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Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical DictionaryHebrew Lexicon

Strong's #854 - אֵת

Root Word (Etymology)
probably from (H579)
Parts of Speech
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1) with, near, together with

1a) with, together with

1b) with (of relationship)

1c) near (of place)

1d) with (poss.)

1e) from...with, from (with other preposition)

Greek Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 3694 ‑ ὀπίσω (op‑is'‑o);  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (24)
Genesis 15
Exodus 1
Leviticus 1
Deuteronomy 1
Joshua 1
Judges 1
1 Kings 2
1 Chronicles 1
Ezekiel 1
NAS (68)
Genesis 6
Exodus 3
Leviticus 2
Numbers 4
Deuteronomy 3
Joshua 4
Judges 2
1 Samuel 4
2 Samuel 2
1 Kings 3
2 Kings 3
2 Chronicles 1
Esther 1
Job 1
Psalms 6
Proverbs 4
Isaiah 4
Jeremiah 8
Lamentations 1
Ezekiel 4
Micah 1
Zephaniah 1
HCS (741)
Genesis 114
Exodus 32
Leviticus 21
Numbers 39
Deuteronomy 22
Joshua 21
Judges 29
Ruth 6
1 Samuel 36
2 Samuel 46
1 Kings 35
2 Kings 50
1 Chronicles 4
2 Chronicles 15
Ezra 2
Nehemiah 1
Esther 1
Job 3
Psalms 22
Proverbs 23
Song of Solomon 2
Isaiah 42
Jeremiah 89
Ezekiel 59
Hosea 2
Amos 1
Obadiah 1
Micah 4
Habakkuk 1
Zephaniah 2
Haggai 3
Zechariah 10
Malachi 3
BSB (857)
Genesis 172
Exodus 35
Leviticus 37
Numbers 37
Deuteronomy 19
Joshua 24
Judges 34
Ruth 8
1 Samuel 36
2 Samuel 61
1 Kings 35
2 Kings 48
1 Chronicles 11
2 Chronicles 22
Ezra 1
Nehemiah 5
Esther 5
Job 6
Psalms 20
Proverbs 23
Ecclesiastes 2
Song of Solomon 2
Isaiah 38
Jeremiah 87
Ezekiel 63
Daniel 2
Hosea 3
Joel 2
Amos 1
Micah 1
Zephaniah 1
Haggai 3
Zechariah 8
Malachi 5
ESV (34)
Genesis 16
Leviticus 1
Numbers 1
Deuteronomy 2
Joshua 2
1 Kings 2
1 Chronicles 1
Esther 1
Isaiah 2
Jeremiah 1
Ezekiel 1
Amos 1
Micah 1
Haggai 2
WEB (22)
Genesis 13
Exodus 1
Leviticus 1
Deuteronomy 1
Joshua 1
Judges 1
1 Kings 2
1 Chronicles 1
Ezekiel 1
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1022) ta (את AT) AC: Plow CO: Mark AB: ?: The pictograph a is a picture of an ox. The t is a picture of two crossed sticks used to make a sign or mark. Combined these pictures represent "an ox moving toward a mark". When plowing a field with oxen, the plowman drives the oxen toward a distant mark in order to keep the furrow straight. A traveler arrives at his destination by following a mark. The traveling toward a mark, destination or person. The arrival of one to the mark. A "you" is an individual who has arrived to a "me". The coming toward a mark. A standard, or flag, with the family mark hangs as a sign. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties. (eng: at - a moving at something)

A) ta (את AT) AC: ? CO: Plow AB: ?: The plowing of a field by driving the oxen to a distant mark.

Nf) ta (את AT) - I. Plow-point:The plow-point is used to cut a deep furrow in the ground for planting seeds. [A common grammatical word that precedes the direct object of a verb] II. Sign:A sign, mark or wonder (as a sign) . [Aramaic only] III. At:Something that moves near something to be with it. Also used as grammatical tool to mark the direct object of the verb. [df: ty] KJV (7373): plowshare, coulter, sign, against, with, in, upon - Strongs: H852 (אָת), H853 (אֵת), H854 (אֵת), H855 (אֵת), H3487 (יָת)

H) eta (אתה ATH) AC: ? CO: Mark AB: Arrive: The traveling toward a mark, destination or a person. The arrival of one to the mark.

V) eta (אתה ATH) - Arrive: To arrive at a destination. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (37): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hophal) come, bring - Strongs: H857 (אָתָא), H858 (אָתָא)

Nm) eta (אתה ATH) - You: As one who has arrived. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: ta] KJV (26): thou, thee, you, ye - Strongs: H607 (אַנְתָּה), H608 (אַנְתּוּן), H859 (אַתֵּנָּה)

J) tfa (אות AWT) AC: ? CO: Mark AB: Agree: The coming toward a mark. A standard, or flag, with the family mark hangs as a sign. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties.

V) tfa (אות AWT) - Agree: Two parties to be in agreement. KJV (4): (vf: Niphal) consent - Strongs: H225 (אוּת)

Nf) tfa (אות AWT) - Mark: The sign of an agreement between two parties. KJV (79): sign, token, ensign, miracle, mark - Strongs: H226 (אוֹת)

M) tia (אית AYT) AC: ? CO: Entrance AB: ?: The entering into the area of destination.

jm) nftia (איתונ AYTWN) - Entrance: KJV (1): entrance - Strongs: H2978 (אִיתוֹן)

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2024
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Expanded Definition
 II. אֵת, preposition with — with makkeph אֶתֿ, with suffix אִתִּי, אִתְּךָ, אִתְּכֶם etc. (also, however, ˜אוֺתְךָ, אוֺתוֺ, and similarly מֵ˜אוֺתְךָ, מֵאוֺתוֺ etc.), first in Joshua 10:25; Joshua 14:12, next 2 Samuel 24:24; then repeatedly (but not exclusively) 1 Kings 202 Kings 8, & in Jeremiah , Ezekiel , e.g. 1 Kings 20:25 (but 1 Kings 20:23 אִתָּם) 1 Kings 22:7,8,24 (beside מֵאִתִּי) 2 Kings 1:15; 2 Kings 3:11,12,26; 2 Kings 6:16 (beside מֵאִתּוֺ) 2 Kings 8:8; Jeremiah 2:35; Jeremiah 10:5; Jeremiah 16:8; Jeremiah 19:10; Jeremiah 20:11; Ezekiel 2:6; Ezekiel 10:17; Ezekiel 23:23; Ezekiel 37:26 (see below 1 d; also Isaiah 59:21, contr. Genesis 17:4: on שָׁכַב אֹתָהּ Genesis 34:2 and elsewhere, see below שָׁכַב, & compare Dr Sm ii. 13,14) preposition denoting

proximity (synonym עִם; Phoenician את, e.g. CIS i. 3,8 לא יכן לם משכב את רפאם let there not be for them a resting-place with the shades; Assyrian itti (perhaps akin to ittu 'side,' Dl Proverbs 115 Hpt KAT2. 498; but compare Nö ZMG '86,738f.). Not found as yet in the other cognate languages: but compare Ethiopic ' enta, towards, which supports the view; that אֵת is for ' int [compare תֵּת, תִּתִּי], perhaps from √ אנה to meet Ol p. 431 Prät ZMG '73,643 Lag M i. 226).

1 Of companionship, together with: Genesis 6:13 behold, I destroy them אֶתהָֿאָרֶץ together with the earth, Genesis 11:31; Genesis 12:4 #NAME? verbs of dwelling, abiding, going, etc., as Judges 1:3; Judges 14:11; Judges 19:4, & in the phrase הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֺ Judges 4:13; Judges 7:1; Judges 9:33,48; 1 Samuel 14:20; 1 Samuel 30:4 etc.; thou, and thy sons אִתָּֽךְ ׃ ֗֗֗ with thee Genesis 6:18; similarly (3rd person) Genesis 7:7,13; Genesis 8:18; Genesis 9:8 and elsewhere (character of P: Dr Intr 124); הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֶתהָֿאֱלֹהִים to walk with God, i.e. to have him as a companion (that Isaiah , by adopting a course of life pleasing to him) Genesis 5:22,24; Genesis 6:9 (compare הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֵת literal 1 Samuel 25:15); — by the side of, like Isaiah 45:9, equally with Leviticus 26:39, in common with Jeremiah 23:28b (compare עִם 1e, f). Hence, in particular —

a. with for the purpose of help: Numbers 14:9 אִתָּנוּ׳וי, Joshua 14:12 (אוֺתִי, as Jeremiah 20:11) Judges 1:19; 2 Kings 6:16; 2 Kings 9:32 מִי אִתִּי מִי who is on my side, who ? כִּי אִתְּךָ אֲנִי Isaiah 43:5; Jeremiah 1:18,19 +; Isaiah 63:3; Psalm 12:5 our lips are with us, on our side; in the phrase אֵת׳(הָֽיְתָה) יַד מּ 2 Samuel 14:19; 2 Kings 15:19; Jeremiah 26:24; נָשָׂאאֵת to bear together with, i.e. to assist Exodus 18:22; Numbers 11:17. Exceptionally, = with the help of: Genesis 4:1 for I have gotten a man ׳אֶתיֿ with the help of ׳י (compare עם 1 Samuel 14:45) Genesis 49:25 (where, however, the parallelism, & ᵑ7ᵑ6 favour וְאֵל שַׁדַּי for וְאֵת שַׁדַּי) Micah 3:8; compare Esther 9:29.

b. beside (German neben): Genesis 39:6 לֹא יָדַע אִתּוֺ מְאוּמָה he knew not with him, beside him, aught (i.e. Joseph managed everything), Genesis 39:8; Exodus 20:23 לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּ֑י ye shall not make (aught) beside me.

c. beside = in the presence of (rare): Genesis 20:16b and before all thou shalt be righted, Isaiah 30:8; Micah 6:1. In this sense ׳אֶתמְּֿנֵי מּ is more frequently, see below מָּנִים

d. of intercourse of different kinds with another, e.g. after verbs of making a covenant or contract, or (less often) of speaking or dealing: (α) Genesis 9:9; Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:4 ( Ezekiel 16:60; Isaiah 59:21 -אוֺת) Joshua 10:4; 1 Kings 3:1 etc.; compare 1 Samuel 2:13 (but here הַכֹּהֵן מֵאֶתֿ is probably to be read with ᵐ5ᵑ6 ᵑ7 Ke We etc., compare Deuteronomy 18:3). (β) Genesis 17:3; Genesis 42:30 דִּבֶּר אִתָּנוּ קָשׁוֺת, 1 Kings 8:15; Psalm 109:2, & especially in Jeremiah and Ezekiel (as Jeremiah 1:16; Jeremiah 4:12 [ Jeremiah 52:9 אִתּוֺ] Jeremiah 5:5; Jeremiah 12:1; Ezekiel 2:1; Ezekiel 3:22,24,27; Ezekiel 14:4; Ezekiel 44:5 — all -אוֺת); Genesis 24:49 to perform kindness אֵת (עִם is here more Genl.), 2 Samuel 16:17 זֶה חַסְדְּךָ אֶתרֵֿעֶךָ֑, Ruth 2:20; Zechariah 7:9; Jonah 11:27 וְאַתָּה עשֶֹׁה אִתִּי רָעָה, Deuteronomy 1:30; Deuteronomy 10:21; 1 Samuel 12:7b, (-אוֺת) Jeremiah 21:2; Jeremiah 33:9; Ezekiel 7:27; Ezekiel 16:59; Ezekiel 22:14; Ezekiel 23:25,29; Ezekiel 39:24; absolute Ezekiel 17:17; Ezekiel 20:44; Psalm 109:21; Zephaniah 3:19; (γ) in a pregnant sense, (in dealing) with, i.e. towards (rare): Isaiah 66:14; Psalm 67:2 יָאֵר מָּנָיו אִתָּנוּ make his face to shine with (= toward) us (varied from אֶל Numbers 6:25) Deuteronomy 28:8; faithful with Psalm 78:8 (compare Psalm 78:37 נָכוֺן עִם); Ezekiel 2:6 (אוֺתָ֑ךְ); Judges 16:15 וְלֹבְּךָ אֵין אִתִּי. (δ) often with verbs of fighting, striving, contending, as Genesis 14:2,8,9; Numbers 20:13; Isaiah 45:9; a Isaiah 50:8; Psalm 35:1; Proverbs 23:11; with בָּא בְמִשְׁמָּט Psalm 143:2 ( Isaiah 3:14 and elsewhere עִם).

2 Of localities, especially in the phrase אֲשֶׁר אֵת describing a site: Judges 3:19; Judges 4:11 אֲשֶׁר אֶתקֶֿדֶשׁ which is near Kedesh, 1 Kings 9:26; 2 Kings 9:27 (compare עם 2, which is commoner in this sense); Ezekiel 43:8; Exodus 33:21 הִנֵּה מָקוֺם אִתִּי. Perhaps, anomalously, 1 Samuel 7:16 at or by all those places (but see Dr); in 2 Samuel 15:23 עַלמְּֿנֵי דֶרֶךְ אֶתהַֿמִּדְבָּר, אֵת = towards is against analogue: read with ᵐ5 L עַלמָּֿנָיו דֶּרֶךְ הַזַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בַּמִּדְבָּר; 1 Kings 9:25 אִתּוֺ beside it (that Isaiah , the altar); but עָלָיו 1 Kings 13:1 etc. would be idiomatic, & for אִתּוֺ אֲשֶׁר Klo proposes plausibly אֶתאִֿשֹּׁוֺ (see Exodus 30:20).

3׳אֵת מּ denotes specially,

a. in one's possession or keeping: Genesis 27:15; Genesis 30:29 thou knowest אֵת אֲשֶׁר הָיָה מִקְנְךָ אִתִּי ֗֗֗ how thy cattle fared with me, Genesis 30:33; Leviticus 5:23; Leviticus 19:13; Deuteronomy 15:3; Judges 17:2; 1 Samuel 9:7 מָה אִתָּנוּ = what have we ? 1 Samuel 25:29; Isaiah 49:4 my right is with Jehovah (contr. Isaiah 40:27), Jeremiah 8:8; Psalm 38:11 the light of mine eyes also אֵין אִתִּי i.e. is gone from me, Proverbs 3:28; Proverbs 8:18; in his power, Jeremiah 10:5 הֵיטֵיבאֵין אוֺתָם is not in their power, perhaps Psalm 12:5. A dream, or the word of ׳י, is said to be אֵת with a prophet, 2 Kings 3:12; Jeremiah 23:28; Jeremiah 27:18. Metaph. of a mental quality, Proverbs 11:2; Proverbs 13:10.

b. in one's knowledge or memory: Isaiah 59:12 מְּשָׁעֵינוּ אִתָּנוּ our transgressions are with us, i.e. present to our minds ("" וַעֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ יְדַעֲנוּם), Job 12:3 אֶתמִֿיאֵֿין כְּמוֺאֵֿלָּה with whom are not (i.e. who knoweth not ? τίς οὐ σύνοιδε;) things like these ? Job 14:5 אִתָּךְ i.e. known to thee, Proverbs 2:1; Genesis 40:14; Jeremiah 12:3 (Ew Gf towards thee, as 1 d γ). So אִםיֵֿשׁ אֶתנַֿפְשְׁכֶם Genesis 23:8 [ 2 Kings 9:15 ׳נ alone], אֶתלְֿבָבְךָ 2 Kings 10:15. compare עם 4 b, which is more frequent in this sense.

4מֵאֵת (מֵאִתִּי, etc.; also -מֵאוֺת) from proximity with (like Greek παρά with a Genitive, From de chez; in Syriac, Arabic , corresponding synonym מֵעִם; see below): coupled almost always with persons (contrast מֵעִם, a). Thus

a. with קָנָה to buy Genesis 25:10 + often (compare Genesis 17:27); לָקַח Genesis 42:24; Exodus 25:2; Leviticus 25:36; Numbers 17:17 + often; נָשָׂא Psalm 24:5; שִׁלַּח, as Genesis 8:8 וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶתהַֿיּוֺנָה מֵאִתּוֺ and he sent forth the dove from with him Genesis 26:27; הָלַךְ Genesis 26:31; 1 Kings 18:12; 1 Kings 20:36; Jeremiah 9:1, of a wife deserting her husband Judges 19:2 וַתֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֺ, Jeremiah 3:1 (compare Isaiah 57:8); with simile words Genesis 38:1; Deuteronomy 2:8; 1 Kings 11:23; Jeremiah 2:37 (see Exodus 5:20); Isaiah 54:10; Psalm 66:20; with שָׁאַל Judges 1:14; 1 Kings 2:16; Psalm 27:4 +, דָּרַשׁ 1 Kings 22:7 and elsewhere, שָׁמַע 1 Samuel 2:23. — ׳מֵאֵת מְּנֵי מּ Genesis 27:30; Genesis 43:34; Exodus 10:11; Job 2:7; Leviticus 10:4 (הַקֹּדֶשׁ), 2 Kings 16:14 (הַבַּיִת). Hence

b. of rights or dues, handed over from, given on the part of, any one: Genesis 47:22 חֹק מֵאֵת מַּרְעֹה; often in P, as Genesis 23:20; Exodus 27:21 a perpetual due מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל from, or on the part of, the children of Israel, Leviticus 7:34; b Leviticus 24:8; Numbers 3:9; Numbers 7:84 +; Deuteronomy 18:3; 1 Samuel 2:13 (ᵐ5, etc.; see 1 d) 2 Samuel 15:3 וְשֹׁמֵעַ אֵיןלְֿךָ מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ but there is none to hear thee deputed of the king, 1 Kings 5:14.

c. expressing origination: 1 Kings 1:27 אִם מֵאֵת אֲדֹנִיהַמֶּלֶךְ נִהְיָה. Especially ׳מֵאֵת י — of a concrete object proceeding from him: Genesis 19:24 (brimstone), Numbers 11:31 (a wind), Numbers 16:35 (fire), 1 Samuel 16:14 (evil spirit), Isaiah 38:7 (a sign), Jeremiah 51:53 (wasters), Micah 5:6 (dew); of wrath Zechariah 7:12 (compare Numbers 17:11), teaching Isaiah 51:4, the word of prophecy Jeremiah 7:1 (so Jeremiah 11:1; Jeremiah 18:1 #NAME? Jeremiah) Jeremiah 37:17; Ezekiel 33:30; with 'have I((we) heard' Isaiah 21:10; Isaiah 28:22; Jeremiah 49:14 (= Obadiah); of an event, or phase of history Joshua 11:20 הָֽיְתָה׳מֵאֵת י it came of ׳י to..., 1 Kings 12:24; Habakkuk 2:13; Psalm 118:23 הָֽיְתָה זאֹת׳מֵאֵת י (ᵐ5 παρὰ Κυρίου) Ezra 9:8; Nehemiah 6:16; of trouble (רָעָה) 2 Kings 6:33; Micah 1:12 (יָרַד); of a good or evil lot, having its source in ׳י Jeremiah 13:25; Isaiah 54:17; Psalm 109:20, compare Job 2:10; Psalm 22:26 מֵאִתְּךָ תְהִלָּתִי from thee cometh my praise (thou art the source of it); Isaiah 44:24 Qr מֵאִתִּי of myself (compare ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ John 5:30; Kt is מִי אִתִּי who was with me ?), John 54:15 אֶפֶס מֵאוֺתִי not at my instance (compare לֹא מִנִּי John 30:1, לֹא מִמֶּנִּי Hosea 8:4). d. of a place 1 Kings 6:33 (corrupt: read with ᵐ5ᵑ6 ᵑ9 [partly] מְזוּזֹת רְבֻעוֺת, & compare Ezekiel 41:21). Note.אֵת expresses closer association than עִם: hence while מֵעִם sometimes denotes hardly more than from the surroundings or belongings of, מֵאֵת expresses from close proximity to. Thus Saul asks, מִי הָלַךְ מֵעִמָּנוּ who has gone from (those) about us ? but Jacob, speaking of the loss of Joseph, says, Genesis 44:28 וַיֵּצֵא הָאֶחָד מֵאִתִּי and the one is gone from with me. מֵאֵת is accordingly preferred to מֵעִם in the sense of origination or authorship; מאת is not usual in the sense of מֵעִם

c, nor מֵעִם in the sense of מֵאֵת b..

Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.All rights reserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

אֵת followed by Makk. אֶת־, with suff. אֹתִי, אֹתְךָ, in Pause אֹתָךְ, אֹתוֹ, אֹתָהּ, אֹתָנוּ (all which are just as often written fully), אֶתְכֶם, rarely אוֹתְכֶם Joshua 23:15, אֹתָם, אֹתָן, אֹתָנָה, Exodus 35:26, more rarely אֶתְהֶם Genesis 32:1, אוֹתְהֶם Ezekiel 23:45, אוֹתְהֶן verse 47 Ezekiel 23:47.

(1) pr. a demonstrative pronoun, αὐτός, ipse, felbft, self, this same. This primary strongly demonstrative power which may be generally expressed by the Gr. αὐ̓τός, is more rare in the ancient Hebrew, but it appears, however, to have been preserved in the language of common life, and afterwards revived and made current in the later books, in the Rabbinic and in Syriac. Hosea 10:6, גַּם אֹתוֹ לְאַשּׁוּר יוּבַל “it shall itself (the calf) be carried into Assyria;” the people and priests had already preceded. Joshua 7:15; 1 Samuel 17:34, in a place where the reading has causelessly been questioned, וּבָא הָאֲרִי וְאֶת־הַדּוֹב “there came a lion with the bear itself;” (in Greek it may be rendered σὺν αὐ̓τῷ τῷ ἄρκτῳ, mit fammt dem Bären, und der Bär obendrein, and a bear besides; comp. αὐτῇ σὺν φό́ρμιγγι, Il.ix. 194, and Passow, Lex. Gr. v. αὐτός, i. 6). Joshua 22:17, “it is not sufficient for you, אֶת־ְעַווֹן פְּעֹר this same iniquity of Peor?” as being the greatest that could be; Haggai 2:17, אֵין אֶתְכֶם אֵלַי “yet ye yourselves turned not to me;” Daniel 9:13, “as it is written in the law of Moses הַוֹּאת בָּאָה עָלִיִנוּ אֵת בָּל־הָרָעָה all this very evil (as declared Lev 26:1-46, and Deu 28:1-68) has come upon us;” Jeremiah 38:16, חַי יְיָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָנוּ אָת־הַנָּפֶשׁ “the same who has given us life;” 2 Kings 6:5, “as one of them was felling a beam, the iron (אֶת־הַבַּרְזֶל) fell into the water.” (The word iron should here be pronounced with emphasis.) Nehemiah 9:9. In the Old Testament here also belong

(a) its being used reflectively, אֹתוֹ ἑαυτόν, אֹתָם ἑαντούς; Ezekiel 34:2, “woe to the shepherds אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ רֹעִים אֹתָם who feed themselves,” i.q. נַפְשָׁם; verses Ezekiel 34:8, 10 Ezekiel 34:10; Jeremiah 7:19; Numbers 6:13.

(b) In Ezekiel it occurs even four times without a following noun for αὐτό, id, ipsum, this, itself, while elsewhere, as in a relaxed sense (see No. 2), it everywhere requires a noun or a suffix; Ezekiel 43:7, אֵת מְקוֹם כִּםְאִי וְאֵת מְקוֹם בַּפּוֹמ רַגְלי “this (αὐτὸ) is the place of my throne, and this the place of the soles my feet; Ezekiel 47:17, 18 Ezekiel 47:18, 19 Ezekiel 47:19, compare verse 20 Ezekiel 47:20, where זאֹת stands in the same context. (Some have regarded the reading as incorrect; and in verses 17 Ezekiel 47:17, 18 Ezekiel 47:18, 19 Ezekiel 47:19, would amend it by reading זאֹת, as in verse 20 Ezekiel 47:20 but the similar passage, Ezekiel 43:7, in which זאֹת could not be suitable, defends the common reading; [“Maurer supplies lo! the place, etc., LXX. ἑώρακας τὸν τόπον κ.τ.λ.”]). From the Rabbinic may be added the phrase, באותו היום αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρα, on the same day; באותה השעה in the same hour, in derfelban Stunde: from the Syriac ܡܶܢ ܝܳܬܶܗ, compare ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ, a se ipso. [“Note. Some have questioned the above use of this particle, choosing rather to refer the passages cited, and others like them, to its use with the accusative, but with little success. See Maurer’s Comm. ii. p. 608. The origin of the word which is treated of below, is not contrary to the above view, but rather favours it.” Ges. add.]

(This true and primary signification of the word was not unknown to the Rabbins, who explain it by עֶצֶם, נֶפֶשׁ, and in the same manner do the Syrian grammarians interpret the word ܝܳܬ. In the Arabic there answers to this أَيَّا, also used reflectively ايّاى ضربت I have beaten myself. As to the origin, I have no doubt but that this word, like the other pronouns, is primitive and very ancient (see אֲשֶׁר p. 88, A ), nor should I object if any one were to compare אֵת, אוֹת with the Sanscr. êtat, hic; Gr. αὐτός. To give my own opinion now, this is more probable than what I lately supposed, that אֵת, אֹת, أَيَّا are i.q. אוֹת a sign, which, however, is also the opinion of Ewald, Gramm. p. 593).

(2) This word by degrees lost much of its primitive force, so that as set before nouns and pronouns already definite, it scarcely increases the demonstrative power; אֵת הַדָּבָר i.q. Germ. diefelbe Sache, diefelbige Sache, felbige Sache, the thing itself, the same thing; often redundantly for the simple diefe Sache, this thing. It is rarely

(a) put before a nominative (Genesis 17:5, לֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֹר אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם “thy name shall be no longer called Abram;” Genesis 4:18, זַיִּוָּלֵד לַתֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָר 2 Samuel 11:25, אַל יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה “let not this thing displease thee,” Genesis 21:5, 46:20 Exodus 10:8; Leviticus 10:18; Numbers 11:22, 26:55, 60 Numbers 26:60; Joshua 7:15, etc.); on the other hand it is very often

(b) put before the object of a proposition when already definite (compare the pronouns αὐτός, ipse, derfelbe, which, especially in the oblique cases, αὐτοῦ αὐτῷ, αὐτόν, ipsum, ipsi, desfelben, denfelben, lose their strongly demonstrative power in some degree), thus it becomes a particle pointing out a determinate object. In Hebrew אֶהַשָּׁמַיִם properly therefore signifies, i.q. αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, but from the common use of language is the same as τὸν οὐρανόν, like in Gr. αὐτὴν Χρυσηΐδα, Il. i. 143, without emphasis for Χρυσηΐδα: אֹתְךָ pr. αὐτόν σε, σεαυτόν, hence the simple σε. In this manner אֵת is frequently put before substantives made definite with the article (אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ Genesis 1:1 comp. אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמַיִם Genesis 2:4), or with the addition of a genitive or a suffix (Esther 9:14; Ruth 2:15), also before proper names (Jonah 2:1), its occurrence is much more frequent in prose than in poetry. In the whole Old Test. only three examples occur to me in which this word is prefixed to nouns which are not made definite, two of them (Proverbs 13:21; Ezekiel 43:10), where the sense is definite, one (Exodus 21:28), where it is not so. [Also Exodus 2:1; 2 Samuel 18:18; Ecclesiastes 3:15. Ges. add.]

Note. Some have altogether denied that this word is put before the subject of a discourse; and indeed the examples in which it is joined with a passive verb may be taken impersonally, and so explained that the power of the object is retained, viz. יֻתַּן אֵת הָאָרֶץ Numbers 32:5, man gebe das Land, “let them give the land” (see Olshausen, Emendatt. zum A. T. page 25, Hebr. Gram. 9th edit. page 233 [13th edit., § 140, a]), but many others (see No. 2, a) cannot be so taken; and it is not the place of a sober interpreter to have recourse unnecessarily to solecisms and critical conjecture. What has been done with regard to this point which exercised the inquiries of very ancient Rabbins, may be seen in Olshausen loc. cit.; Ewald (Hebr. Gramm. Page 593); Fähsius (Seebode, krit. Bibl. 1826, No. 3), and by their follower, Winer, in Lex. Hebr. page 103.

[“Note. The origin of this particle is still uncertain. Corresponding to it in the Phœnicio-Shemitic languages are Ch. יַת, Syr. ܝܳܬ ipse; but these are of rare occurrence. Cognate are the Eth. enta, who (prop. demonstr. like all relatives), Egypt. ent, who; and especially the demonstrative syllable ent, which in the Egyptian language is prefixed to the personal pronouns, as ent-oten, ye; ent-sen, they; ent-of, he. Here the simple and genuine forms are oten, sen, of; the form ent-sen, corresponds entirely to the Hebr. אֶתְהֶם אֶתְהֶן, and ent-of, to the Hebr. אֹתוֹ, while yet all these forms express the nominative. (See the Table in אָנֹבִי, note; Hebr.Gramm. page 293, 13th edit.) From ent come both אֵת (as תֵּת from תֶּנֶת), and אוֹת; comp. Sanscr. êtat, Gr. αὐτ-ος. Others refer אֵת, אוֹת, to the Aram. אִית, אִיתַי, i.q. יֵשׁ; so Hupfeld on the demonstr. power of the letter ת, see Hupfeld, in Zeitschr. f. d. Morgenl. Lit. ii. page 135.” Ges. add.]

II. אֵת followed by Makk. אֶת־, with suff. אִתִּי, אִתְּךָ, in pause and f. אִתָּךְ Genesis 6:18 comp. 20:18, אִתּוֹ, אִתָּנוֹ, אִתְּבֶם Genesis 9:9, 11, אִתָּם more rarely and chiefly in the books of Joshua, Kings, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, אֹתְךָ, אֹתָתּ, אֹתָם (so that it seems to be confounded with the mark of acc. אֵת), pr.subst. denoting nearness, and propinquity, prob. for אֵנֶת (from the root אָנָה No. II. to draw near, as בֵּלֶת from בָּלָה) from the common usage of the language, a prep. of a similar power to עִם (which see).

(1) apud, with, at, by, near, used of nearness and vicinity, Genesis 19:33; Leviticus 19:13; Job 2:13; 1 Kings 9:18, “Eziongeber אֲשֶׁר אֶת־אֵילוֹת which is situated near Eloth,” comp. Judges 4:11, אֶת־פְּנֵי פי to any one’s face, i.q. לִפְנֵי see פָּנִים. There is a singular use of it in Genesis 30:29, “thou knowest what thy flock has become אִתִּי with me,” i.e. having me as the shepherd and caring for it, comp. 39:6, “he cared for nothing אִתּוֹ” i.e. while he had Joseph for οἰκόνομος, verse Genesis 30:8. Specially

(a) sometimes it indicates possession of a thing, like the Lat. penes, comp. Gr. τὰ παρʼ ἐμοί, Arab. كان معى (see עִם No. 2, a, b); especially what one has in one’s mind, Job 12:3, אָת־מִי אְין כְּמוֹ אֵלֶּה “who knoweth not such things?” Job 14:5, “the number of the months is with thee,” i.e. in thy mind, determined by thee.

(b) It is rarely used of motion to a place, (like παρὰ with an acc. and vulg. apud te Inscr.Grut. beh dich). 2 Samuel 15:23; Psalms 67:2, יָאֵר פָּנָיו אִתָּנוּ i.q. עָלִיִנוּ; Psalms 4:7.

(c) It is i.q. prœter, besides (compare παρὰ ταῦτα, prœter ista), Exodus 1:14; 1 Kings 11:1, 25 1 Kings 11:25.

(d) It is used ellipt. for מֵאֵת Genesis 49:25, where from what precedes מִן is supplied.

(e) In some phrases and examples אֵת may seem to be inaccurately for in, (as in Lat. apud villam, apud forum, apud Hierosolyma, Sueton. Vesp. 93, apud Palœstinam, Eutr. vii. 13, see Handii Tursell. page 414, 415), but it may, and even ought, in every case to retain the notion of nearness. 1 Samuel 7:16, “he judged Israel, אֶת־בָּל־מְקֹמוֹת הָאֶלֶּה at all those places;” the courts of justice being in the gates of towns, and thus by or near the towns. 1 Kings 9:25, וְהַקְטֵיר אִתּוֹ אֲשֶׁד לִפְנֵי יְיָ “and Solomon offered incense at that (altar) which was before Jehovah.” Compare Suet. Aug. 35, ut thure et mero supplicaret-apud aram eius dei, etc., and Deuteronomy 16:6, אֶל־הַמָּקוֹםשָׁם תִּזְבַּח. One offered properly at the altar, and in 1 Ki. loc. cit. this phrase is used as the customary expression for offering incense. (I do not see with Winer, how in this passage אִתּוֹ may refer to יְהֹוָה.)

(2) cum, with (compare עִם No. 1), used of accompanying, Genesis 6:13, 43:16 Judges 1:16; Jeremiah 51:59 of connection by marriage, 1 Kings 3:1 of a covenant, Genesis 15:18 of aid, Genesis 4:1, “I have gotten a male (i.e. a son) אֶת־יְהֹוָה by the aid of Jehovah.” Jeremiah 1:8, 15:20. It is said, “to speak with any one,” 1 Kings 8:15 also “to fight, to make war with any one” (where אֶת may be rendered against), Genesis 14:9; 1 Chronicles 20:5; Proverbs 23:11. הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֶת־יְהֹוָה “to walk with God,” Genesis 5:24 i.e. having God as it were for a companion, to lead a life pleasing to God; עָשֶׁה חֶםֶד אֶת־פי “to act kindly with any one,” Zechariah 7:9 compare Ruth 2:20; 2 Samuel 16:17. Noldius, in his Concordance, under this word always confounds אֵת No. I. and II, which it may suffice thus briefly to mention.

מֵאֵת i.q. מֵעִם pr. from with, from near by any one; Syr. ܡܶܢ ܠܘܳܬ, Arab. من عند, from (1 Kings 6:33), after verbs and nouns of departing, Genesis 26:31 sending from any place, Genesis 8:8 also of receiving, Job 2:10 buying, Genesis 17:27, 23:20 asking from any one, 1 Samuel 1:17 performance, Exodus 29:28, etc. Other examples are, Joshua 11:20, מֵאֵת יְיָ הָֽיְתָה “by Jehovah was this instituted;” Exodus 29:28, “this shall be to Aaron … a perpetual statute מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יש׳ to be performed by the children of Israel;” Psalms 22:26, מֵאִתְּךָ תְּהִלָּתִי “from thee my praise,” i.e. “I owe to thee salvation, the cause of praise.” מֵאִתִּי Isaiah 44:24, קרי is i.q. Gr. ἀπʼ ἐμαντοῦ John 5:30, from myself, or by my own authority. Arabic من عندى, Syriac ܡܢ ܕܝܠܝ, and Heb. מִמֶּנִּי Hosea 8:4. Compare as to this, Anecdota Orientt. i. p. 66.

III. אֵת with suff. אֵתוֹ 1 Samuel 13:20, pl. אֵתִים ibid. verse 21 1 Samuel 13:21, and אִתִּים Isaiah 2:4; Micah 4:3 Joel 4:10, an iron implement used in agriculture, with an edge, and sometimes requiring to be sharpened (1 Sa. loc. cit.), according to most of the old versions a plough-share (but in Sa. it is joined with מַתֲרֵשָׁה), according to Symm. and the Hebr. intpp. a mattock. The more general word σκε͂ος is used by the LXX. in the book of Sa. Some compare أَثاَثُ household-stuff, flocks, utensils; but indeed I should prefer regarding אֵת as for אֵדֶת (like עֵת for עֵדֶת from עֵדֶת) = Arab. أَدَاةُ an instrument, أَدِىُّ apparatus, instrument, specially of war, from the root אָדָה أَدَا to aid, also to be furnished with instruments, apparatus; and I should suppose the general word to be used for some particular instrument, perhaps for a plough-share.

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List of Word Forms
א֠וֹתוֹ אִ֝תִּ֗י אִ֝תָּ֗נוּ אִ֠תְּךָ אִ֠תְּכֶם אִ֫תָּ֥נוּ אִ֭תִּי אִתְּךָ֖ אִתְּךָ֗ אִתְּךָ֙ אִתְּךָ֛ אִתְּךָ֜ אִתְּךָ֣ אִתְּךָ֥ אִתְּךָ־ אִתְּכֶ֑ם אִתְּכֶ֔ם אִתְּכֶ֖ם אִתְּכֶ֗ם אִתְּכֶ֛ם אִתְּכֶ֜ם אִתְּכֶ֣ם אִתְּכֶ֨ם אִתְּכֶֽם׃ אִתְּכֶם֙ אִתִּ֑י אִתִּ֔י אִתִּ֖י אִתִּ֛י אִתִּ֜י אִתִּ֣י אִתִּ֤י אִתִּ֥י אִתִּֽי׃ אִתִּי֙ אִתָּ֑הּ אִתָּ֑ךְ אִתָּ֑ם אִתָּ֑נוּ אִתָּ֔ךְ אִתָּ֔ם אִתָּ֔נוּ אִתָּ֖הּ אִתָּ֖ךְ אִתָּ֖ם אִתָּ֖נוּ אִתָּ֗ךְ אִתָּ֗נוּ אִתָּ֙נוּ֙ אִתָּ֛נוּ אִתָּ֜הּ אִתָּ֜ם אִתָּ֜נוּ אִתָּ֣הּ אִתָּ֣ם אִתָּ֣נוּ אִתָּ֥ךְ אִתָּ֥ם אִתָּֽךְ׃ אִתָּֽם׃ אִתָּֽנוּ׃ אִתָּהּ֙ אִתָּךְ֒ אִתָּךְ֙ אִתָּם֙ אִתָּם֮ אִתּ֑וֹ אִתּ֔וֹ אִתּ֖וֹ אִתּ֗וֹ אִתּ֛וֹ אִתּ֜וֹ אִתּ֤וֹ אִתּ֥וֹ אִתּ֧וֹ אִתּֽוֹ־ אִתּֽוֹ׃ אִתּוֹ֒ אִתּוֹ֙ אִתּוֹ֮ אֵ֖ת אֵ֚ת אֵ֝ת אֵ֠ת אֵ֣ת אֵ֥ת אֶ֥ת אֶֽת־ אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֶת־ אֹֽתְךָ֙ אֹת֑וֹ אֹת֖וֹ אֹתְךָ֖ אֹתִ֔י אֹתִ֛י אֹתִי֙ אֹתָ֑נוּ אֹתָ֔הּ אֹתָ֔ךְ אֹתָ֖הּ אֹתָ֖ם אֹתָ֗הּ אֹתָ֗ךְ אֹתָ֛נוּ אֹתָ֣הּ אֹתָ֤ם אֹתָֽהּ׃ אֹתָֽךְ׃ אֹתָֽם׃ אֹתָֽן׃ אֹתָהּ֮ אֹתָם֙ אֹתוֹ֙ אֽוֹתְךָ֔ אֽוֹתְךָ֙ אוֹת֔וֹ אוֹת֖וֹ אוֹתְךָ֥ אוֹתִי֙ אוֹתָ֑ךְ אוֹתָ֑ם אוֹתָ֔ךְ אוֹתָ֔ם אוֹתָ֖ךְ אוֹתָ֖ם אוֹתָ֙נוּ֙ אוֹתָ֜ךְ אוֹתָֽךְ׃ אוֹתָֽם׃ אוֹתָהּ֙ אוֹתָךְ֙ אוֹתָם֙ אותה אותו אותי אותך אותך׃ אותם אותם׃ אותנו את את־ אתה אתה׃ אתו אתו־ אתו׃ אתי אתי׃ אתך אתך־ אתך׃ אתכם אתכם׃ אתם אתם׃ אתן׃ אתנו אתנו׃ וְ֠אֵת וְֽאֶת־ וְאִתְּכֶ֖ם וְאִתְּכֶ֣ם וְאִתְּכֶם֙ וְאִתָּ֖נוּ וְאִתָּ֙נוּ֙ וְאִתּ֖וֹ וְאִתּ֗וֹ וְאִתּ֛וֹ וְאִתּ֥וֹ וְאֵ֖ת וְאֵ֣ת וְאֵ֥ת וְאֵ֨ת וְאֵת֙ וְאֵת֩ וְאֶ֨ת־ וְאֶֽת־ וְאֶת־ וְאֹת֤וֹ וְאֹתָ֑ם וְאֹתָ֙נוּ֙ וּ֠מֵאֵת ואת ואת־ ואתו ואתכם ואתם ואתנו ומאת מֵאִתְּךָ֤ מֵאִתִּ֗י מֵאִתִּֽי׃ מֵאִתּ֑וֹ מֵאִתִּֽי׃ מֵאֵ֖ת מֵאֵ֣ת מֵאֵ֥ת מֵאֵ֧ת מֵאוֹת֑וֹ מאותו מאת מאתו מאתי מאתי׃ מאתך ’eṯ ’êṯ ’eṯ- ’eṯ·ḵem ’eṯḵem ’it·tā·nū ’it·tāh ’it·tāḵ ’it·tām ’it·tə·ḵā ’it·tə·ḵā- ’it·tə·ḵem ’it·tî ’it·tōw ’it·tōw- ’ittāh ’ittāḵ ’ittām ’ittānū ’ittəḵā ’ittəḵā- ’ittəḵem ’ittî ’ittōw ’ittōw- ’ō·ṯā·nū ’ō·ṯāh ’ō·ṯāḵ ’ō·ṯām ’ō·ṯān ’ō·ṯə·ḵā ’ō·ṯî ’ō·ṯōw ’ō·w·ṯā·nū ’ō·w·ṯāh ’ō·w·ṯāḵ ’ō·w·ṯām ’ō·w·ṯî ’ō·w·ṯōw ’ō·wṯ·ḵā ’ōṯāh ’ōṯāḵ ’ōṯām ’ōṯān ’ōṯānū ’ōṯəḵā ’ōṯî ’ōṯōw ’ōwṯāh ’ōwṯāḵ ’ōwṯām ’ōwṯānū ’ōwṯî ’ōwṯḵā ’ōwṯōw et etChem itTach itTah itTam itTanu itteCha itteChem itTi itTo ittoCh ittov mê’êṯ mê’ittəḵā mê’ittî mê’ittōw mê’ōwṯōw mê·’êṯ mê·’it·tə·ḵā mê·’it·tî mê·’it·tōw mê·’ō·w·ṯōw meEt meitteCha meitTi meitTo meoTo oTach oTah oTam oTan oTanu otCha oteCha oTi oTo otoCh ū·mê·’êṯ ūmê’êṯ Umeet veEt veitTanu veitteChem veitTo veoTam veoTanu veoTo wə’êṯ wə’eṯ- wə’ittānū wə’ittəḵem wə’ittōw wə’ōṯām wə’ōṯānū wə’ōṯōw wə·’êṯ wə·’eṯ- wə·’it·tā·nū wə·’it·tə·ḵem wə·’it·tōw wə·’ō·ṯā·nū wə·’ō·ṯām wə·’ō·ṯōw
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