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Thursday, July 18th, 2024
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #5467 - χαλεπός

perhaps from (G5465) through the idea of reducing the strength
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  1. hard to do, to take, to approach
  2. hard to bear, troublesome, dangerous
    1. harsh, fierce, savage
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 3372 ‑ יָרֵא (yaw‑ray');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
ASV (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
BSB (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
CSB (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
ESV (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
KJV (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
LEB (0)
The Lexham English Bible
did not use
this Strong's Number
LSB (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
N95 (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
NAS (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
NLT (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
WEB (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
YLT (2)
Matthew 1
2 Timothy 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

χαλεπ-ός, ή, όν,

difficult (ὃ ἂν μὴ ῥᾴδιον ᾖ ἀλλὰ διὰ πολλῶν πραγμάτων γίγνηται Pl. Prt. 341d: opp. ῥᾴδιος, Arist. Rh. 1363a24, in various relations):

I in reference to the feelings, hard to bear, painful, grievous (so freq. in Hom.), κεραυνός Il. 14.417; θύελλα 21.335; ἄνεμοι Od. 12.286; πόνος 23.250; ἄλγος, πένθος, 2.193, 6.169; γῆρας Il. 8.103; ἄλη Od. 10.464; χαλεπώτερος ἄεθλος Hes. Th. 800; ἄλλα τῶν κατεχόντων πρηγμάτων - ώτερα Hdt. 6.40; χ. πνεῦμα A. Supp. 166 (lyr.); δύα Id. Th. 228 (lyr.); χαλεπώτατα [πράγματα ] S. Tr. 1273 (anap.); συμφορά E. Hipp. 768 (lyr.); νόσος, πλάνη, etc., X. Smp. 4.37, Pl. Sph. 245e (Comp.), etc.; ἡ ἐσβολὴ αὕτη -ωτάτη τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἐγένετο Th. 3.26; [ θώρακες] δύσφοροι καὶ χ., of ill-fitting cuirasses, X. Mem. 3.10.13: τὸ χ. τοῦ πνεύματος the severity of the wind, Id. An. 4.5.4; τὰ χ. hardships, opp. τὰ τερπνά, Id. Mem. 2.1.23, etc.; τερπνῶν χαλεπῶν τε κρίσις Pi. Fr. 131, cf. Plot. 5.9.14: Comp., more unpleasant, Jul. Or. 6.202c.

2. hard to do or deal with, difficult, irksome, -ώτατον ἔργον ἁπάντων Ar. Eq. 516 (anap.); cf. Th. 3.59 (Sup.), etc.; χαλεπὰ τὰ καλά prov. ap. Pl. Hp.Ma. 304e, al., attributed to Solon by Sch. ad loc.; χαλεπὸν ὁ βίος X. Mem. 2.9.1, cf. Pl. Plt. 299e: c. inf. Act. or Med., χαλεπή τοι ἐγὼ μένος ἀντιφέρεσθαι, = χαλεπόν ἐστί μοι ἀντιφέρεσθαί σοι, Il. 21.482; χαλεποὶ δὲ θεοὶ φαίνεσθαι ἐναργεῖς 20.131; χαλεπὸν δέ τ' ὀρύσσειν [τὸ μῶλυ ] Od. 10.305; χ. προϊδέσθαι καπρός Hes. Sc. 386; χ. ἔρις ἀνθρώποις ὁμιλεῖν κρεσσόνων Pi. N. 10.72; χ. προσπολεμεῖν Isoc. 4.138, cf. Th. 7.51 (Comp.); χ. συγγενέσθαι, εὑρεῖν, γενέσθαι, Pl. R. 330c, 412b, 502c; χ. πάσχειν Id. Cri. 49b (Comp.): also c. inf. Pass., χαλεπὸς διαγνωσθῆναι καὶ δειχθῆναι Antipho 2.1.1, cf. Th. 3.94, etc.; χαλεπὸν ληφθῆναι ὁ τόπος Arist. Ph. 212a8; χαλεπόν [ἐστι ] c. inf., 'tis hard, difficult to do, Od. 4.651; c. acc. et inf., 'tis difficult for one to do.., Il. 16.620, Od. 20.313: c. dat. et inf., Il. 21.184, Od. 11.156.

3. dangerous, λιμένες 19.189; θάλασσα Th. 4.24; χ. τὰ παρόντα X. An. 3.2.2.

4. of ground, difficult, rugged, χωρία χ. καὶ πετρώδη Th. 4.9; ὁδός Id. 5.58, Pl. R. 328e; χ... καὶ προσάντης.. ὁδός ἐστιν Anaxandr. 56; πρόσοδοι X. An. 5.2.3; πορεία ib. 5.6.10; σταθμός ib. 4.5.3; χωρίον -ώτατον a place most difficult to take, ib. 4.8.2.

II of persons, hard to deal with, cruel, harsh, stern (opp. πρᾷος, Pl. R. 493b (Sup.), Arist. EN 1126a26), βασιλεύς, δαίμων, Od. 2.232, 19.201; χαλεποί τε καὶ ἄγριοι 8.575; -ώτερος a more bitter enemy, Th. 3.40; -ώτατοι most difficult to deal with, most dangerous or troublesome, ib. 42, cf. 7.21; -ώτεροι πάροικοι Id. 3.113; χαλεπόν γε θυγάτηρ κτῆμα Men. 18: c. dat. pers., cruel or harsh towards one, Od. 17.388; τοῖς ξυμπροθυμηθεῖσι τὸν ἔκπλουν Th. 8.1, etc.; πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους, τοὺς ἀγνῶτας, Pl. R. 375c, Arist. Pol. 1328a8 (also πρὸς τοὺς δρόμους X. Cyn. 5.17); ἐπὶ νύμφαις ἀλλοτρίαις Theoc. 22.145.

of words, χαλεπῷ ἠνίπαπε μύθῳ Il. 2.245, etc.; ἐρεθιζέμεν αἰεὶ μύθοισιν χ. Od. 17.395; χ. ὀνείδεα, ὁμοκλαί, Il. 3.438, Od. 17.189; φῆμις 14.239; μῆνις Il. 5.178. esp. of judges, ἦν τὸ δίκαιον φυλάσσων χ. Hdt. 1.100, cf. Pl. Criti. 107d, And. 4.36; also χ. ἀρχή Th. 1.77; τιμωρία Pl. Ap. 39c (Comp.); νόμοι Id. Hp.Mi. 372a (Comp.), D. 21.44, 35.50. savage, fierce, κύνες X. An. 5.8.24, Cyn. 10.23; of bees, Arist. HA 624b30 (Comp.); [ θηρία] χ. τὰς φύσεις Pl. Plt. 274b.

2. ill-tempered, testy, χ. ὢν καὶ δύσκολος Ar. V. 942, cf. Isoc. 19.26; ὀργὴν χ. Hdt. 3.131; χαλεπῇ τῇ χειρί with a rough hand, Ar. Lys. 1116.

3. of plants, hurtful to the soil, Thphr. HP 8.9.3 (Sup.).

Adv. -πῶς hardly, with difficulty, διαγνῶναι χ. ἦν ἄνδρα ἕκαστον Il. 7.424; χ. δέ σ' ἔολπα τὸ ῥέξειν 20.186; χ. κε φύγοις κακόν Hes. Op. 684; χ. ὀργὰς μεταβάλλουσιν E. Med. 121 (anap.); χ. γνῶναι Antipho 3.2.1; τὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις χ. εὑρημένα ῥᾳδίως μανθάνειν Isoc. 1.18, cf. 44; οὐ or μὴ χ. without much ado, Th. 1.2, 7.81, etc.

2. hardly, scarcely, δοκέω.. χ. ἂν Ἕλληνας Πέρσῃσι μάχεσθαι Hdt. 7.103; χ. παρὰ τοῖς ἐχθροῖς εὑρεθήσεται Lys. 29.2; χ. ἂν πείσαιμι Pl. Phd. 84d.

3. χ. ἔχει, = χαλεπόν ἐστι, Th. 3.53: c. acc. et inf., X. HG 7.4.6.

4. painfully, miserably, -ώτερον ζῆν Pl. R. 579d; ἐν τοῖς -ώτατα διῆγον Th. 7.71.

II of persons, angrily, cruelly, harshly, χ. τιμωρεῖσθαι Id. 3.46; ἀποκρίνασθαι Id. 5.42, cf. E. Hipp. 203 (anap.), Ar. Pl. 60, Pl. Phdr. 269b; χ. φέρειν τι take it ill, Th. 2.16, Pl. R. 330a, etc.; also χ. ἔφερον τῷ πολέμῳ, τοῖς πράγμασιν, X. HG 5.1.29, An. 1.3.3; ἐπὶ τῇ πολιορκίᾳ Id. HG 7.4.21, cf. D.H. 3.50; also χ. φέρειν τινός Th. 2.62; also χ. λαμβάνεσθαι τοῦ παιδός Hdt. 2.121. δ; χ. λαμβάνειν περί τινος Th. 6.61; of the laws (cf. supr. 11.1c), χ. προστάττειν Pl. Lg. 925d.

2. freq. in the phrase χ. ἔχειν to be angry, X. An. 6.4.16, etc.; τινι with one, Id. HG 1.5.16; πρὸς τοὺς λόγους Isoc. 3.3, cf. 51; χ. ἔχειν τισὶν ἐπί τινι with persons for a thing, D. 20.135, cf. Plu. Cic. 43; χ. διακεῖσθαι πρὸς ἅπαντας Isoc. 7.5; χ. πρὸς φιλοσοφίαν διακεῖσθαι Pl. R. 500b; χ. πρὸς ἡμᾶς διετέθησαν Isoc. 8.79; ἐπί τινι χ. διατεθείς Plu. Per. 36. χ. ἔχειν, also, to be in a bad way, χ. ἔχω ὑπὸ τοῦ πότου Pl. Smp. 176a, cf. Tht. 142b. Beside the regul. Comp.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

χαλεπός, χαλεπης, χαλεπόν (from χαλέπτω to oppress, annoy ((?))), from Homer down, hard (Latindifficilis);

a. hard to do, to take, to approach.

b. hard to bear, troublesome, dangerous: καιροί χαλεποί (R. V. grievous), 2 Timothy 3:1; harsh, fierce, savage: of men, Matthew 8:28 (Isaiah 18:2 and often in secular authors from Homer down).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

χαλεπός , - , -όν ,

[in LXX: Isaiah 18:2 (H3372), Wisdom of Solomon 3:19, Sirach 3:21, al.;]


(a) hard to do or deal with, difficult;

(b) hard to bear, painful, grievous: καιροί , 2 Timothy 3:1;

(c) of persons, hard to deal with, harsh, fierce, savage: Matthew 8:28.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

properly = ";play on a harp,"; but in the NT, as in Jas. 5:13, = ";sing a hymn"; : cf. Syll 523 ( = .3 578).18 (ii/B.C.) διδάξει. . . κιθαρίζειν ἢ ψάλλειν, Pelagia-Legenden p. 14.23 ἤρξατο ψάλλειν τὴν τρίτην [ὥραν, and Menander Ἐπιτρέπ. 260 ἔψαλλον κόραις. See s.v. ψαλμός. MGr ψάλλω, ψέλνω, ";sing.";


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
χαλεποι χαλεποί χαλεποὶ χαλεπόν chalepoi chalepoí chalepoì
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