Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #02398 - חָטָא
1) to sin, miss, miss the way, go wrong, incur guilt, forfeit, purify from uncleanness
1a1) to miss
1a2) to sin, miss the goal or path of right and duty
1a3) to incur guilt, incur penalty by sin, forfeit
1b1) to bear loss
1b2) to make a sin-offering
1b3) to purify from sin
1b4) to purify from uncleanness
1c1) to miss the mark
1c2) to induce to sin, cause to sin
1c3) to bring into guilt or condemnation or punishment
1d1) to miss oneself, lose oneself, wander from the way
1d2) to purify oneself from uncleanness
1170) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: Cord AB: Miss: Cords are used for binding as well as measuring. A cord is also used as measuring device by placing knots incrementally. The cord is stretched between the two points to measure and the knots are counted.
A) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
E) auh (ההתהא HhThA) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
V) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Miss: To miss the target, whether a literal target or a goal that is aimed for. KJV (238): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) sin, purify, cleanse, sinner, committed, offended, blame, done - Strongs: H2398 (חָטָא)
Nm) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also a sinner as one who misses the mark. KJV (51): sinner, sinful, offender, sin, faults, grievously, offences - Strongs: H2399 (חֵטְא), H2400 (חַטָּא)
Nf1) eauh (ההתהאה HhThAH) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also the sin offering which by transference becomes the sin. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: tajx] KJV (305): sin, sin offering, punishment, purifying - Strongs: H2401 (חֲטָאָה), H2402 (חַטָּאָה), H2403 (חַטָּאָה)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
חָטָא fut. יֶחֱטָא
(1) prop. to miss, to err from the mark, speaking of an archer (the opposite idea to that of reaching the goal, to hit the mark), see Hiph. Judges 20:16 of the feet, to make a false step, to stumble (Proverbs 19:2), Germ. fehlen, verfehlen, specially fehlfchießen, fehltreten. (The same origin is found in Arab. خَطِىءَ to miss the mark, opposite to صاب to hit the mark, see Jeuhari in the specimen edited by Scheid, p. 67-71, and Greek ἁμαρτάνω, used of a dart, Il. x. 372; iv. 491; of a way, Od. vii. 292.) The opposite of מָצָא to hit upon, to find, German treffen. Proverbs 8:36, חֹטְאִי חֹמֵס נַפְשׁוֹ “he who wanders from me, injures his own soul.” Opposed to מֹצְאִי verse 35. Job 5:24, “thou numberest thy flock, וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא and missest none;” none is wanting, all the flocks are there. (In this signification it agrees with the Ethiop. ኀጥአ፡ not to find, not to have, to lack, see Ludolf, Lex. Ethiop. p. 288.)
(2) to sin (to miss or wander from the way, or to stumble in the path of rectitude), followed by לְ of the person against whom one sins, whence חָטָא לַיהֹוָה Genesis 20:6, Genesis 20:9; 1 Samuel 2:25, 7:6, etc.; also followed by בְּ of the thing in which one has sinned, Genesis 42:22; Leviticus 4:23; Nehemiah 9:29 followed by עַל Levit. 5:22 Numbers 6:11; Nehemiah 13:26. There is a pregnant construction in Leviticus 5:16, אֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־ הַקֹּדֶשׁ “that which he hath sinned (taken sinfully) from the holy things.”
(3) to become liable to a penalty or forfeiture of something by sinning, followed by an acc. Leviticus 5:7 comp. verse 11 Proverbs 20:2, חוֹטֵא נַפְשׁוֹ “he becomes liable to the penalty of his life,” brings his life into danger, compare Habakkuk 2:10. Genesis 43:9, “unless I bring him back וְחָטָאתִי וגו׳ I shall be liable (i.e. I shall bear the blame) through all my life.”
(1) to bear the blame (to take the consequence of sin), followed by an acc., Genesis 31:39 hence
(2) to offer for sin. Levit. 6:19, הַמְחַטֵּא אֹתָהּ “he who offers it” (the sin offering). Levit. 9:15, וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ “and offered it as a sin-offering.”
(3) to expiate, to cleanse by a sacred ceremony, i.q. כִּפֵּר, as men, Numbers 19:19; Psalms 51:9 vessels, a house, etc. Leviticus 8:15, followed by עַל Exodus 29:36.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to miss the mark (as an archer), Judges 20:16 (Arab. Conj. IV.).
(2) causat. of No. 2, to lead into sin, to seduce some one to sin, Exodus 23:33. 1 Kings 15:26, וּבְחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱטִיא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל “and in his sin which he made Israel to sin,” to which he seduced Israel (used here, as often in other places, concerning idolatry). 1 Kings 16:26; 2 Kings 3:3, 10:29.
(3) [“to cause to be accused of sin, Deuteronomy 24:4; Ecclesiastes 5:5 also”] i.q. הִרְשִׁיעַ to declare guilty, to condemn, in a forensic sense, Isaiah 29:21.
(1) i.q. Kal to miss or wander from the way, used of a man terrified and confounded, and thus in a precipitate flight mistaking the way. Job 41:17 comp. Schultens. Opp. Min. p. 94.
(2) reflect. of Piel No. 3, to purify oneself, Numbers 19:12, seq. 31:20.
The derived nouns follow immediately after.