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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #749 - ἀρχιερεύς
- chief priest, high priest
ἀρχῐερ-εύς, έως, ὁ: Ion. ἀρχῐέρεως, εω, Hdt. 2.37, also in Pl. Lg. 947a: acc. pl. ἀρχιρέας v.l. in Hdt. 2.142: —
arch-priest, chief-priest, ll. cc., freq. in Inscrr., νήσου OGI 93.3 (Cyprus), etc.: esp. in Roman provinces, of the Imperial cult, ἀ. Ἀσίας ib. 458.31, etc., cf. PRyl. 149.2 (i A. D.), etc.: — at Rome, = pontifex, Plu. Numbers 9:1-23, etc.; ἀ. μέγιστος, = pontifex maximus, SIG 832, etc. (but ἀρχιερεύς alone, IG 7.2711, etc.): — at Jerusalem, high-priest, LXX Leviticus 4:3, Matthew 26:3, etc. (Spelt ἀρχι-ιερεύς IGRom. 4.882 (Themisonium)).
ἀρχ -ιερεύς , -έως , ὁ ,
1. high-priest: Mark 2:26; Mark 14:47, al.; of Christ: Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 3:1, al.
2. In pl., chief priests, including ex-high-priests and members of high-priestly
families: Matthew 2:4, Mark 8:31, al. (Cremer, 294; DCG, i, 297 f.; MM, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
P Leid G.4 (end of ii/B.C.) τοῖς ἐπιστάταις τῶν ἱερ [ῶ ]ν καὶ ἀρχιερεῦσι seems to define the term in Egypt, but it had also more special use. P Tebt II. 315.31 (ii/A.D.) τὸν ἀπιθοῦντα μετὰ φρουρᾶς τῷ ἀρχιερῖ πέμπιν is indeterminate. But in ib. 294.2, according to Wilcken and the editors, the same official, known as ἀρχιερεὺς Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ Αἰγύπτου πάσης, is addressed as idiologus, ";administrator of the Private accounts"; (Edd.). Preisigke 305.9 has υἱοῦ Τρήσεως ἀρχιερέως (A.D. 210), in a dedication. Michel 1231 (early i/B.C.) Ἀρχιερεὺς μέ [γ ]ας rededicates to Ζεὺς Ὄλβιος (of Olba in Cilicia) buildings once constructed by Seleucus Nicator : we are reminded of the phrase in Hebrews 4:14.
Ἀρχιερεύς and ἀρχιερεὺς μέγιστος were the regular terms in the East for translating the title pontifex maximus, borne by the Emperors : see LAE, p. 369 f., where Deissmann refers to the evidence from the inscriptions collected by Magie, p. 64. A word common in classical and later literature, though only once in the Gk OT, apart from Apocr. (esp. Macc), needs no further illustration. But we may note the form with γ in P Hib I. 62.8 (B.C. 245) τῷ ἀρχιγερεῖ ἐν Θώλτει (see the editors’ note), and the unelided ἀρχιιερεύς in P Petr III. 53 (p).2 (iii/B.C.).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.