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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #840 - αὐστηρός
- of mind and manners: harsh, rough, rigid
αὐστηρός, ά, όν, (αὕω)
harsh, rough, bitter, ὕδωρ Pl. Phlb. 61c, cf. Ti. 65d; οἶνος αὐ., opp. γλυκύς, Hp. Acut. 52, Fract. 29, Arist. Pr. 872b35, 934a34; ὀσμή Id. de An. 421a30; of country, rugged, τόποι OGI 168.57 (i B.C.): metaph., harsh, crabbed, ποιητής Pl. R. 398a (Comp.); severe, unadorned, ἡ πραγματεία ἔχει αὐ. τι Plb. 9.1.2, cf. D.H. Dem. 47; γυμνάδος αὐστηρὸν.. πόνον severe, Epigr.Gr. 201. Adv. -ρῶς, κατεσκευάσθαι D.H. Dem. 43. in moral sense, rigorous, austere, Arist. EE 1240a2; τοῖς βίοις Plb. 4.20.7 (Sup.), cf. Phld. Hom. p.23 O. (Comp.); αὐ. καὶ αὐθάδης D.H. 6.27, cf. Stoic. 3.162, Vett. Val.75.11; strict, exacting, Luke 19:21, PTeb. 315.19 (ii A. D.); αὐστηρότερον, τό, excessive rigour, BGU 140.18 (ii A. D.). Adv. -ρῶς Satyr. Vit.Eur. Fr. 39 iv 19: Comp. -ότερον LXX 2 Maccabees 14:30.
** αὐστηρός , -ά , -όν
(< αἄω , to dry up),
[in LXX: 2 Maccabees 14:30 *;]
stringent, harsh to the taste. Metaph., in Inscr., of a rough country; of disposition and manners, strict, severe (as in Papyri, of an inspector; MM, s v): Luke 19:21-22.†
SYN.: σκληρός G4642 (Tr., § xiv).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The epithet of Luke 19:21 is poorly rendered by the word we have borrowed. It obviously means ";strict, exacting,"; a man who expects to get blood out of a stone. This sense is well seen in P Tebt II. 315.19 (ii/A.D.), in which the writer warns his friend, who was evidently connected with the temple finance, to see that his books were in good order, in view of the visit of a government inspector, ὁ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος λείαν ἐστὶ [ν ] αὐστηρός , ";a regular martinet,"; Cf. BGU I. 140.17 ff., the copy of a military letter or diploma of the time of Hadrian, in which, with reference to certain regulations affecting his soldiers, the Emperor rejoices that he is able to interpret in a milder manner (φιλανθρωπότερ (ον )) τὸ αὐστηρότερον ὑπὸ τῶν πρὸ ἐμοῦ αὐτοκρατόρων σταθέν . In the curious rhetorical exercise (?) P Oxy III. 471.92 ff. (ii/A.D.) we find τί οὖν ὁ κατηφὴς σὺ καὶ ὑπεραύ [σ ]τηρος οὐκ ἐκώλυες ; ";why then did not you with your modesty and extreme austerity stop him?"; (Edd.). Here (as the context shows) a rigorous Puritanism is sarcastically attributed to a high Roman official, whose scandalous relations with a favourite ill became a vir gravis : this is nearer to the English austere. Four centuries earlier, it describes ";rough"; country, OGIS 168.57 αὐστηροῖς τόποις παρορίοις τῆι Αἰθιοπίαι . So in a metrical epitaph from Cos (i/B.C.), Kaibel 201.5 γυμνάδος αὐστηρὸν διετῆ πόνον ἐκτελέσαντα , of ";exacting"; physical work. We may add that the connotation of the adj. in its later sense is very well given by the combination in Vettius Valens, p. 75.11, where a particular conjunction of Venus and Saturn produces αὐστηροὺς ἀγελάστους ἐπισκύνιον ἔχοντας , πρὸς δὲ τὰ ἀφροδίσια σκληροτέρους : the sequel however admits vice, but of a gloomy and bizarre type.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Second Week after Epiphany