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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #907 - βαπτίζω
- to dip repeatedly, to immerse, to submerge (of vessels sunk)
- to cleanse by dipping or submerging, to wash, to make clean with water, to wash one's self, bathe
- to overwhelm
1. dip, plunge, ξίφος εἰς σφαγήν J. BJ 2.18.4; σπάθιον εἰς τὸ ἔμβρυον Sor. 2.63: — Pass., of a trephine, Gal. 10.447; βάπτισον σεαυτὸν εἰς θάλασσαν Plu. 2.166a; β. Διόνυσον πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ib. 914d: — in Pass., to be drowned, Epict. Gnom. 47; of ships, sink or disable them, Plb. 1.51.6, 16.6.2 (Pass.); ἐβάπτισαν τὴν πόλιν flooded the city, metaph., of the crowds who flocked into Jerusalem at the time of the siege, J. BJ 4.3.3; β. τινὰ εἰσφοραῖς D.S. 1.73; β. τινὰ ὕπνῳ AP 11.49 (Even.); ὕπνῳ βεβαπτισμένος Archig. and Posidon. ap. Aët. 6.3: — Pass., ὡς ἐκ τοῦ βεβαπτίσθαι ἀναπνέουσι Hp. Epid. 5.63; to be drenched, Eub. 68: metaph., βεβαπτισμένοι soaked in wine, Pl. Smp. 176b; ὀφλήμασι βεβ. over head and ears in debt, Plu. Galb. 21; γνοὺς βαπτιζόμενον τὸ μειράκιον seeing that he was getting into deep water, Pl. Euthd. 277d; β. εἰς ἀναισθησίαν καὶ ὕπνον J. AJ 10.9.4; ὁ τῷ θυμῷ βεβαπτισμένος καταδύεται Ach.Tat. 6.19; ψυχή βεβαπτισμένη λύπῃ Lib. Or. 64.115.
2. draw wine by dipping the cup in the bowl, Aristopho 14.5; φιάλαις β. ἐκ.. κρατήρων Plu. Alex. 67.
3. baptize, τινά Mark 1:4; ἐν ὕδατι εἰς μετάνοιαν Matthew 3:11 : — Pass., βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν Acts 2:38; εἰς Χριστόν Romans 6:3, etc.: — Med., dip oneself, LXX 4 Ki. 5.14; get oneself baptized, Acts 22:16; 1 Corinthians 10:2 : — Pass., perform ablutions,.Luke 11:38.
βαπτίζω; (imperfect ἐβαπτιζον); future βαπτίσω; 1 aorist ἐβάπτισα; passive (present βαπτίζομαι); imperfect ἐβαπτιζομην; perfect participle βεβαπτισμενος; 1 aorist ἐβαπτίσθην; 1 future βαπτισθήσομαι; 1 aorist middle ἐβαπτισαμην; (frequent. (?) from βάπτω, like βαλλίζω from βάλλω); here and there in Plato, Polybius, Diodorus, Strabo, Josephus, Plutarch, others.
1. properly, to dip repeatedly, to immerge, submerge (of vessels sunk, Polybius 1, 51, 6; 8, 8, 4; of animals, Diodorus 1, 36).
2. to cleanse by dipping or submerging, to wash, to make clean with water; in the middle and the 1 aorist passive to wash oneself, bathe; so Mark 7:4 (where WH text ῥαντισωνται); Luke 11:38 (2 Kings 5:14 ἐβαπτίσατο ἐν τῷ Ιορδάνῃ, for טָבַל; Sir. 31:30 (Sir. 34:30; Judith 12:7).
3. metaphorically, to overwhelm, as ἰδιωτας ταῖς ἐισφοραις, Diodorus 1, 73; ὀφλημασι, Plutarch, Galba 21; τῇ συμφορά βεβαπτισμενος, Heliodorus Aeth. 2, 3; and alone, to inflict great and abounding calamities on one: ἐβαπτισαν τήν πόλιν, Josephus, b. j. 4, 3, 3; ἡ ἀνομία με βαπτίζει, Isaiah 21:4 the Sept. hence, βαπτίζεσθαι βάπτισμα (cf. Winers Grammar, 225 (211); (Buttmann, 148 (129)); cf. λούεσθαι τό λουτρόν, Aelian de nat. an. 3, 42), to be overwhelmed with calamities, of those who must bear them, Matthew 20:22f Rec.; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50 (cf. the German etwas auszubaden haben, and the use of the word e. g. respecting those who cross a river with difficulty, ἕως τῶν μαστῶν οἱ πεζοί βαπτιζόμενοι διέβαινον, Polybius 3, 72, 4; (for examples see Sophocles' Lexicon under the word; also T. J. Conant, βαπτίζειν, its meaning and use, N. Y. 1864 (printed also as an Appendix to their revised version of the Gospel of Matthew by the American Bible Union); and especially four works by J. W. Dale entitled Classic, Judaic, Johannic, Christic, Baptism, Phil. 1867ff; D. B. Ford, Studies on the Bapt. Quest. (including a review of Dr. Dale's works), Bost. 1879)).
II. In the N. T. it is used particularly of the rite of sacred ablution, first instituted by John the Baptist, afterward by Christ's command received by Christians and adjusted to the contents and nature of their religion (see βάπτισμα, 3), viz., an immersion in water, performed as a sign of the removal of sin, and administered to those who, impelled by a desire for salvation, sought admission to the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom; (for patristic references respecting the mode, ministrant, subjects, etc. of the rite, cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word; Dict. of Chris. Antiq. under the word Baptism).
a. The word is used absolutely, to administer the rite of ablution, to baptize (Vulg. baptizo; Tertullian tingo,tinguo (cf.metgiro, de corona mil. § 3)): Mark 1:4; John 1:25f, 28; John 3:22f, 26; John 4:2; John 10:40; 1 Corinthians 1:17; with the cognate noun τό βάπτισμα, Acts 19:4; ὁ βαπτίζων substantively equivalent to ὁ βαπτιστής, Mark 6:14 (24 T Tr WH). τινα, John 4:1; Acts 8:38; 1 Corinthians 1:14, 16. Passive to be baptized: Matthew 3:13f, 16; Mark 16:16; Luke 3:21; Acts 2:41; Acts 8:12, 13,(
b. with prepositions; aa. εἰς, to mark the element into which the immersion is made: εἰς τόν Ιορδάνην, Mark 1:9. to mark the end: εἰς μετάνοιαν, to bind one to repentance, Matthew 3:11; εἰς τό Ἰωάννου βάπτισμα, to bind to the duties imposed by John's baptism, Acts 19:3 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 397 (371)); εἰς ὄνομα τίνος, to profess the name (see ὄνομα, 2) of one whose follower we become, Matthew 28:19; Acts 8:16; Acts 19:5; 1 Corinthians 1:13, 15; εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, to obtain the forgiveness of sins, Acts 2:38; εἰς τόν Μωυσῆν, to follow Moses as a leader, 1 Corinthians 10:2. to indicate the effect: εἰς ἕν σῶμα, to unite together into one body by baptism, 1 Corinthians 12:13; εἰς Χριστόν, εἰς τόν θάνατον αὐτοῦ, to bring by baptism into fellowship with Christ, into fellowship in his death, by which fellowship we have died to sin, Galatians 3:27; Romans 6:3 (cf. Meyer on the latter passive, Ellicott on the former). bb. ἐν, with the dative of the thing in which one is immersed: ἐν τῷ Ιορδάνῃ, Mark 1:5; ἐν τῷ ὕδατι, John 1:31 (L T Tr WH ἐν ὕδατι, but compare Meyer at the passage (who makes the article deictic)). of the thing used in baptizing: ἐν ὕδατι, Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8 (T WH Tr marginal reading omit; Tr text brackets ἐν); John 1:26, 33; cf. Buttmann, § 133, 19; (cf. Winers Grammar, 412 (384); see ἐν, I. 5 d. α.); with the simple dative, ὕδατι, Luke 3:16; Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16. ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, to imbue richly with the Holy Spirit (just as its large bestowment is called an outpouring): Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8 (L Tr brackets ἐν); Luke 3:16; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16; with the addition καί πυρί to overwhelm with fire (those who do not repent), i. e. to subject them to the terrible penalties of hell, Matthew 3:11. ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου, by the authority of the Lord, Acts 10:48. cc. Passive ἐπί (L Tr WH ἐν) τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, relying on the name of Jesus Christ, i. e. reposing one's hope on him, Acts 2:38. dd. ὑπέρ τῶν νεκρῶν on behalf of the dead, i. e. to promote their eternal salvation by undergoing baptism in their stead, 1 Corinthians 15:29; cf. (Winers Grammar, 175 (165); 279 (262); 382 (358); Meyer (or Beet) at the passage); especially Neander at the passage; Rückert, Progr. on the passage, Jen. 18 47; Paret in Ewald's Jahrb. d. Biblical Wissensch. ix., p. 247; (cf. B. D. under the word Baptism XII. Alex.'s Kitto ibid. VI.).
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(< βάπτω ),
[in LXX: 2 Kings 5:14 (H2881), Isaiah 21:4, Judith 12:7, Sirach 31:30 *;]
to dip, immerse, sink;
1. generally (in Polyb., iii, 72, of soldiers wading breast-deep; in i, 51, of the sinking of ships); metaph., to overwhelm (Isa, i.c.; cf. MM, Exp., x); c. cogn. acc, βάπτισμα β ., Mark 10:38-39 Luke 12:50. Mid.,
2. to perform ablutions, wash oneself, bathe (Ki, Jth, Sir, ll c.): Mark 7:4; aor. pass. in same sense, Luke 11:38.
3. Of ablution, immersion, as a religious rite, to baptize;
(a) absol.; Mark 1:4, John 1:25-26; John 1:28; John 3:22-23; John 3:26; John 4:2; John 10:40, 1 Corinthians 1:17; ὁ βαπτίζωι (= ὁ βαπτιστής , M, Pr., 127), Mark 6:14; Mark 6:24; c. acc, John 4:1, Acts 8:38, 1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:16; C. cogn acc, τὸ βάπτισμα , Acts 19:4 (cf. Mark 10:38, supr.); pass., to be baptized, receive baptism: Matthew 3:13-16 Mark 16:16, Luke 3:7; Luke 3:12; Luke 3:21; Luke 7:29 (τ . βάπτισμα ) Luke 7:30, Acts 2:41; Acts 8:12-13; Acts 8:36; Acts 9:18; Acts 10:47; Acts 16:15; Acts 16:33; Acts 18:8; mid., Acts 22:16 (M, Pr., 163);
(b) with prepositions: ἐν , of the element, Matthew 3:6; Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:4-5; Mark 1:8, Luke 3:15, John 1:26; John 1:31; John 1:33; John 3:23, Acts 1:5; Acts 2:38; Acts 10:48; Acts 11:16, 1 Corinthians 10:2; εἰς , of the element, purpose or result (Lft., Notes, 155), Matthew 3:11; Matthew 28:19, Mark 1:9, Acts 8:16; Acts 19:3; Acts 19:5, Romans 6:3, 1 Corinthians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 1:15; 1 Corinthians 10:2; 1 Corinthians 12:13, Galatians 3:27; c. dat., ὕδατι , Luke 3:16, Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16; ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν , perh. to fulfil the wish of a dead friend, 1 Corinthians 15:29 (v. ICC, in l; cf. DB, 1, 238 ff.; DCG, i, 169a; ii, 605b; Cremer, 126).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
As late as iv/A.D. the word is used in a magic papyrus, P Lond 46.69 (= I. p. 67) of a ";submerged"; boat—ἀπὸ νεναυαγηκ (ότος ) πλοίου ἀπὸ πάκτωνος βεβαπτισμ (ένου ). Lucian Timon 44 makes the Misanthrope threaten ὠθεῖν καὶ ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν βαπτίζοντα . So in a fragment of Epictetus (Stobaeus no. 47—Schenkl p. 474), quoted by D. S. Sharp, Epictetus and the NT, p. 66, ὥσπερ οὐκ ἂν ἐβούλου ἐν νηῒ μεγάλῃ καὶ γλαφυρᾷ καὶ πολυχρύσῳ πλέων βαπτίζεσθαι . With its use to express ceremonial ablution—as Luke 11:38 and the new Gospel-fragment P Oxy V. 840.15 μ [ή ]τε μὴν τῶν μαθητῶν σου τοὺς π [όδας βα ]πτισθέντων —we may compare another magic papyrus P Lond 121.441 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 98) λουσάμενος καὶ βαπτισάμενος . Our earliest quotation is from P Par 47.13 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 22) κἂν ι ̣̔̓δῇς ὅτι μέλλομεν σωθῆναι , τότε βαπτιζώμεθα . The translation of the letter, which is very illiterate, is by no means clear, but βαπτιζόμεθα must mean ";flooded,"; or overwhelmed with calamities. That the word was already in use in this metaphorical sense (cf. Diod. i. 73. 6), even among uneducated people, strikingly illustrates our Lord’s speaking of His Passion as a ";baptism"; (Mark 10:38).
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