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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #3984 - πεῖρα

Root Word (Etymology)
from the base of (G4008) (through the idea of piercing)
Parts of Speech
feminine noun
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  1. a trial, experience, attempt
  2. to attempt a thing, to make trial of a thing or of a person
  3. to have a trial of a thing
  4. to experience, learn to know by experience
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 4531 ‑ מַסָּה (mas‑saw');  5254 ‑ נָסָה (naw‑saw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (2)
Hebrews 2
HCS (0)
HCS (2)
Hebrews 2
BSB (2)
Hebrews 2
ESV (1)
Hebrews 1
WEB (2)
Hebrews 2
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πεῖρα, ας

(Ion. πεῖρα, acc. πεῖραν, gen. - ης), Aeol. πέρρα Choerob. in An. Ox. 2.252: ἡ: —

trial, attempt, π. τοι μαθήσιος ἀρχά Alcm. 63; opp. δόξα, Thgn. 571; πείρᾳ δ' οὐ προσωμίλησά πω S. Tr. 591; πικρὰν πεῖραν τολμήσειν Id. El. 471; πείρᾳ σφαλῆναι Th. 1.70; ἢν μὲν ξυμβῇ ἡ π. Id. 3.3; πείρᾳ θην πάντα τελεῖται Theoc. 15.62; πεῖραν ἔχοντες being proved, Pi. N. 4.76; but πεῖραν ἔχειν τινός to have experience of.., X. Cyr. 4.1.5; π. τινῶν ἔχειν ὅτι.. Id. An. 3.2.16; π. ἔχει τῆς γνώμης involves a trial of your resolution, Th. 1.140; πεῖράν τινος λαμβάνειν or λαβεῖν to make trial or proof of.., E. Fr. 691, Isoc. 12.236, Pl. Grg. 448a, X. An. 6.6.33, etc.; also, gain experience of.., ἐν ἑαυτῷ ib. 5.8.15; π. λ. τινός, ὅπως ἔχει Pl. Prt. 342a; π. λ. τινός, εἰ ἄρα τι λέγει Id. Thg. 129d; πεῖράν τινος διδόναι (cf. Lat. specimen sui edere) Darei Epist. in SIG 22.21, Th. 1.138, Isoc. 3.45; π. τῆς δόξης δοῦναι Th. 6.11; π. ἔργῳ δεδωκέναι D. 18.107, cf. 195; π. ἀλλήλων λαμβάνοντες καὶ διδόντες Pl. Prt. 348a; πεῖραν ποιήσασθαι Th. 1.53; π. ποιεῖσθαι εἰ.. Id. 2.20; ταῖς π. βασανίζειν Arist. GA 747a3; πεῖραν καθεῖναι Ael. VH 2.13, cf. NA 1.39; π. δέξασθαι undertake, Plu. Pyrrh. 5.

2. with Preps., ἀπὸ πείρης by experiment, opp. αὐτόματον, Hdt. 7.9. γ ; διὰ πείρας ἰέναι Pl. Ax. 369a; διὰ π. ἔργων ἐλήλυθε Onos. Praef. 7; ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι διὰ τῆς π. Arist. Pol. 1341a37; ἐς πεῖραν ἤλθομεν φίλων E. Heracl. 309, etc.; ἰένα[]ι ἐς τὴν π. τοῦ ναυτικοῦ try an action by sea, Th. 7.21; ἀκοῆς κρείσσων ἐς π. ἔρχεται turns out on trial greater than report, Id. 2.41; ἐκ τῆς π. δῆλον Arist. Pr. 938b38; Κύρου ἐν πείρᾳ γενέσθαι to have been acquainted with Cyrus, X. An. 1.9.1; ἐν π. τέλος διαφαίνεται Pi. N. 3.70; ἐπὶ πείρᾳ by way of test or trial, Ar. Av. 583; ἐπὶ π. δούς on trial, Men. 118; π. θανάτου πέρι καὶ ζωᾶς a contest for.., Pi. N. 9.28.

II attempt on or against one, πεῖράν τιν' ἐχθρῶν ἁρπάσαι a means of attacking.., S. Aj. 2; τοιοῦδε φωτὸς π. εὖ φυλακτέον A. Th. 499; esp. attempt to seduce a woman, Plu. Thes. 26, Cim. 1: abs., attempt, enterprise, A. Pers. 719 (troch.), Th. 3.20; πεῖραν ἀφορμᾶν to go forth upon an enterprise, S. Aj. 290; cf. πειρατής. (Cf. Lat. experior, peritus.)

Thayer's Expanded Definition

πεῖρα, πειρας, (πειράω), from Aeschylus down, a trial, experiment, attempt: πεῖραν λαμβάνειν τίνος, equivalent to to attempt a thing, to make trial of a thing or a person (a phrase common in secular authors; cf. Xenophon, mem. 1, 4, 18; Cyril 3, 3, 38; see other examples in Sturz, Lex. Xenoph. iii., p. 488; Plato, Protag., p. 342 a.; Gorgias, p. 448 a.; Josephus, Antiquities 8, 6, 5; Aelian v. h. 12, 22; often in Polybius, cf. Schweighäuser, Lex. Polybius, p. 460; the Sept. Deuteronomy 28:56; (other examples in Bleek on Hebrews, the passage cited; Field, Otium Norv. pars iii., p. 146)), θαλάσσης, to try whether the sea can be crossed dry-shod like the land, Hebrews 11:29; to have trial of a thing, i. e. to experience, learn to know by experience, μαστίγων, Hebrews 11:36 (often in Polybius; τῆς προνοίας, Josephus, Antiquities 2, 5, 1).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πεῖρα , -ας ,

(< πειράω ),

[in LXX: Deuteronomy 28:56 (Papyri λαμβάνειν , H5254 pi.) Deuteronomy 33:8 (H4531), Wisdom of Solomon 18:20; Wisdom of Solomon 18:25, 2 Maccabees 8:9, 4 Maccabees 8:1 *;]

trial, experiment; Papyri λαμβάνειν , to make trial, have experience of: Hebrews 11:29; Hebrews 11:36 (for exx., v. Field, Notes, 232 f.).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

This Doric form of πιέζω (q.v.) appears in all the NT occurrences of the verb except Luke 6:38, but always with the different meaning ";seize,"; ";lay hold of."; For this meaning in the Κοινή we may cite the magic spell κλέπτην πιάσαι, ";to catch a thief,"; in P Lond 46.172 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 70) : cf. Patr, Orient, iv. 2, p. 132f. where Wessely gives λῃστοπιάστης, ";preneur de malfaiteurs"; from a Roman papyrus of the time of Diocletian. Unfortunately the letter P Oxy IV. 812 (B.C. 5) is too fragmentary to decide the meaning of πεπίασται Λοκρίων in the postscript : but cf. P Hamb I. 6.16 (A.D. 128–9) οἱ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς κώμης χρῶνται τοῖς αὐ [τ ]οι ̣̑ς ὑποδοχίοις, υ ̣̔φ᾽ ὧν κ ̣[αὶ ] ὁ ἀπότακτος αὐ ̣τ ̣ῶν ϕ ̣ο ̣ρ ̣ο ̣ς ̣ διαγράφεται πιαζώμενος ὑπό σου.

From a later period comes πιάσαι = λαβεῖν in P Lond 483.76 (A.D. 616) (= II. p. 328) πιάσαι ὀψάρια, cited by C. H. Muller in Archiv i. p. 439 as characteristic of the transition from ancient to modern Greek, in which ἔπιασα is aor. of πιάνω, ";catch,"; ";seize,"; ";overtake."; For Acts 3:7 we may quote (with Thayer) Theocritus iv. 35 τηνεῖ καὶ τὸν ταῦρον ἀπ᾽ ὤρεος ἆγε πιάξας | τᾶς ὁπλᾶς, ";there he brought the bull from the mountain, seizing it by the hoof.";

Thumb (Hellen. p. 67 n..1) accepts W. Schmid’s view that πιάζω has been assimilated to the numerous verbs in -άζω : cf. also Schweizer Perg, p. 37. If the differentiation took place in one dialect—say that of the bucolics of Sicily—we can understand the word passing into the Κοινή as a kind of slang loanword, while πιέζω lived on awhile with its old meaning. The uses of πιάζω and πιέζω in the LXX are stated by Thackeray Gr. i. p. 282.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
πείρα πειραν πείραν πεῖραν peiran peîran
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