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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3639 - ὄλεθρος
- ruin, destroy, death
- for the destruction of the flesh, said of the external ills and troubles by which the lusts of the flesh are subdued and destroyed
I ruin, destruction, death, αἰπὺς ὄ. Il. 11.174, al.; λυγρὸς ὄ. 10.174, al.; ὄ. ἀδευκής Od. 4.489; οἴκτιστος ὄ. 23.79; ἵνα ψυχῆς ὤκιστος ὄ. Il. 22.325; ὀλέθρου πείρατα, like τέλος θανάτοιο, the consummation of death, 6.143; ὄ., opp. γένεσις, Parm. 8.21, 27; οὐκ εἰς ὄλεθρον; as an imprecation, plague take thee! S. OT 430; χρημάτων ὀλέθρῳ by destruction of property. Th. 7.27; εἶναι ἐν ὀλέθρῳ Antipho 1.29; ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ τῶν χρωμένων E. Ph. 534; ἐκκλησιάζειν ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ Ar. Th. 84; οὐκ ἐπὶ δουλείᾳ κολάζοντες οὐδ' ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ Pl. R. 471a: pl., Phld. Rh. 2.140S.
II that which causes destruction, pest, plague, Hes. Th. 326; contemptuously of persons, γεγονὼς κακῶς καὶ ἐὼν ὄ. Hdt. 3.142; ὑπὸ γερόντων ὀ. Ar. Lys. 325; ὄ. ἄνθρωπος Eup. 376, cf. Men. 533.13; ὄ. Μακεδών, of Philip, D. 9.31; ὄ. γραμματεύς a pestilent scribe, of Aeschines, Id. 18.127; τὸν βάσκανον, τὸν δ' ὄ. the cheat, the pest! Id. 21.209; ἀνθρώπους οὐδ' ἐλευθέρους ἀλλ' ὀ. Id. 23.202; πολλοὶ ὄ. καὶ μεγάλοι Pl. R. 491b.
III seduction, Ἑλένης E. IA 1382 (troch.).
ὀλέθριος , -ον
(also -α , -ον , as in Wis, l.c.),
[in LXX : 1 Kings 20:42 (H2764), Wisdom of Solomon 18:15*;]
destructive, deadly: δίκην , 2 Thessalonians 1:9, L, txt (for ὄλωεθρος ,, q.v.).†
ὄλεθρος , -ον
(< ὄλλυμι , to destroy),
ruin, destruction, death: 1 Thessalonians 5:3, 1 Timothy 6:9; αἰώνιος , 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (L, txt., ὀλέθριος , q.v.); εἰς ὄ . τῆς σαρκός , for physical discipline, to destroy carnal lusts, 1 Corinthians 5:5.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
ὅς is found as a demonstrative pronoun in P Ryl II. 144.14 (complaint of assault—A.D. 38) ὃς δὲ ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου ἄλογον ἀηδίαν μοι ἐπιχειρήσας παρεχρήσατό μοι πολλὰ καὶ ἄσχημα, ";whereupon he opposing me made a brutal and odious attack upon me and subjected me to much shameful mishandling"; (Edd.) : cf. Mark 15:23,John 5:11. For ὃς μέν. . . ὃς δέ, ";the one . . the other,"; as in Matthew 21:35 al., see P Oxy IX. 1189.7 (c. A.D. 117) ἐπιστολὰς δύο ἃς ἔγραψα ἣν μὲν σοὶ ἣν δέ Σαβείνῳ, and for ὃς δέ solitarium see PSI. IV. 313.8 (iii/iv A.D.) with the editor’s note.
Ὃς ἄν (ἐάν) c. conj. = ";whosoever"; may be illustrated by P Par 46.22 (B.C. 153) (= Witkowski.2, p. 87), περὶ ὧν ἂν βούληι γράφε, P Grenf I. 30.6 (B.C. 103) ἐ [φ ]᾽ οἷς ἂν οὖν ὑμῶν προσδέωνται, P Oxy IV. 743.33 (B.C. 2) ἐν οἷς ἐὰν σοῦ προσδέηται, 39 ὑπὲρ ὧν ἐὰν θέλῃς. For the comparative usage of ὃς ἄν and ὃς ἐάν, see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 68, ited s.v. ἄν. The relative preceding its ";antecedent"; is common, e.g. P Amh II. 35.16 (B.C. 132) τῶν ἐκφορίων ἧς γεωργοῦσι ἱερᾶς γῆς Σοκνοπαίου θεου μεγάλου, ";the rents of the land sacred to the great god Soknopaeus which they cultivate"; (Edd.).
Pleonastic ὅς is seen in P Ryl II. 160.3 (A.D. 28–9) ὁν (l. ὧν) τὰ μέτρα ὅλης τῆς οἰκίας καὶ αὐλῆς ἃ πρόγειται, ";of which the measurements and adjacent areas of the whole house and court are as aforesaid"; (Edd.). Cf. also P OxyI.117.15 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐξ ὧν δώσεις τοῖς παιδίοις σου ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν, ";one of which please give to your children"; (Edd.).
A few exx. may be cited of ὅς with prepositions—P Petr II. 40 (a).26 (iii/B.C.) (= III. p. 149, Witkowski.2, p. 42) ἀφ᾽ οὗ (cf. Luke 13:25) ἡ ἐλεφαντηγὸς κατεποντίσθη, BGU I. 252.9 (A.D. 98) ἀφ᾽ ἧς (sc. ἡμέρας, cf. the ellipsis of ὥρας in Luke 7:45) [ἐὰ ]ν ἀπα [ι ]τ [η ]θῇ : P Petr II. II (1).8 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) γράφε δ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ σύ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἶς εἶ, P Tebt I. 58.41 (B.C. III) (= Witkowski.2, p. 104) ἐν οἷς εἰσιν (";in quo numero comprehenduntur";) οἱ διὰ τοῦ νομοῦ κω (μο)γρ (αμματεῖς) : P Oxy VII.1027.6 (i/A.D.) ἐξ οὗ καὶ ἐξεχομένου μου τῆς τῶ [ν ] ἠνεχυρασμένων προσβολῆς, ";when I there fore pursued my right of entry upon the transferred property"; (Ed.) : P Amh II. 31.16 (B.C. 112) ἐφ᾽ ὧι (cf. Romans 5:12) ταξαμένη ἕξε ̣ι ̣ ἐν φυτείαι τὸν τόπον φοίνιξι, ";on the understanding that, having paid this sum, she shall retain the plot planted with palms"; (Edd.), P Oxy II. 286.12 (A.D. 82) ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἄλλοις ἡ ἀσφάλεια περιέχει, ";with the other guarantees contained in the agreement"; (Edd.) : BGU III. 846.12 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 94) παιπαίδ ̣δευμαι, καθ᾽ ὃν δῖ (= δεῖ, Wilcken) τρόπον, ";punished I have been, as I deserve"; : and P Ryl II. 144.13 (A.D. 38) ὑπὲρ οὗ ἔχω πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐνεχύρου, ";concerning a pledge I have against him"; (Edd.).
Τίς is used for ὅς in BGU III. 822.5 (iii/A.D.) εὗρον γεο (= ω)ργόν, τίς αὐτὰ ἑλκύσῃ, ἀλλὰ τὰ σπέρματα τίς διδοῖ : —a usage of which there is no instance in the NT. On the other hand Radermacher (Gr. p. 63 note) finds in Matthew 26:50 ἑταῖρε, ἐφ᾽ ὃ πάρει the earliest ex. of ὅς in place of the interrogative τίς, and refers to Usener Der hl. Tychon, p. 50. He thus supports the AV rendering of Mt l.c. : cf. Sharp Epict. p. 41 f. For another suggestion see Rendel Harris, Exp T xxxv. p. 523 f.
In MGr ὅς is rarely used even in writing, and has disappeared in common speech; ";so simple a form ceased to satisfy the desire for emphasis"; (Jebb in Vincent and Dickson, Handbook to Modern Greek, p. 302). It survives in the compound ἐνῷ, ";during,"; ";while"; (cf. ἐν ᾧ Mark 2:19, Luke 5:34, John 5:7).
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