the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #331 - ἀνάθεμα
- a thing set up or laid by in order to be kept
- specifically, an offering resulting from a vow, which after being consecrated to a god was hung upon the walls or columns of the temple, or put in some other conspicuous place
- a thing devoted to God without hope of being redeemed, and if an animal, to be slain; therefore a person or thing doomed to destruction
- a curse
- a man accursed, devoted to the direst of woes
poet. ἄνθεμα, ατος, τό, (ἀνατίθημι)
1.properly, like cross ἀνάθημα, anything dedicated, Theoc. 13.2, AP 6.162 (Mel.), CIG 2693d (Mylasa), al., Phld. Mus. p.85 K.
2. anything devoted to evil, an accursed thing, LXX Leviticus 27:28, Deuteronomy 7:26; Deuteronomy 13:17, al.; of persons..Romans 9:3; 1 Corinthians 12:3, etc.
II curse, Tab.Defix.Aud. 41 B (Megara, i/ii A. D.), cf. sq.
ἀνάθεμα, (τος, τό (equivalent to τό ἀνατεθειμένον);
1. properly, a thing set up or laid by in order to be kept; specifically a votive offering, which after being consecrated to a god was hung upon the walls or columns of his temple, or put in some other conspicuous place: 2 Macc. 2:13 (Plutarch, Pelop c. 25); Luke 21:5 in L T, for ἀναθήμασι R G Tr WH; for the two forms are sometimes confounded in the manuscripts; Moeris, ἀνάθημα ἀττικῶς, ἀνάθεμα ἑλληνικῶς. Cf. ἐπίθημα, ἐπίθεμα, etc., in Lob. ad Phryn., p. 249 (cf. 445; Paral. 417; see also Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 41).
2. ἀνάθεμα in the Sept. is generally the translation of the Heb. חֵרֶם, a thing devoted to God without hope of being redeemed, and, if an animal, to be slain (Leviticus 27:28, 29); therefore a person or thing doomed to destruction, Joshua 6:17; Joshua 7:12, etc. (Winer's Grammar, 32); a thing abominable and detestable, an accursed thing, Deuteronomy 7:26. Hence, in the N. T. ἀνάθεμα denotes a. a curse: ἀναθέματι ἀναθεματίζειν, Acts 23:14 (Winers Grammar, 466 (484); Buttmann, 184 (159)).
b. a man accursed, devoted to the direst woes (equivalent to ἐπικατάρατος): ἀνάθεμα ἔστω, Galatians 1:8; 1 Corinthians 16:22; ἀνάθεμα λέγειν τινα to execrate one, 1 Corinthians 12:3 (R G, but L T Tr WH have restored ἀνάθεμα Ἰησοῦς, namely, ἔστω); ἀνάθεμα εἶναι ἀπό τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 9:3 (pregnantly equivalent to doomed and so separated from Christ). Cf. the full remarks on this word in Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., 247ff; Wieseler on Galatians, p. 39ff; (a translation of the latter by Prof. Riddle in Schaff's Lange on Romans, p. 302ff; see also Trench, § v.; Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited; Ellicott ibid.; Tholuck on Romans, the passage cited; BB. DD., under the words, Anathema, Excommunication).
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† ἀνάθεμα , -τος , τό
(< ἀνατίθημι ),
Hellenistic for Attic ἀνάθημα (Bl., § 27, 2);
1. prop. = τὸ ἀνατιθέμένον , that which is laid by to be kept, a votive offering (as ἀνάθημα in 2 Maccabees 2:13, Luke 21:5—where LT read -θεμα , v. M, Pr., 46).
2. [As equiv. in LXX for H2764,] devoted, a thing devoted to God (v. Driver, De., 98 f., and cf. Leviticus 27:28-29), hence;
(a) of the sentence pronounced (Deuteronomy 13:15), a curse: Acts 23:14;
(b) of the object on which the curse is laid, accursed (Deuteronomy 7:26): Romans 9:3, 1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 16:22, Galatians 1:8-9 (v. ICC on Ro.; Lft., Ga., ll. c.; Cremer, 547; Tr., Syn., § v; MM, VGT, s.v.).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Deissmann’s discovery of ἀνάθεμα in the ";Biblical Greek"; sense, in a source entirely independent of Jewish influence, is a remarkable confirmation of his general thesis. At the end of a heathen curse from Megara, belonging to i/ii A.D., there is a separate line of large letters ΑΝΕΘΕΜΑ which he (LAE p. 92 f.) interprets as = ἀνάθεμα —";curse!"; The weakening of the accented α to ε is explained as a vulgar Greek extension of the augment to a derivative (cf. Nägeli p. 49, following Wackernagel). See on this the plentiful material in Hatzidakis Einleitung, p. 64 f. The verb occurs three times in the same curse, l. 5 ἀναθεματίζ [ομ ]εν αὐτούς, l. 8 ἀναθεμα [τί ]ζομεν, and on the back l. 8 f. ἀναθεματί [ζ ]ομεν τούτο [υς ]. For the complete text, as originally edited by Wünsch, see IG III. 2, and also his Antike Fluchtafeln, p. 4 ff. Newton (Essays in Archœology, p. 193 f.) describes a number of leaden tablets of about B.C. 150 discovered at Knidos, in a sacred precinct dedicated to Persephone and other deities, which were graven with similar anathemata. The person on whom the curse was to fall was always devoted to the vengeance of the two Infernal Goddesses, Demeter and her daughter, ";May he or she never find Persephone propitious!"; With 1 Corinthians 16:21 may be compared the ending of a sepulchral inscription (iv/v A.D.) from Attica, where on any one’s interfering with the remains the curse is called down—ἀνάθεμαἤτω μαρὰν ἀθὰν (see Roberts-Gardner 387) : the meaning of the Aramaic σύμβολον being wholly unknown, it could be used as a curse—like unknown words in later days! It should be noted that the new meaning ";curse"; naturally attached itself to the late form ἀνάθεμα rather than to the older ἀνάθημα. Nouns in -μα tended to develop weak root-form by association with those in -σις, which always had it. The noun is MGr : thus ἀνάθεμα ἐσένα, ";a curse on you"; (Thumb, Handbook p. 38).
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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