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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4138 - πλήρωμα
- that which is (has been) filled
- a ship inasmuch as it is filled (i.e. manned) with sailors, rowers, and soldiers
- in the NT, the body of believers, as that which is filled with the presence, power, agency, riches of God and of Christ
- that which fills or with which a thing is filled
- of those things which a ship is filled, freight and merchandise, sailors, oarsmen, soldiers
- completeness or fulness of time
- fulness, abundance
- a fulfilling, keeping
πλήρ-ωμα, ατος, τό,
that which fills, complement, κρατήρων πληρώματα, i.e. wine, E. Ion 1051 (lyr.); so κενὸν τόδ' ἄγγος, ἢ στέγει π. τι; ib. 1412; χθονὸς π., i.e. men, Id. Or. 1642; λίθους τοὺς εἰς τὰ π. τῷ πύργῳ προσάξεται IG 22.244.109, cf. 90, al. (iv B. C.); τὸ π. τῆς γαστρός Hp. Aër. 7, Mul. 2.169, cf. Epicur. Sent.Vat. 59; of excrement, Orib. 8.35.7 .
2. δαιτὸς π. satiety of the feast, E. Med. 203 (anap.); π. τυρῶν their fill of cheese, Id. Cyc. 209 .
3. of ships, full number, Hdt. 8.43, 45; but, of single ships, complement, crew, in pl., Th. 7.4, 12, X. HG 5.1.11, D. 21.155, etc.: in sg., Th. 7.14; opp. ὑπηρεσία (q.v.), Lys. 21.10; παραλαβὼν τῶν πολιτᾶν ἐπιλέκτους ἐμ π. τρισί IPE 12.352.40 (Cherson., ii B. C. ); π. ἐπίλεκτον Plb. 1.47.6: generally, π. παρέχεσθαι πόλεως make up the full number of citizens, Arist. Pol. 1267b16, 1284a5, cf. 1291a17, Pl. R. 371e; τῶν φίλων π. ἀθροίσας E. Ion 664; gang of workmen, PPetr. 3p.130 (iii B. C.) .
4. of number, sum, ὀγδώκοντα ἔτεα ζόης π. μακρότατον προκεῖσθαι 80 years are fixed as life's longest sum, Hdt. 3.22; τούτων π. τάλαντ' ἐγγὺς δισχίλια γίγνεται Ar. V. 660; sum, total, τὸ π. τῶν ἀγαθῶν Metrod. Herc. 831.14, cf. Polystr. Herc. 346p.81V., Diog.Oen. 2 .
5. piece inserted to fill up, Ev. Matthew 9:16, Ruf. Onom. 216 .
6. fullness, full and perfect nature, Ep.Romans 11:12; τὸ π. τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ep.Ephesians 3:19, Ep.Ephesians 4:13, cf. Ep.Colossians 1:19; τῆς θεότητος ib. 2.9; later τὰ π. τῶν θεῶν Iamb. Myst. 1.8; the aggregate of properties which constitute the complete nature of a thing, full specification, substance, Dam. Proverbs 28:1-28 bis; φθαρτὰ π. ib. 34; τὰ μέσα π. ib. 35 bis; τὰ ἑκάστου πληρώματα τῆς οὐσίας ib. 14, cf. 56, 58; πᾶς νοῦς, π. ὢν εἰδῶν Procl. Inst. 177 .
7. reserves of troops, στρατιῶν Lyd. Mag. 3.44 (pl.).
8. mass, complex, ὁ κόσμος π. ἐστι κακίας, ζωῆς, Corp.Herm. 6.4, 12.15; γενομένη π. ἀρετῶν ἥδε ἡ ψυχή Ph. 2.418 .
9. duties of an office, Lyd. Mag. 3.6, al.; completion of a term of office (cf. 11), ib. 47.
10. freight, cargo, νεώς Ph. 2.18, cf. 465: metaph., π. εὐτυχίας ib. 547 .
II filling up, completing, S. Tr. 1213; Ζηνὸς ἔχεις κυλίκων π. hast the task of filling . ., E. Tr. 824 (lyr.).
2. fulfilment, νόμου Ep.Romans 13:10 .
πλήρωμα , -τος , τό
[in LXX for H4393;]
the result of the action involved in πληρόω (Lft., Col., 255 if.; AR, Eph., 255 ff.), hence,
1. in passive sense, that which has been completed, complement, plenitude, fullness (in Xen., Luc., Polyb., al., of a ship's crew or cargo, and by meton. of the ship itself) : John 1:16, Romans 11:12; Romans 11:25; Romans 15:29, 1 Corinthians 10:26 (LXX) Ephesians 1:23 (AR, 42 ff.) Ephesians 3:19 (AR. 87 ff.) Ephesians 4:13, Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9; of time, Galatians 4:4, Ephesians 1:10; κοφίνων (σφυρίδων ) πληρώματα , basketfuls, Mark 6:43; Mark 8:20.
2. In active sense (= πλήρωσις , as freq. in words of these formations, cf. κτίσις , and v. MM, xx);
(a) that which fills up (but v. Lft., l.c.) : Matthew 9:16, Mark 2:21;
(b) a filling up, completing, fulfilment: Romans 13:10.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Like the Latin ago πράσσω suggests the acting of a moral and responsible being rather than mere performance (facio), cf. 1 Corinthians 5:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17, and for the juxtaposition of the two verbs John 5:29, Romans 7:15 : see further Schmidt Lat. u. Gr. Synonymik, p. 294 ff. The distinction cannot, however, always be maintained.
For πράσσω in connexion with employment or the transaction of business, cf. P Tebt II. 289.7 (A.D. 23) where a strategus writes to an official regarding a supplementary report of tax-payments, οὕτως γὰρ γνώσομαι πότερον ἐπὶ τόπων σε ἐάσω πράττοντά τι ἢ. . ., ";for I shall thus know whether I shall leave you in employment where you are or . . ."; (Edd.), and the soldier’s letter to his sister P Meyer 20.5 (1st half iii/A.D.) γεινώσκειν σε θέλω ὅτι ἐν τῷ Ἀ [ρ ]σιν ̣οείτῃ πράσσω, ";I wish you to know that I am on duty in the Arsinoite district,"; and so .15, .40.
From this comes the derived sense to exact tribute or revenue (as in Luke 3:13; Luke 19:23) : P Petr III. 53 (p).10 (Ptol.) κα (λῶς) οὖν (ποιήσεις) συ (ντάξαι) ἤδη πρᾶξαι τοὺς ἐγγύους αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡμῖν ἀποκαταστῆσ [α ]ι, ";you will do well, therefore, to order that payment be exacted from his sureties and restitution made to us"; (Ed.), P Tebt I. 58.49 (letter of a tax-gatherer—B.C. III) (= Witkowski.2, p. 105) τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς κω (μο)γρ (αμματεῖς) πρᾶξαι τὰς ΜΕ, ";and that the rest of the komogrammateis should be made to pay the 15000,"; and P Ryl II. 66.6 (late ii/B.C.) πράσσειν τοὺς προγεγραμμένους ἀκολούθως τοῖς ὑπὸ σοῦ κεκριμένοις, ";to make the aforesaid persons pay in accordance with your decisions"; (Edd.). See also P Tor II. 3.44 (B.C.127) with Peyron’s note.
With Acts 15:29, Eph .21, cf. P Oxy II. 292.13 (c. A.D. 25) πρὸ δὲ πάντων ὑγια <ί >νειν σε εὔχ [ο ]μαι ἀβασκάντως τὰ ἄριστα πράττων, ";before all else you have my good wishes for unbroken health and prosperity"; (Edd.), ib. VIII. 1155.8 (A.D. 104) εὖρον τὸν ἄνθρο (= ω)πον καλῶς πράσ <σ >οντα τὰ μεγάλα, ";I found the man prospering in the main."; In P Oxy IV. 822 (c. A.D. I) εὖ πράσσειν takes the plnce of χαίρειν as an opening greeting : in ib. I. 115.12 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) εὖ πράττετε is a closing greeting : cf. Plato Epp. where εὖ πράττειν has the double meaning ";prosper"; and ";act rightly,"; and Epicurea ed. Usener p. 131.17; also M. Anton. vii. 36 βασιλικὸν μὲν εὖ πράττειν, κακῶς δὲ ἀκούειν. In P Oxy VII. 1067.3 (iii/A.D.) οὐ καλῶς ἔπραξας μὴ ἐλθεῖν χάριν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, πράσσω is practically equivalent to ποιέω (see supra).
We may add the following miscellaneous exx.—P Eleph 1.15 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections, p. 4) τοὶ μετὰ Δημητρίας πράσσοντες ἐπεγφέρωσιν κατὰ Ἡρακλείδου, ";let those acting with Demetria bring the charge against Heraclides,"; P Oxy III. 532.15 (ii/A.D.) ὅρα οὖν μὴ (cf. Matthew 18:10, 1 Thessalonians 5:15) ἄλλως πράξῃς [[μὴ ]] καὶ ποιήσῃς με πρὸς σὲ ἐλθεῖν συνζητήσοντά σοι, ";mind that you do not fail and thereby cause me to come to you and dispute with you about it"; (Edd.), and P Giss I. 34.4 (A.D. 265–6) ἀξι ̣ῶ τ ̣ὰ ἀκόλουθα τοῖς γραφεῖσι πρᾶξαι.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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