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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #4292 - προκαλέομαι

Root Word (Etymology)
middle voice from (G4253) and (G2564)
Parts of Speech
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  1. to call forth
  2. to call forth to one's self
    1. esp. to challenge to a combat or contest with one
  3. to provoke, to irritate
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (1)
Galatians 1
NAS (1)
Galatians 1
CSB (1)
Galatians 1
BSB (1)
Galatians 1
ESV (1)
Galatians 1
WEB (1)
Galatians 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Middle voice from G4253 and G2564

Thayer's Expanded Definition

προκαλέω, προκάλω: present middle participle προκαλούμενος; to call forth (cf. πρό, d. α.); middle to call forth to oneself, especially to challenge to a combat or contest with one; often so from Homer down; hence, to provoke, to irritate: Galatians 5:26 ((εἰς ὠμότητα καί ὀργήν, Herodian, 7, 1, 11, 4 edition, Bekker)).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

** προ -καλέω , - ,

[in LXX: 2 Maccabees 8:11 A *;]

to call forth.

Most freq. in mid.,

(a) to challenge; hence, to provoke: Galatians 5:26;

(b) to invite (2Mac, l.c.).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

πρόφασις is the ";ostensible reason"; for which a thing is done, and generally points to a false reason as opposed to the true, cf. Philippians 1:18 εἴτε προφάσει εἴτε ἀληθείᾳ : see the classical parallels adduced ad I. by Wetstein, and add from the Κοινή such exx. as—P Tebt I. 27.82 (B.C. 113) (= Chrest. I. p. 390) οὔτε γὰρ βίαν οὔθ᾽ ἑτέραν ἡνδηποτοῦν πρόφασιν προσδεξόμεθα, BGU II. 648.11 (A.D. 164 or 196) βιαίως ἀντι [λ ]αμβάνονται τ [ο ]ῦ πατρικοῦ μου μέρους προφάσει γεωργίας βασιλικῆς γῆς, P Oxy VIII, 1119.11 (A.D. 254) ἀγνοίας π ̣ρ ̣[ ]ϕ ̣α ̣σιν ὑποτειμησάμενος, ";pleading the excuse of ignorance,"; ib. VI. 903.35 (iv/A.D.) καὶ ταύτῃ τῇ προφάσει ἆραι εἴ τι ἔχω, ";and on this pretext to take away whatever I have myself"; (Edd.), BGU III. 941.15 (A.D. 376) ὁμολογῶ ἐντεῦθεν μηδένα λόγον ἔχειν πρὸς σὲ μηδὲ ἐπελθεῖν σοι μηδὲ ἐγκαλεῖν προφά [σει ] τούτων, and PSI I. 52.26 (vi/A.D.?) οἱα ̣σδηποτου ̣ͅν ἕνεκεν προφάσ (εως). In the early Christian letter P Amh I. 3ii. 7 (between A.D. 264 and 282) (= LAE, p. 193) we have the collocation προφάσε [ις ] καὶ ἀναβολὰς καὶ ἀναδόσις (= εις) ποιη [σά ]μενος, ";though I made excuses and delays and puttings off.";

For the more colourless meaning ";occasion,"; cf. the Imperial edict P Fay 20.11 (iii/iv A.D.) ἐπὶ τῇ προφάσει τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ ἀρχῆς τῆς Αὐτοκράτορος, ";on the occasion of my succession to the empire"; (Edd.), BGU IV. 1024vi. 21 (iv/v A.D.) εὑρὼν οὖν πρόφασιν ὁ Ζεφύριο [ς λέ ]γει τοῖς πολιτευομέν [ο ]ις · οὐκ [έτι δύ ]ναμαι ἀπο [λῦ ]σαι Διόδημον, and the elegiac epitaph, Kaibel 204.5 f. (not later than i/B.C.) where a dead wife is invoked by her husband—

Ἀτθίς, ἐμοὶ ζή (σ)α (σ)α καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πνεῦμα λιποῦσα

ὡς πάρος εὐφροσύνης, νυ ̣ͅν δακρύων πρόφασι.

The verb προφασίζομαι is found in PSI III. 207.25 (iii/iv A.D.), BGU III. 899.10 (iv/A.D.?).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
προκαλουμενοι προκαλούμενοι prokaloumenoi prokaloúmenoi
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