ";along"; has passed into ";down,"; a usage not found in MGr, in such passages as P Petr II. 18(2b).15 (B.C. 246) ἐπιπεσὼν ἔτυπτεν [αὐ ]τ [ ]ν κατὰ τοῦ τραχήλου, Chrest. I. 499.5 (ii/iii A.D.) the body of a mummy ἔχων τάβλαν κατὰ τοῦ τραχήλου : cf. Matthew 8:32, 1 Corinthians 11:4, 2 Corinthians 8:2.

(2) This in turn becomes ";against,"; as in Matthew 10:35, Mark 14:55, e.g. P Eleph 1.14 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 4) ὅπου ἂν ὲπεγφέρηι Ἡρακλεῖδης κατὰ Δημητρίας ἢ Δημητρία τε καὶ τοὶ μετὰ Δημητρίας πράσσοντες ἐπεγφέρωσιν κατὰ Ἡρακλείδου, ";wheresoever Heraclides brings the charge against Demetria, or Demetria and those acting with Demetria bring the charge against Heraclides,"; P Petr II. 2 (2).2 (B.C. 260) ἐκόμισέν μοι Δωρίμαχος ἔντευξιν κεχρηματισμένη [ν ] κατὰ Διονυσίου, ";Dorimachus brought me an official (or certified) petition against Dionysius"; (Ed.), P Par 45.7 (B.C. 153) προσέχων, μὴ εὕρῃ τι κατά σου ἰπῖν, P Tebt I. 7.3 (B.C. 114) ἐγκλήματα κατὰ τῶν ὑποτεταγμένων τῆι διοικήσει, ";complaints against subordinates of the finance administration,"; P Fay 12.8 (c. B.C. 103) ἐπέδωκα κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ περὶ τούτ ̣ω ̣[ν ] τὰς εἰθισμένας προσαγγελίας, ";I made the customary charges against him on these counts"; (Edd.), P Oxy VI. 898.34 (A.D. 123) κατ᾽ αὐτῆς προελθεῖν, ";to proceed against her."; This usage, which is only figurative in good Attic writers, is common in the Κοινή throughout the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, as the above exx. show : it is, however, lost in MGr (Thumb Handbook, p. 106).

(3) By a usage which in the NT is confined to Luke. (Luke 4:14 al.), and is always associated with ὅλος, κατά has also the force of ";throughout"; as in P Giss I. 48.8 (A.D. 202–3) κατὰ κυριακῆς γῆς : cf. Polyb. iii. 19. 7 κατὰ τῆς νήσου διεσπάρησαν. The phrase καθ᾽ ὕδατος is frequent with reference to land ";under water,"; e.g. BGU II. 571.11 (ii/A.D.) (as amended Archiv i. p. 151 n..8) ἀβρόχου καὶ καθ᾽ ὕδ (ατος), P Oxy VI. 918xi. 13. al. (ii/A.D.) αἱ οὖσ (αι) καθ᾽ ὕδ (ατος), of certain flooded arourae.

(4) Good exx. of the prep, in asseverations, oaths, as in Matthew 26:63, 1 Corinthians 15:15, Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:16, are afforded by P Par 63.39 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) λ ̣α ̣βεῖν μὴ μόνον ἐπὶ τῶ [ν ] θεῶν ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ ̣ τῶν βασιλέων, ";to exact oaths from you not only by the gods, but also by the kings"; (Mahaffy), P Par 574.1240 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 113) ἐξορκίζω σε δαῖμον, ὅστις ποτ᾽ οὖν εἷ, κατὰ τούτου τοῦ θεοῦ σαβαρβαρβαθιωθ, ";I adjure thee, O demon, whoever thou art, by the God Sabarbarbathiôth.";

II. (1) When we pass to κατά c. acc., we are at once met with a number of instances of the κατά phrase forming a mere periphrasis (a) for the possessive pronoun, or (b) for the gen. of a subst., or even (c) for an adj.

(a) The following are examples of the first class of these periphrases—P Eleph 13.3 (B.C. 223–2) ἐχάρην ἐπὶ τῶι με αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατὰ σέ, ";I was glad when I had learned your affairs,"; P Leid Bi. 9 (B.C. 164) ἐπὶ τῆς καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς λειτουργίας, P Tebt I. 24.64 (B.C. 117) τῆς καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς ἀσχολία (= –ίας), P Tor I. 1ii. 32 (B.C. 116) ὑπόμνημα ὑπὲρ τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτούς, P Tebt I. 7.5 (B.C. 114) μηδ᾽ ἄλλοις ἐπιτρέπειν κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς διεξάγειν, ";nor allow others to decide their case";(Edd.), and OGIS 168.17 (B.C. 115) παραγεγονότες εἰς τοὺς καθ᾽ ὑμ [ᾶς τόπους. For τὰ κατ᾽ ἐμέ, as in Philippians 1:12 al., we may add the illiterate P Oxy I. 120.14 (iv/A.D.) ἄχρις ἂν γνῶ πῶς τὰ κατ᾽ αἰμαὶ ἀποτίθαιται (l. ἐμὲ ἀποτίθεται). For further exx. of this usage in late Greek see Schmidt Jos. P. 390, Kälker Quaest. p. 282 f.

(b) The periphrasis for the gen. of a subst. is seen in P Hib I. 82.19 (B.C. 239–8) τὰ κατὰ τὴν γραμματείαν, ";the duties of the scribe’s office,"; P Tebt I. 5.25 (B.C. 118) ἐπὶ τῶν κατ᾽ Ἀλεξά (νδρειαν) ὅρ [μων, ";at the harbours of Alexandria,"; ib. 13.17 (B.C. 114) τὰ κατ [ὰ τ ]ὴν ἐπισ (τατείαν) τ ̣[ῆς κ ]ω ̣(μης), ";the duties of epistates of the village,"; ib. 16.5 (B.C. 114) περὶ τῶν κατὰ Πολέμωνα, ";regarding the case of Polemon,"; ib. 105.47 (B.C. 103) τὰ κατὰ τὴ [ν μ ]ίσθωσιν, ";the provisions of the lease,"; P Lond 1164(k).20 (A.D. 212)(= III. p. 167) ὑπὸ [το ]ῦ κατὰ πατέρα μου ἀνεψειοῦ, and Polyb. iii. 11 3. 1 ἡ κατὰ τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατολή.

(c) This usage went even the length of a κατά phrasetaking the place of an adj., as in P Hib I. 27.42 (B.C. 301–240) ταῖς κατὰ σελήνη [ν ] ἡμέραις, ";the lunar days.";

(2) For κατά, ";according to,"; of standard, law, rule, as in Romans 10:2, 1 Corinthians 7:6, 2 Corinthians 8:8, Hebrews 11:13, cf. P Petr II. 11(1).1 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 7), τὰ λοιπά σοι κατὰ γνώμην ἐστίν, P Tebt I. 40.25 (B.C. 117) κατὰ τοὺς τῆς κώμης ἐθισμούς, P Oxy I. 37ii. 8 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) κατὰ τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου ἡγεμόνος κριθέντα, Chrest. I. 352.11 (A.D. 117) κατὰ <τὰ > κελευσθέντα, ib..17 κατὰ τὸ ἔθος (cf. Luke 1:8), and from the inscrr. OGIS 56.33 (B.C. 237) κατὰ τὸ πρότερον γραφὲν ψήφισμα. Similarly κατὰ λόγον, as in Acts 18:14, ";in accordance with what is right, befitting,"; is common in epistolary’phrases, e.g. P Eleph 13.1 (B.C. 223–2) εἰ ἔρρω [σ ]αι καὶ τὰ λοιπά σοι κατὰ λόγον ἐστίν, εἴη ἂν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω, ";if you are well, and other things are going rightly, it would be as I wish,"; P Lond 42.2 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 9) εἰ ἐρρωμένωι τἄλλα κατὰ λόγον ἀπαντᾶι, εἴη ἂν ὡς τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχομένη διατελῶ, P Goodsp Cairo 4.3 (ii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 24), P Par 63.5 (B.C. 165).

We may note here the use of κατά in the titles of the Gospels, where it practically points to authorship (cf. Zahn Introd. ii. pp. 387 f., 396f.). MGr κατὰ τὸ νόμο, ";according to the law,"; κατὰ τὸν καιρό, ";according to the weather"; (Thumb Handbook, p. 106). Κατά has a local sense in P Oxy VI. 904.6 (v/A.D.) πληγαῖς κατακοπτόμενον κατὰ τὸ σῶμα, ";belaboured with blows on my body"; : cf. Romans 7:22, Ephesians 6:5.

(3) This brings us to the idea of ";throughout"; with reference to place, as in P Hib I. 82.19 (B.C. 239–8) κατὰ τόπον, ";throughout the district,"; P Tebt I. 8.8 (c. B.C. 201) ἐν τοῖς κατὰ Λέσβον καὶ Θραίκην τόποις, ib. 5.188 (B.C. 118) τοὺς κατὰ τὴν χώραν φυ (λακίτας), OGIS 90.7 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἐκ τῶν κατὰ τὴν χώραν ἱερῶν, and the contracted κατὴν (= κατὰ τὴν) χώραν P Par 63.93 (B.C. 165) (= P Petr III. p. 26). An interesting memorial inscr. from Egypt, published in Archiv v. p. 168 f., commemorates one who has been laid between his mother and brother—ὧν καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη κατὰ τὸν κόσμον λελάληται.

(4) The meaning ";during,"; ";about,"; with reference to time is common—P Lille I. 1 recto.14 (B.C. 259–8) κατὰ χειμῶνα, ";pendant l’hiver,"; P Tebt I. 28.9 (c. B.C. 114) κατὰ τὸ παρόν, ";at the present time,"; ib. 27.60 (B.C. 113) κατὰ θερείαν, ";in summer,"; P Oxy XIV. 1635.11 (B.C. 44–37) κατὰ τὸν βίον, ";for his lifetime,"; and OGIS 90.27 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) καθ᾽ ὃν καιρόν. Cf. MGr κατὰ τὰ μεσάνυκτα, ";about midnight,"; and the common usage to indicate direction towards something, e.g. ἔρχεται κατὰ τὸ χωριό, ";he is coming towards the village"; (see Thumb Handbook, p. 105 f.).

(5) The distributive force of κατά is well seen in the contract of apprenticeship P Oxy IV. 725.36 (A.D. 183) ἀργήσει δὲ ὁ παῖς εἰς λόγον ἑορτῶν κατ᾽ ἔτος (cf. Luke 2:41) ἡμέρας εἴκοσι, ";the boy shall have 20 holidays in the year on account of festivals"; (Edd.) : see further s.v. ἔτος, where the form καθ᾽ ἕτος is also illustrated, and cf. Michel 1001vi. 24 (c. B.C. 200) καθ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν (cf. Hebrews 9:25). Other exx. of distributive κατά are P Oxy II. 275.18 (B.C. 66) κατὰ μῆνα, P Par 26.13 (B.C. 163–2) (= Selections, p. 14) τὰ ἑαυτῶν καθ᾽ ἡμέραν δέοντα, ";their daily necessities,"; P Giss I. 17.10 (time of Hadrian) οὐ βλέπομέν σε καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, and P Tebt II. 412.2 (late ii/A.D.) τὸ προσκύνημά σου κατ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ποιῶ, ";I make supplications for you every day."; For the Lukan phrase τὸ καθ᾽ ἡμέραν (Luke 11:8; Luke 19:47, Acts 17:11) we may compare the reference in a bailiff’s letter to his ";diary"; or journal—P Oxy IX. 1220.4 (iii/A.D.) ]ν ̣έπεμψά σοι διὰ σημι [ ]σεως τὸ καθ᾽ ἡμέρα (= αν) τοῦ ἀναλώματος ἣν (l. ἵν᾽ εἰδῇς, ";I send in some notes the daily account of our expenditure for your information."; Cf. also P Lond 904.20 (A.D. 104) (= III. p. 125, Selections, p. 73) τῆς κατ᾽ οι ̣̓[κίαν ἀπογραφῆς, ";the house-to-house census"; (cf. Acts 2:46; Acts 5:42), and the magical formula P Oxy VI. 886.19 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections p. 111) ἐρε (l. αἶρε) κατὰ δύο δύο, ";lift them (viz. palm leaves on which were written the names of the gods) two by two,"; which may illustrate Luke 10:1 BK (cf. Proleg. p. 97, Thackeray Gr. i. p. 54 f.). For the phrase τὸ δὲ καθ᾽ εἷς in Romans 12:5 (cf. Mark 14:19, John 8:9) cf. τὸ καθ᾽ ἕν as the heading of a list of articles etc.—P Tebt I. 47.34 (B.C. 113) ἔστιν δὲ τὸ καθ᾽ ἕν · θύραν μυρικί (νην), σκαφεῖα β ̄, al., ";the list is : a door of tamarisk-wood, two hoes"; etc., also P Rein 17.8 (B.C. 109) where, after the mention of certain agricultural implements and other objects, it is added—ὧν τὸ καθ᾽ ἓν ὑποκεῖται, ";of which the list is given below,"; P Ryl II. 65i. 9 (B.C. 67) πλείονα σώματα ὧν τὸ καθ᾽ ἓν ἐπὶ τῆς [ ]σομένης [διεξα ]γωγῆς σημανθήσεται, ";a number of corpses, the details of which will appear in the forthcoming inquiry"; (Edd.), ib. 127.15, .24 (A.D. 29). The phrase κατ᾽ ὄνομα, ";individually,"; ";one by one,"; occurs frequently in closing greetings, as in 3 Jn.15, e.g. BGU I. 27.18 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 102) ἀσπάζομαι. . . πάντες (= –ας) τοὺς φιλοῦντάς σε κατ᾽ ὄνομα, P Tebt II. 422.16 (iii/A.D.) ἀσπάζομαι. . τοὺς ἐνοίκους πάντες (= –ας) κα [τ ]᾽ ὄνομα, P Meyer 23.13 (end of iv/A.D.) ἀσπάζομα ̣ι ὑμᾶς πάντας κ ̣α ̣τ᾽ ὄνομα. For the similar use of κατ᾽ ἄνδρα see P Amh II. 69.8 (A.D. 154) καταχω (ρίζομεν) ὑμεῖν μέτρημ (α) κατ᾽ ἄνδρα ἰσδοχῆς ἀπὸ Παῦνι ἕως Μ [εσ ]ορή, ";we report to you the individual amounts received by us from Pauni to Mesore"; (Edd.), ib. .13 κατ᾽ ἄνδρα καταγωγῆς, ";individual deliveries,"; and P Lond 259.73 (A.D. 94–5) (= II. p. 38) διὰ τῶν. . κατ᾽ ἄνδρα λόγων. In ib. 604.3 (A.D. 47) (= III. p. 71) we have κάτανδρα for κατ᾽ ἄνδρα, and in P Tebt I. 72.17 (B.C. 114) the phrase is contracted into κἄνδρα according to Mayser Gr. p. 145. With the distributive κατά cf. in MGr καθείς, καθένας, καθέτις (κάθα εἷς), ";every one,"; and such a phrase as ὀλίγο κατ᾽ ὀλίγο, ";little by little.";

III. A few miscellaneous phrases may conclude this long note. Thus c. gen. we have P Tor II. 12.7 (Ptol.) οὐ γεγόγενεν (l. γέγονεν) ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν ὠνηὶ κατὰ τῆς οἰκείας, ";emptio tuae domûs";—";Graecitas vere barbara"; (Ed.), and P Fay 32.14 (A.D. 131) ἐὰν δέ τι κατὰ τούτ (ου) ἐξοικονομῶ, πρότερον ἀποδίξω ὑπάρχειν, ";if I alienate any of my rights over it, I will first establish my title to the ownership"; (Edd.). With the acc. we have P Tebt I. 104.18 (B.C. 92) κατὰ δύναμιν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτοῖς, ";so far as their property shall admit,"; ib. 27iii. 83 (B.C. 113) ἡ δ᾽ εἴσπραξις τῶν προεθησομένων παρὰ σοῦ κατὰ κράτος ἔσται, ";and any losses will be rigorously exacted from you"; (Edd.), OGIS 90.26 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) τήν τε πόλιν κατὰ κράτος εἷλεν, P Tebt I. 6.24 (B.C. 140–39) τῶν κατὰ μέρος ἐθνῶν, ";the several associations,"; ib. II. 382.24 (B.C. 30–A.D. 1) πάντ [α ] τὰ [κ ]ατὰ δύο μέρηι, ";all that pertains to the two shares,"; P Petr II. 11 (1).7 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) τοῦτο δὲ γίνεται διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀθροῦν ἡμᾶς, ἀλλὰ κατὰ μικρὸν λαμβάνειν, ";this happens because we do not get our money in a lump sum, but in small instalments,"; P Tebt I. 5.253 (B.C. 118) κατὰ μηδεμίαν παρεύρεσι (= -σιν), ";on no pretext whatsoever,"; ib..87 (B.C. 118) κατὰ τοῦτο, ";on this account,"; ";in consequence,"; ib. II. 381.14 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 78) ἕτερα καθ᾽ ὃν δήποτε οὖν τρόπον, ";other things of whatsoever kind,"; P Lond 904.21 (A.D. 104) (= III. p. 125, Selections, p. 73) καθ᾽ ἥ [ντινα ] δήποτε αἰτ [ίαν (cf. 2 Maccabees 14:3, 3 Maccabees 7:7), and P Tebt I. 42.5 (c. B.C. 114) ἠδικημένος καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπ [ ] Ἁρμιύσιος, ";having been excessively wronged by Harmiusis."; The marriage contract P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections, p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτὸ ὅπου ἂν δοκῆι ἄριστον εἶναι, ";and that we should live together wherever it may seem best"; supports the rendering of κατὰ τὸ αὐτό in Acts 14:1 AV, RV. On the other hand, the meaning similiter, ";after the same manner,"; preferred by Blass ad l., and adopted for κατὰ τὰ αὐτά in Luke 17:30 RV, is found in the Will P Eleph 2.6 (B.C. 285–4) ἐὰν δέ τι πάσχηι Διονύσιος, καταλειπέτω τὰ ὑπάρχοντα πᾶσιν τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῖς αὑτοῦ, κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ καὶ Καλλίστα ἐάν τι πάσχηι, καταλειπέτω τὰ ὑπάρχοντα κτλ. ; cf. OGIS 56.66 (B.C. 237) ἐξεῖναι δὲ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις παρθένοις ταῖς βουλομέναις συντελεῖν τὰ νόμιμα τῆι θεῶι.

On the derivation of κατά, and its use in composition, see Moulton Gr. ii. § 121.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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