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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3694 - ὀπίσω
- back, behind, after, afterwards
- of place: things that are behind
- of time: after
ὀπίσσω, the former rare in Hom. and only in signf. 1; Aeol. ὐπίσσω Sapph. Supp. 8.9: —
1. of Place, backwards, opp. to πρόσω, Il. 12.272; to προπρηνές, 3.218; ἀνεχάζετο τυτθὸν ὀπίσσω 5.443; ἀ. πολλὸν ὀ. 16.710; πάλιν εἶσιν ὀπίσσω Od. 11.149: in Prose also, τὸ ὀπίσω, contr. τοὐπίσω, τὸ ὀ. φεύγειν Hdt. 1.207, cf. 8.108; ἄναγε εἰς τοὐπίσω Pl. R. 528a, cf. Th. 4.4, Arist. Fr. 106, etc.; [γνάμ]φθη δ' ὀπίσσω [φάσγα]νον B. 12.53; τὰ ὀ. the hinder parts, LXX Joel 2:20; τοῦ προπύλου τὸ ὀ. μέρος SIG 756.17 (Athens, i B. C.); τὴν ὀ. τοῦ προπύλου στέγην ib.12; ἐκ τοῦ ὀ. on the back (of the papyrus), BGU 1002.16 (i B. C.); τἀπίλοιπα ὀ. PTeb. 58.37 (ii B. C.).
2. back, back again, of movement, ἀπήνυσαν οἴκαδ' ὀπίσσω Od. 7.326; ὀπίσω πάλιν οἴκαδε Pi. N. 3.62; ἂψ ὀ. Theoc. 25.74; ἀπίκοντο ὀ. Hdt. 1.62; ὀ. πορευόμενοι ib. 75; ὀ. ἀναπλῶσαι ib. 78; ἐν τῇ ὀ. κομιδῇ on his way back, Id. 8.120, cf. 1.111, etc.
3. back again, again, of action that reverses an action or occurrence, ἀνακτᾶσθαι ὀ. τὴν τυραννίδα ib. 61, cf. 68, 2.14; ἀποδόντες ὀ. Id. 5.92. γ'; σφραγίζεις λύεις τ' ὀπίσω E. IA 38 (anap.).
4. c. gen., δεῦτε ὀ. μου come after me, follow me, Matthew 4:19.
1. of Time, hereafter, since the future is unseen and was therefore regarded as behind us, whereas the past is known and therefore before our eyes, ἡμῖν τεκέεσσί τ' ὀπίσσω πῆμα λίποιτο Il. 3.160; Τρῳαὶ δέ μ' ὀπίσσω πᾶσαι μωμήσονται ib. 411, cf. Hes. Op. 741, Th. 488; ἔς περ ὀπίσσω Od. 20.199 (εἰσοπίσω S. Ph. 1104 (lyr.)); opp. to νῦν, τούτῳ δ' οὔτ' ἂρ νῦν φρένες ἔμπεδοι [εἰσίν], οὔτ' ἄρ' ὀπίσσω ἔσσονται Il. 6.352; to προπάροιθε, σεῖο δ', Ἀχιλλεῦ, οὔ τις ἀνὴρ προπάροιθε [ἦν] μακάρτατος, οὔτ' ἄρ' ὀπίσσω [ἔσσεται] Od. 11.483; where ὀπίσσω and πρόσσω are opposed, πρόσσω must be the past and ὀπίσσω the future, οἶδε νοῆσαι ἅμα πρόσσω καὶ ὀπίσσω Il. 1.343; ἅμα πρόσσω καὶ ὀ. λεύσσει 3.109; ὅρα πρόσσω καὶ ὀ. 18.250, Od. 24.452; so ὅσα τ' ἦν ὅσα τ' ἔσθ' ὅσα τ' ἔσται ὀπίσσω Emp. 21.9 (ap. Arist. Metaph. 1000a30); οὔτ' ἐνθάδ' ὁρῶν οὔτ' ὀπίσω neither present nor future, S. OT 488 (lyr.); τοὐπίσω σκοπεῖν E. Fr. 49; θνητὸς πεφυκὼς τοὐπίσω πειρῶ βλέπειν Isid.Trag. 2; cf. ὄπισθεν 11.1.
2. ἐν τοῖσι ὀ. λόγοις in the books yet to come, in the following books, Hdt. 1.75; cf. ὄπισθεν 11.2.
ὀπίσω ((perhaps) from ἡ ὄπις; and this from ἐπω, ἕπομαι, to follow (but cf. Vanicek, p. 530)), adverb of place and time, from Homer down; the Sept. for אַחַר, אָחור and especially for אַחֲרֵי; (at the) back, behind, after;
1. adverbially of place: ἑστάναι, Luke 7:38; ἐπιστρέψαι ὀπίσω, back, Matthew 24:18 (ὑποστρέφειν ὀπίσω, Josephus, Antiquities 6, 1, 3); τά ὀπίσω, the things that are behind, Philippians 3:13 (14); εἰς τά ὀπίσω ἀπέρχεσθαι, to go backward, Vulg. abire retrorsum, John 18:6; to return home, of those who grow recreant to Christ's teaching and cease to follow him, John 6:66; στρέφεσθαι, to turn oneself back, John 20:14; ἐπιστρέφειν, to return back to places left, Mark 13:16; Luke 17:31; ὑποστρέψαι εἰς τά ὀπίσω, tropically, of those who return to the manner of thinking and living already abandoned, 2 Peter 2:21 Lachmann; βλέπειν (Vulg. (aspicere or)respicere retro (A. V. to look back)), Luke 9:62.
2. By a usage unknown to Greek authors, as a preposition with the genitive (Winers Grammar, § 54, 6; Buttmann, § 146, 1);
a. of place: Revelation 1:10 (WH marginal reading ὄπισθεν);
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of place and time,
[in LXX chiefly for H310 and cogn. forms;]
1. prop., as in cl., adv.,
(a) of time (not in NT);
(b) of place, back, behind, after: Matthew 24:18, Luke 7:38; τὰ ὀ ., Philippians 3:13; εἰς τὰ ὀ ., Mark 13:16, Luke 9:62; Luke 17:31, John 6:66; John 18:6; John 20:14.
2. By a usage not found in cl., and in LXX representing the Heb. prep. H310 (Bl., § 40, 8; Thackeray, Gr., 46 f.), but also prob. general in vernacular (M, Pr., 99), as prep. c. gen.;
(a) of time, after: Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:7 John 1:15; John 1:27; John 1:30;
(b) of place, behind, after: Matthew 4:19; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 16:23-24, Mark 1:17; Mark 1:20; Mark 8:33-34, Luke 9:33; Luke 14:27; Luke 19:14; Luke 21:8, 2 Peter 2:10, Judges 1:7, Revelation 1:10; Revelation 12:15; in constr. praegn. (v. Swete on Re, l.c.), John 12:19, Acts 5:17; Acts 20:30, 1 Timothy 5:15, Revelation 13:3.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
We are unable to illustrate from our sources the metaphorical meaning which this word has on its only occurrence in the NT (2 Corinthians 10:4), but for the original force of ";stronghold,"; ";prison"; (as in Genesis 39:20), cf. P Petr II. 13(3).8 (B.C. 258–53) τὸ πρὸς νότον [τ ]οῦ ὀχυρώματος, ";the wall to the south of the prison,"; P Strass II. 85.23 (B.C. 113) ἀπὸ τῆς ἐντὸς τοῦ ὀχυρώματος οἰκίας ὠικοδομημένης, and OGIS 455.14 (B.C. 39). For ὀχύρωσις see P Lille I. 3.21 (after B.C. 241–0) εἰς ὀχύρωσιν. The verb is found in the Petrie papyri of strengthening the dykes in view of the rise of the Nile, e.g. II. 9(1).8 (B.C. 241–39) τοῦ γὰρ ποταμοῦ πρὸς πόντα τὰ χώματα προσβαίνοντ [ος τὰ π ]άντα ὀχ [υρῶσ ]αι δεῖ : cf. OGIS 90.25 (the Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) τὰ πεδία κατέσχεν ἐκ πολλῶν τόπων ὀχυρώσας τὰ στόματα τῶν ποταμῶν (";canals";).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.