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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #4191 - πονηρότερος

Root Word (Etymology)
comparative of (G4190)
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Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

Comparative of G4190

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

";put before,"; ";set over,"; and intrans. ";preside,"; ";rule,"; ";govern."; The position of προϊσταμένους in 1 Thessalonians 5:12 between κοπιῶντας and νουθετοῦντας (cf. Romans 12:8), combined with the general usage of the verb in the NT, makes it practically certain that the word cannot be a technical term of office, even if the persons referred to are office-bearers of the Church (cf. Hort Ecclesia, p. 126 f.). This is further borne out by the wide and varied applications of the verb in the ordinary language of the time.

For a more or less official use cf. P Tebt I. 5.58 (B.C. 118) where it is applied—τοῖς προεστηκόσι τῶν ἱερῶν προσόδω [ν, and Chrest. I. 70.26 (B.C. 57–6) διεδώκαμεν τὴν περὶ τούτων ἐπιτροπὴν Σωκράτῃ τῷ μάλιστα τοῦ ἱεροῦ διὰ παντὸς προϊσταμένῳ.

In P Oxy VI. 891.12 (A.D. 294) an exegetes is informed that he has been appointed to act in his official capacity on a date mentioned—ἔδοξεν ὥστε δὲ μὲν προστῆναι, ";it was decided that you should preside"; (Edd.), and in BGU IV. 1028ii. 8, .25 (ii/A.D.) we hear of the superintendents or heads of certain guilds—προεστῶτι χαλκέων and Μαρείν ̣[ ] καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ προεστ (ῶσι). Similarly the word is applied to estate agents—P Ryl II. 132.3 (A.D. 32) a petition from τοῦ προεστῶτος τῶν Εὐάνδ (ρου), ";the estate agent of Evander,"; and to the heads of villages—P Oxy II. 239.11 (A.D. 66) ὀμνύω. . . μηδὲ μὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν προστήσε [σ ]θ ̣(αι) κώμης, ";I swear that henceforward I shall not become headman of a village,"; P Ryl II. 122.6 (A.D. 127) ἀξιῶ, ἐάν σοι δόξῃ, κελεῦσαι τοῖς προεστῶσει τῆς κώμης, ";I beg you, if you think fit, to give orders to the chief men of the village,"; and P Hamb I. 35.3 (c. A.D. 160) οἷς ἐκέλευσας προσταθῆναι κώμης Φιλαδελφεία [ς ], τῶι κυρίωι χαίρειν. In P Tebt II. 326.10 (c. A.D. 266) a woman petitions that her brother be appointed guardian of her daughter on the ground that προ [στ ]ήσεσθαι γνησίως τοῦ παιδίου, ";he will honourably protect the child.";

Other exx. of the verb are PSI IV. 34.13 (B.C. 256–5) ἀκούοντες γὰρ τὸ κλέος τῆς πόλεως καὶ σὲ τὸν προεστηκότα χρηστὸν καὶ δίκαιον εἶναι, ἐδοκιμάσαμεν.. . ., P Lille I. 19.8 (mid. iii/B.C.) π ]αρὰ Σαραπίωνος τοῦ προεστηκότος τῆς Καλλιξέ [νους ] δωρεᾶς, P Petr II. 30 (e).4 (iii/B.C.) ὁ προεστηκὼς τοῦ Εἰρήνης ἀμ [πελῶνος, ib. III. 73.4 (iii/B.C.) τοῦ π [ρο ]εστηκότος τῆς λεγομένης Ἀρτεμιδώρου συνοικίας, ";the landlord of the lodging house of Artemidorus, as it was called,"; and P Oxy X. 1275.8 (iii/A.D.) ο ̣̔ προεστὼς συμφωνίας αὐλητῶν καὶ μουσικῶν, ";chief of a company of flute players and musicians.";

Cf. also for still wider uses P Fay 13.5 (B.C. 170?) καλῶς ποιήσετε προστάντες Πετήσιος, ";please support Petesis"; (Edd.), P Par 63.40 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) ὑπὲρ του ̣̑ προστήσεσθαι τῶν κατὰ τὸν σπόρον μετὰ τῆς ἐνδ ̣εχομένης προσοχῆς,"; that you. should attend to the seed sowing with fitting care"; (Mahaffy), and P Oxy XII. 1491.5 (early iv/A.D.) θαρρῶ. . . ὅτι ὄχλησις ἐὰν ᾖ προίστασαι ἡμῶν, ";I am confident that if there is any trouble you. are supporting me"; (Edd.) In the early Christian letter P Amh I. 3 (a)iii. 23 (between A.D. 264 and 282) (= LAE, p. 195, Ghedini, p. 68) reference is made to certain business transactions carried through πάπᾳ καὶ τοῖς κατ᾽ α [ὐτὸν ἁγιω ]τάτοις προ ̣[εστῶσι, ";with the Papas and the most holy rulers who are before him,"; and in P Oxy I. 148.1 (A.D. 556) al. the word is used of the head of a monastery. From the inscrr. cf. OGIS 728.4 (B.C. 238–7) προέστη τῶν κα [θ᾽ αὑτὸν ] ἀξίως τῆς πόλεως, and Syll 318 (= .3 700).7 (B.C. 118–7) where a certain Μάαρκος is described as προϊστάμενος τῶν τε κατὰ κοινὸν πᾶσιν Μακεδόσιν συνφερόντων.

We may add that while Field (Notes, p. 223 f.) is able to cite exx. from late Greek of προΐστημι with the meaning ";manage some matter of business,"; he rejects the RV mg rendering of Titus 3:8 ";profess honest occupations"; on the ground that καλῶν ἔργων must be taken in the usual sense of ";good works."; Field’s objection may, however, be met so far by some such rendering as ";make it their business to do good"; (Goodspeed).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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