the Fourth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4145 - πλούσιος
- wealthy, abounding in material resources
- metaph. abounding, abundantly supplied
- abounding (rich) in Christian virtues and eternal possessions
Lacon. πλούτιος EM 156.20: α, ον: ( πλοῦτος ): —
wealthy, opulent, opp. πένης, πενιχρός, Hes. Op. 22, h.Merc. 171, Thgn. 621, etc.; πτωχὸς ἀντὶ πλουσίου S. OT 455; ἐμοὶ πένης . . πλουσίου μᾶλλον ξένος E. El. 395; μέγα π. Hdt. 1.32; πλουσίῳ χαίρειν γένει in his rich and lordly race, S. OT 1070: prov., οὐδ' εἰ Μίδου -ώτεροι εἶεν Pl. R. 408b .
2. c. gen. rei, rich in a thing, ὁ δαίμων δ' ἐς ἐμὲ πλούσιος κακῶν E. Or. 394; π. οὐ χρυσίου, ἀλλ' οὗ δεῖ τὸν εὐδαίμονα πλουτεῖν Pl. R. 521a; -ώτερος εἰς τὸ γῆρας . . φρονήσεως Id. Plt. 261e .
3. c. dat., π. τοῖς ἀχρήστοις καὶ περιττοῖς Plu. Cat.Ma. 18; εἴκοσι μύξαις π . . . λύχνος Call. Epigr. 56; π. ἐν ἐλέει Ep.Ephesians 2:4 .
II of things, σοὶ δὲ π. τράπεζα κείσθω richly furnished, S. El. 361; ample, abundant, κτερίσματα E. Tr. 1249; ὕδωρ Id. Fr. 316.3: Sup., θησαυρὸς ἀνάκειται ὁμοῖα τοῖσι πλουσιωτάτοισι Hdt. 3.57 . Adv. -ίως, ἱρὸν π. κατεσκευασμένον ἀναθήμασι Id. 2.44; π. ταφήσεται E. Alc. 56; κοίτας . . π. σεσαγμένας Eup. 76, cf. Ph. 2.400, etc.; νέον π. ἐπικηρυκευόμενον Aristaenet. 2.1 .
πλούσιος, πλουσία, πλούσιον (πλοῦτος), from Hesiod, Works, 22 down, the Sept. for עָשִׁיר, rich;
a. properly, wealthy, abounding in material resources: Matthew 27:57; Luke 12:16; Luke 14:12; Luke 16:1, 19; Luke 18:23; Luke 19:2; ὁ πλούσιος, substantively, Luke 16:21, 22; James 1:10, 11; οἱ πλούσιοι, Luke 6:24; Luke 21:1; 1 Timothy 6:17; James 2:6; James 5:1; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; πλούσιος, without the article, a rich man, Matthew 19:23, 24; Mark 10:25; Mark 12:41; Luke 18:25.
b. metaphorically and universally, abounding, abundantly supplied: followed by ἐν with a dative of the thing in which one abounds (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 8 b. note), ἐν ἐληι, Ephesians 2:4; ἐν πίστει, James 2:5; absolutely, abounding (rich) in Christian virtues and eternal possessions, Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:17, on which see Düsterdieck. ἐπτώχευσε πλούσιος ὤν, of Christ, 'although as the ἄσαρκος λόγος he formerly abounded in the riches of a heavenly condition, by assuming human nature he entered into a state of (earthly) poverty,' 2 Corinthians 8:9.
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πλούσιος , -α , -ον
[in LXX chiefly for H6223;]
rich, wealthy: Matthew 27:57, Luke 12:16; Luke 14:12; Luke 16:1; Luke 16:19; Luke 18:23; Luke 19:2. Substantively, ὁ Papyri, Luke 16:21-22, James 1:10-11; οἱ Papyri, Luke 6:24; Luke 21:1, 1 Timothy 6:17, James 2:6; James 5:1, Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; anarth., a rich man, Matthew 19:23-24, Mark 10:25; Mark 12:41, Luke 18:25. Metaph., of God, ἐν ἐλέει (= cl., c. gen., dat.), Ephesians 2:4; of Christ, 2 Corinthians 8:9; of Christians, Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:17; ἐν πίστει , James 2:5.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
(1) For πρεσβύτερος in the literal sense of the ";elder"; or two, as in Luke 15:25, cf. P Oxy VII. 1061.15 (B.C. 22) of an elder brother, and ib. VIII. 1109.2 (A.D. 160–1) of an elder son. The fem. occurs in BGU II. 665ii. 21 (i/A.D.) ἡ πρεσβυτέρα, Preisigke 1428 Ἀνουβιὰς πρεσβυτέρα Μέστου, and a curious double comparative in P Lond 177.15 (A.D. 40–1) (= II. p. 169) ἡ πρεσβυτερωτέρα ἡμ [ῶν ] ἀδελφή.
(2) The use of πρεσβύτερος in 1 Timothy 5:1 to denote an ";elder,"; a ";senior,"; as opposed to νεώτερος, may be illustrated from P Par 66ii. 23 (Ptol./Rom.) where πρεσβύτεροι καὶ ἀδύνατοι καὶ νεώτεροι are employed as guardians in connexion with the work on canals and dykes : cf. further from the inscrr. Priene 117.55 (i/B.C.) ἀεί π ]οτε μὲν πρεσβυτέ [ρους τιμῶν ὡς γονεῖ ]ς, τοὺς δὲ κ ̣αθήλικας ὡς ἀδελφούς, τοὺς δὲ [νεωτέρους ὡς παῖδας, and Latyschev I. 22.28 ff. (iii/A.D.) τοῖς μὲν ἡλικιώταις προσφερόμενος ὡς ἀδελφός, τοῖς δὲ πρεσβυτέροις ὡς υἱός, τοῖς δὲ παισὶν ὡς πατήρ (cited by Dibelius HZNT ad 1 Tim l.c.) With the word, as in Hebrews 11:2, Moffatt (ICC ad l.) compares Philo de Sobrietate 16 (ed. Wendland) πρεσβύτερον. . . τὸν γέρως καὶ τιμῆς ἄξιον ὀνομάζει.
(3) We are not at present concerned with the precise force of πρεσβύτερος in the Jewish or Christian Church (see the discussions by Lightfoot Dissertations on the Apostolic Age, p. 135 ff., and Armitage Robinson in The Early History of the Church and the Ministry (Essays edited by Swete), p. 57 ff.), but in this connexion it is interesting to notice that the word was already familiar in Egypt as an honorific title with reference to certain village or communal officers. These varied in number according to the size of the villages, while their duties were of the most varied kind. Thus, to take two early exx., (1) in P Petr II. 4 (6).13 (B.C. 255–4) οἱ πρεσβύτεροι οἱ παρεστε (= η)κότες interfere in the maintenance of order : (2) the corn required in connexion with a visit (παρουσία) of Soter II. is collected by the headman of the village and τ [ῶν ] πρεσβυτέρων τῶν γεω (ργῶν) τῆς αὐτῆς, ";the elders of the cultivators of the said village"; (P Tebt I. 48.4—c. B.C. 113). Similarly πρεσβύτεροι are appealed to in connexion with the rent of land (P Lips I. 106.14—A.D. 98), the issuing of public notices (P Flor I. 99.3—i/ii A.D. (= Selections p. 71)), the lease of pasturage (P Lond 842.8—A.D. 140) (= III. p. 141), payments of barley for military purposes (P Amh II. 107.5—A.D. 185), and questions of taxation (BGU I. 334.1– ii/iii A.D.).
In like manner, Deissmann has shown (BS p. 156) that ";the Inscriptions of Asia Minor prove beyond doubt that πρεσβύτεροι was the technical term, in the most diverse localities, for the members of a corporation"; : e.g. Cos 119.8 (possibly time of Claudius) γυμνασιαρχήσαντα τῶν πρεσβυτέρων σεμνῶς. Hicks (CR i. p. 44) had already reached the same conclusion : ";All these terms [γερουσία, πρεσβύτεροι, συνέδριον ], so familiar to us first in their Jewish, and afterwards in their Christian usage, had been commonly employed before, in a precisely analogous sense, in Graeco-Roman civic life.";
(4) A still closer parallel to the Biblical usage, as Deissmann again has shown (BS p. 233 ff.), is afforded by the application of the term to the priests of pagan temples, as when the five presbyter-priests of the Socnopaeus temple (τῶν ε ̄ πρεσβυτέρων ἱερέων πενταφυλίας θεοῦ Σοκνο [π ]αίου) inquire into the conduct of a brother-priest (συνιερέως), who was charged with letting his hair grow too long (κομῶντος : cf. 1 Corinthians 11:14 f.) and of wearing woollen garments (BGU I. 16—A.D. 159–160 (= Selections, p. 83 f.)) : cf. P Tebt II. 309.7 (A.D. 116–7) τ ]οῖς δέκα πρεσβυτέροις [ἱερεῦσι, and see further Otto Priester i. p. 49 ff., Poland Vereinswesen, p. 373, and the literature referred to in Preisigke Fachwörter, s.v.
(5) We may add a few instances of πρεσβύτερος as it meets us in Christian papyri—P Grenf II. 73.1 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 117) a letter addressed Ψενοσίρι πρεσβ [υτέ ]ρῳ Ἀπόλλωνι πρεσβυτέρῳ ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ χαίρειν, ib. I. 53.23 (iv/A.D.) where with reference to a gross case of misconduct the writer says μὴ ἐμὲν (for ἐμὲ) ἐξέταζε ἀλλὰ τ [ο ]ὺ [ς ] πρεσβυτέρους τῆς ἐκκλησίας, ";if you do not believe me, ask the elders of the church"; (Ed.), P Oxy VIII. 1162.1 ff. (iv/A.D.) Λέων πρεσβύτερος τοῖς κατὰ τόπον σ ̣υ ̣ν ̣λ ̣ι ̣τουργοῖ [ς ] (";who share the local service";) πρεσβυτ [έ ]ροις καὶ διακώνοις, and P Strass I. 15.1 f. (v/vi A.D.) Π (αρὰ) Θεοφίλου ὑποδιακ (όνου) καὶ ἐνοικολόγ (ου). Τῷ εὐλαβεστάτῳ Ἀνουβίωνι πρε ̣σ ̣(βυτέρῳ).
In addition to the literature already mentioned, reference should be made to the full discussion of πρεσβύτερος by H. Hauschildt in ZNTW iv. (1903), p. 235 ff.; cf. M. L. Strack ib. p. 213 ff.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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