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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3744 - ὀσμή
Att. form of the older ὀδμή (v. fin.),
I smell, odour, freq. of foul smells, δεινὴ δὲ θεείου γίγνεται ὀδμή Il. 14.415; πικρὸν ἀποπνείουσαι ἁλὸς.. ὀδμήν, of seals, Od. 4.406; ὀδμὰ.. κατὰ χῶρον κίδναται Pi. Fr. 129.6; ὀσμὴ βροτείων αἱμάτων A. Eu. 253; ὀσμὴν ἀπ' αὐτοῦ (sc. τοῦ νεκροῦ).. πεφευγότες S. Ant. 412; κακὴ ὀσμή Id. Ph. 891: pl., βυρσῶν ὀσμὰς δεινάς Ar. Pax 753; ὀσμαὶ οὐκ ἀνεκτοί Th. 7.87, etc.; but also of fragrant odours, ὡς καλὴν ὀσμὴν ἔχει E. Cyc. 153, cf. Ar. Ec. 1124; οἴνου ὀ. Alex. 222.4, Philem. 98.4: hence, scent, perfume, X. Hier. 1.4, Ach.Tat. 2.38; on ὀ. as affecting the sense, cf. Arist. Sens. 440b28 sq., de An. 421a7 sq., Thphr. CP 6.1.1 sq.
II the sense of smell, = cross ὄσφρησις, Democr. 11, Hsch. — The older form ὀδμή (cf. ὄδωδα, ὄζ-ω, od-or) is alone used by Hom., Hdt., and Pi.; it occurs also in A. Pr. 115 (lyr.), Democr. l. c., and in later Prose, Thphr. CP 6.14.1, al., Phylarch. 63 J., Diocl.Fr. 129, Anon.Lond. 34.38, etc.; but ὀσμή is Att. acc. to Phryn. 71; also Ion., Hippon.in PSI 9.1089.11.
ὀσμή , -ῆς , ἡ
(< ὄζω ),
[in LXX chiefly for H7381;]
a smell, odour: John 12:3; metaph. (EV, savour), 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 2:16; of the effect of sacrifice (cf. H5207 H7381, Genesis 8:21, al., see εὐωδία ), ὀ . εὐωδίας , Ephesians 5:2, Philippians 4:18.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
παρά is found in the NT c. gen. (78 times), c. dat. (50 times), and c. acc. (60 times) : see Proleg. p. 106. All these constructions can be freely illustrated from our sources.
(1) c. gen. indicating source or origin ";from the side of,"; ";from,"; used of persons after verbs of receiving etc. : Ostr 1027.3 (Ptol.) (= LAE, p. 152) ἀπέχω παρὰ σοῦ τὸ ἐπιβάλλον (cf. Luke 15:12) μοι ἐκφόριον, ";I have received from you the fruit that falleth to me,"; P Petr II. 11 (1).5 (mid. iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski.2, p. 8) γίνωσκε δέ με ἔχοντα παρὰ Φιλωνίδου (δραχμὰς) ο ̄, P Eleph 13.2 (B.C. 223–2) (= Witkowski.2, p. 42) παραγενομένου Σανῶτος ἐκομισάμην τὴν παρὰ σοῦ ἐπιστολήν, P Tebt II. 283.22 (B.C. 93 or 60) τούτου δὲ γενομ [έ ]νου ἔσομαι τετευχὼς [τῆ ]ς παρὰ σοῦ ἀντιλήμψεως, ";for if this is done I shall have obtained succour from you"; (Edd.), P Oxy IV. 742.2 (B.C. 2) παράλαβε παρὰ Πόθου τὸν κάλαμ [ο ]ν πανα [ρ ]ιθμῶι, ";take over from Pothus the reeds all together"; (Edd.), P Fay 121.13 (c. A.D. 100) καὶ τὸ δ ̣[έρ ]μ ̣α τοῦ μόσχου. . . αἴτησον πα ̣[ρὰ τοῦ ] κυρτοῦ βυρσέως, ";ask the hunch-backed tanner for the calf’s hide,"; and ib. 93.6 (A.D. 161) βούλομαι μισθώσασθαι παρὰ σοῦ τὴν μυροπω ̣λα ̣ι ̣κὴν καὶ ἀρομ ̣ατικὴν ἐργασίαν, ";I wish to lease from you your business of perfume-selling and unguent-making"; (Edd.). For παρά c. gen. to denote the agent, as in Matthew 18:19, cf. Epict. iv. 10. 29 τὰ ἀλλότρια ὄψεται. . . ὡς ἂν δίδωται παρὰ τοῦ ἔχοντος ἐξουσίαν (see Sharp, Epict. p. 92).
For a similar use after pass. verbs (like ὑπό : cf. Acts 22:30 TR παρά, but א ABC ὑπό), cf. P Tebt I. 12.15 (B.C. 118) ἐκομισάμην τὸ παρὰ σοῦ γρ (αφὲν) ἐπισ (τόλιον), ib. 34.6 (c. B.C. 100) χάριν τοῦ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἀπηγμένου, ";about the person arrested by him,"; and the late P Oxy I. 125.17 (A.D. 560) συγχωρήσω αὐτὴν ὑπομνησθῆναι παρ᾽ οἱουδήποτε προσώπου ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ, ";I should permit you to be reminded of your suretyship for me by any person whatsoever"; (Edd.).
Οἱ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ is common in the sense of a man’s ";agents"; or ";representatives,"; e.g. P Tor II. 4.20 (ii/B.C.) μηδένα τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτῶν, ";no one of those acting for them,"; P Tebt I. 5.160 (B.C. 118) οἰκο (νόμοις) ἢ τοῖς παρ᾽ αὐτῶν, ";oeconomi or their agents,"; P Amh II. 41.4 ( ii/B.C.) πέπομφα τὸν παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ, ";I have sent my agent"; and ib. 111.21 (A.D. 132) καὶ μηδὲν τὸν ὁμολογοῦντα μήτε τοὺς παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐνκαλῖν τοῖς περὶ τὸν Στοτοῆτιν, ";and that neither he nor his representatives make any claim on Stotoëtis"; (Edd.).
The phrase is also used more generally of a man’s ";neighbours,"; ";friends,"; ";associates,"; e.g. P Par 36.16 (B.C. 163–2) (= UPZ i. p. 138) Ἁρμᾶιν. . τὸν παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ, ";Harmais who is closely associated with me,"; ib. 49.13 (c. B.C. 161) (= UPZ i. p. 308 f.) οἱ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ γραμματεῖς, ib. 51.40 (B.C. 159) (= UPZ i. p. 360) εὐφραίνεσθε, οἱ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ πάν [τες, P Amh II. 35.13 (B.C. 132) τοὺς παρ᾽ ἡμῶν γεωργούς, P Oxy II. 298.37 (i/A.D.) Σαραπίων καὶ πάντες οἱ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν, ";all of us,"; and BGU II. 419.14 (A.D. 277) οὐδεὶς τῶν παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ οὐδὲ τέκνον τ [έ ]κνου. Cf. also Herodas I. 2 with Headlam’s note.
For a parallel to Mark 3:21, where the context seems to confine οἱ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ to members of Christ’s ";family"; (see Swete and Field ad l.), we may cite P Revill Mél, p. 295.7 (B.C. 131–0) καλῶς ποιήσεις παρακαλῶν σαυτὸν καὶ τοὺς πα ̣ρ᾽ ἡμῶν, the reference being to the writer’s mother and sisters; cf..13 and see Witkowski, Epp..2 p. 96. This narrower application may also perhaps be found in P Grenf II. 36.9 (B.C. 95) ἔρρωμαι δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ Ἐσθλύτις. . . καὶ οἱ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν πάντες, ";all our family,"; and BGU III. 998ii. 8 (B.C. 101) μήτ᾽ αὐτὸς Ψενμεγχῆς μήδ᾽ ἅλλον μηδένα τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ.
Τὰ παρ᾽ αὐτῆς πάντα, ";all her means,"; in Mark 5:26 (cf. Luke 10:7, Philippians 4:18), may be illustrated from Priene 111.177 (i/B.C.) ἐδαπάνησεν δὲ παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ μετὰ τῶν συναγωνοθετῶν, ib. 118.15 (i/B.C.), and C. and B. ii. p. 394. No. 277, where a father stated that he has erected τὸν βω [μὸν σὺν τῷ γρά ]δῳ to his children πα ]ρὰ ἑαυ [τοῦ, ";at his own expense."; Ramsay compares the similar use of παρά on coins. See also the exx. from Josephus in Field, Notes, p. 27.
For the neut. art. without a subst. followed by παρά c. gen. cf. P Hib I. 109.9 (B.C. 247–6) τὸ παρ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν μ ̣ετ ̣[όχων, with reference to an amount due ";from them and their partners,"; and PSI VI. 598.2 (iii/B.C.) ἀκούσας τὰ παρ᾽ Ἐτεάρχου.
(2) c. dat. ";by,"; ";beside,"; is used only of persons in the NT except in John 19:25, with which we may compare P Oxy I. 120.23 (ii/A.D.) ἐπεὶ (l. ἐπὶ) ξένης καὶ παρὰ τῇ τάξι (= ει) ὄντα (l. ὤν), ";being a stranger to the place and engaged at his post."; See also Kaibel 703.1 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐννεακαιδεκάμηνος ἐγὼ κεῖμαι παρὰ τύμβῳ. For the ordinary personal use see P Hib I. 147 (early iii/B.C.) σύντασσε [τοὺς ] παρὰ σοὶ φ [ύ ]λακ ̣α ̣ς ̤ φυλάσσειν, P Oxy II. 298.28 (i/A.D.) παρὰ σοὶ, ";where you are,"; P Fay 122.3 (c. A.D. 100) τὸ παρὰ σοὶ σί [ν ]απι τὸ ἐν τῶι θησαυρῶι Σοχώτου, ";the mustard that is with you in the store of Sochotes,"; P Oxy IX. 1220.8 (iii/A.D.) πέμψε (= αι) μοι κέρμα εἰς τὰ γινόμενα παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἔργα τῆς κ ̣<αρπ >οφορίας, ";send me some money for the business of harvesting going on here"; (Ed.), ib. XII. 1593.15 (iv/A.D.) περὶ ὧν βούλῃς παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἀντίγραψόν μοι, and ib. VI. 925.5 (Christian prayer—v/vi A.D.) φανέρωσόν μοι τὴν παρὰ σοὶ ἀλήθιαν. Cf. Herodas V. 61.
For the phrase παρὰ τοῖς θεοῖς and its equivalents with verbs of prayer etc. the following exx. may serve—BGU II. 632.6 (ii/A.D.) (= LAE, p.172) μνι ̣αν σου ποιοὐμενος (cf. Philemon 1:4) παρὰ τοῖς [ἐν ]θάδε θεοῖς, P Oxy XII. 1583.4 (ii/A.D.) τὸ προ [σκ ]ύνημά σ [ο ]υ ποιῶ παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ Σ [α ]ρά [πι ]δι, ib. XIV. 1678.2 (illiterate –iii/A.D.) πρὸ μὲν πάντων εὔχομέ σε ὁλοκληρεῖν καὶ ὑειένειν παρὰ τῷ κυρείῳ θεῷ, ib. XII. 1489.2 (late iii/A.D.) ἄσπα [[ζ ]]σον Φίρμον καὶ Τεκοῦσαν καὶ τοὺς ἡμῶν πάντας παρὰ τοῖς θεοῖς τῆς πόλεως τῶν Ἀντινοαίων, ";salute Firmus and Tecusa and all our friends before the gods of Antinoöpolis"; (Edd.), and ib. 1495.4 (Christian – iv/A.D.) πρὸ μὲν πάντων εὔχομαί σοι τὴν ὁλοκληρίαν παρὰ τῷ κ (υρι)ῷ θ (ε)ῷ. See also the note by Ghedini in Aegyptus iii. p. 191 f.
(3) c. acc. ";by,"; ";beside,"; ";near";; P Eleph 2.17 (B.C. 285–4) τὴν δὲ συγγραφὴν ἑκόντες ἔθεντο παρὰ συγγραφοφύλακα Ἡράκλειτον, P Lille I. 17.19 (iii/B.C.) ὁ σῖτος ο ̣̔ παρ᾽ ὑμᾶς, P Petr III. 2.15 (B.C. 236) οὐλὴ ἐπὶ μήλου παρ᾽ ὄφρυν [ἀριστεράν, P Par 47.7 ( c. B.C. 152–1) (= UPZ i. p. 332, Selections, p. 22) ψευδῆι πάντα καὶ οἱ παρὰ σὲ θεοὶ ὁμοίως, ";all things are false and your gods with the rest,"; P Tebt I. 39.21 (B.C. 114) παρὰ τὸ αὐτόθι Διός ἱερόν, ";near the. temple of Zeus here"; (Edd.), and P Oxy XII. 1583.5 (ii/A.D.) γενοῦ παρὰ Ἰσίδωρον χάριν τοῦ [φαι ]νόλου, ";go to Isidore for the cloak."; For a suggestion that in Acts 22:3 ἀνατεθραμμένος δὲ ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ παρὰ τοὺς πόδας ́ Γαμαλιήλ should be translated ";in this city I was brought under the influence of Gamaliel,’ see Exp T xxx. p. 39 f.
The temporal use of παρά = ";during"; is seen in P Oxy III. 472.10 (c. A.D. 130) δύναται μὲν γὰρ καὶ ἄλ ̣λ ̣α τινὰ λελοι (= υ)πῆσθαι παρὰ τὸν τῆς προνοίας χρόνον, ";he may indeed have had other troubles during the period of his stewardship"; (Edd.). In Romans 14:5 ἡμέραν παρ᾽ ἡμέραν, παρά is best understood as= ";in preference to,"; the preceding κρίνει being then taken in the sense of ";estimates,"; ";approves of"; (see SH ad l.). For the phrase τὸ παρὰ τοῦτο indicating the ";difference"; between two figures, see P Hib I. 99.10 (c. B.C. 148) with the editors’ note.
(4) Some miscellaneous uses of παρά may be illustrated. For the meaning ";against,"; ";contrary to,"; as in Acts 18:13, Romans 1:26 al., cf. P Tebt I. 5.92 (B.C. 118) τοὺς δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα ποιοῦντας θαν [άτωι ζ ]ημιοῦσθαι, ";those who disobey this decree are punishable with death"; (Edd.), ib..205 τοὺς κεκοφότας τῶν ἰδίων ξύλα παρὰ <τὰ > ἐκ <κ >ε ̣ίμενα προστάγματα, ";those who have cut down wood on their own property in contravention of the published decrees"; (Edd.), ib. 27.41 (B.C. 113) τὰ παρὰ τὸ δέ íι ýον κεχειρισμένα, ";your improper procedure"; (Edd.); also the common sepulchral inscr., as in C. and B. ii. p. 537, No. 394.9 εἰ δέ τις παρὰ ταῦτα ποιήσει, ἔστε αὐτῷ πρὸς τὸν κρίτην θεόν.
Like the Semitic min, παρά is used of comparison in P Tebt I. 5.85 (B.C. 118) μι ̣ζοσι μέ [τ ]ροις [πα ]ρὰ τ ̣ὰ εὔσ <ταθμα >, ";larger measures than the correct bronze measures,"; ib. 19.12 (B.C. 114) σὺ δὲ ὀρθῶς ποιήσεις τὸ προσάγγελμα μὴ ἐλλατώσας παρὰ τὸ πρῶτον, ";you will be right in not diminishing the report compared with the first one"; (Edd.) : cf. Luke 13:2; Luke 13:4; Luke 18:14, Romans 1:25; Romans 12:3. In MGr παρά and ἀπό are used to express comparison.
Παρά ";on account of,"; as in 1 Corinthians 12:15 f., meets us in P Oxy XII. 1420.7 (c. A.D. 129) οὐ παρ᾽ ἐμὴν δὲ αἰτίαν οὐ κατεχωρίσθησαν, ";but it is not on account of my fault that they have not been presented"; (Edd.), P Ryl II. 243.6 (ii/A.D.) ο ̣ὐδε ̣, ν ̣ παρὰ σὲ γέγονε, ";nothing has occurred through any fault of yours"; (Edd.). With this may be compared the use of παρὰ τό c. inf. to denote cause or origin, e.g. P Magd 11.5 (B.C. 221) παρὰ τὸ δὲ σύνεγγυς εἶναι τὸν Ἀρσι [ν ]οΐτην, ";because the Arsinoite district was near"; : see Mayser Gr. II. i. p. 331.
In BGU IV. 1079.16 (A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 39) παρὰ τάλαντόν σοι πέπρακα τὰ φο [ρτ ]ία μου, the meaning is perhaps not more than ";I have sold my wares for a talent."; For an adverbial use cf. P Grenf II. 36.3 (B.C. 95) (= Witkowski.2, p. 119) Παγάνει Πανεβχούνοις καὶ Παθήμει, παρὰ καὶ Πετεαρσεμθεῖ, where παρὰ καί = ";una et"; (Witkowski). On the force of παρά in composition, see Proleg. p. 247.
As in the case of all the prepositions, reference should be made to the important theses by Kuhring and Rossberg, see under Abbreviations I. Full particulars of NT usage are given in Paul F. Regard’s monograph Contribution à l’ étude des Prépositions dans la langue du Nouveau Testament (Paris, 1919).
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