the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #2398 - חָטָא
1) to sin, miss, miss the way, go wrong, incur guilt, forfeit, purify from uncleanness
1a1) to miss
1a2) to sin, miss the goal or path of right and duty
1a3) to incur guilt, incur penalty by sin, forfeit
1b1) to bear loss
1b2) to make a sin-offering
1b3) to purify from sin
1b4) to purify from uncleanness
1c1) to miss the mark
1c2) to induce to sin, cause to sin
1c3) to bring into guilt or condemnation or punishment
1d1) to miss oneself, lose oneself, wander from the way
1d2) to purify oneself from uncleanness
1170) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: Cord AB: Miss: Cords are used for binding as well as measuring. A cord is also used as measuring device by placing knots incrementally. The cord is stretched between the two points to measure and the knots are counted.
A) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
fm) iuh (ההתהי HhThY) - Sin: [Aramaic only] KJV (1): sin - Strongs: H2408 (חֲטָי)
E) auh (ההתהא HhThA) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
V) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Miss: To miss the target, whether a literal target or a goal that is aimed for. KJV (238): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) sin, purify, cleanse, sinner, committed, offended, blame, done - Strongs: H2398 (חָטָא)
Nm) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also a sinner as one who misses the mark. KJV (51): sinner, sinful, offender, sin, faults, grievously, offences - Strongs: H2399 (חֵטְא), H2400 (חַטָּא)
Nf1) eauh (ההתהאה HhThAH) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also the sin offering which by transference becomes the sin. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: tajx] KJV (305): sin, sin offering, punishment, purifying - Strongs: H2401 (חֲטָאָה), H2402 (חַטָּאָה), H2403 (חַטָּאָה)
bf ) aiuh (ההתהיא HhThYA) - Sin: The sin offering which by transference becomes the sin. [Aramaic only] KJV (1): sin offering - Strongs: H2409 (חַטָּיָא)
J) ufh (ההותה HhWTh) AC: Join CO: Cord AB: ?
V) ufh (ההותה HhWTh) - Join: A tying with a cord. [Aramaic only] KJV (1): (vf: Participle) join - Strongs: H2338 (חוּט)
Nm) ufh (ההותה HhWTh) - Cord: KJV (7): thread, line, cord, fillet - Strongs: H2339 (חוּט)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect ׳ח Exodus 32:31 + 29: t., 3 feminine singular חָֽטְאָה Leviticus 5:15; Lamentations 1:8, חָטָֽאָה Jeremiah 50:14; Ezekiel 16:15, חָטָאת Exodus 5:16, etc., + 82t. Perfect; Imperfect יֶחֱטָא Leviticus 4:3 12t., תֶּחֱטָ֫אוּ Exodus 20:20; Psalm 4:5, etc. + 20t. Imperfect; Infinitive חֲטֹא Ezekiel 3:21 8t., מֵחֲטוֺא Psalm 39:2, מֵחֲטוֺ (text error for מחטא) Genesis 20:6, בְּחֶטְאָה Numbers 15:28, חֲטאֹתוֺ Ezekiel 33:12 (strike out Co); Participle חוֺטֵא Proverbs 13:22 6t., חֹטֵא Isaiah 1:4; Ecclesiastes 9:2, חוֺטֶא Isaiah 65:20 2t., חֹטֶא Ecclesiastes 8:12, suffix חֹטְאִי Proverbs 8:36, plural חֹטִ֯אֿים 1 Samuel 14:33, suffix חֹטֵאת Ezekiel 18:4,20; —
1 miss: לא תחטא thou shalt not miss anything Job 5:24, אָץ בְּרַגְּלַיִם חוֺטֵא Proverbs 19:2 one hastening with his feet misseth (the way or the goal); חֹטְאִי חֹמֵסנַפְשׁוֺ Proverbs 8:36 the one missing me (Wisdom) is one wronging himself (opposed to מֹצְאִי); miss, i.e. endanger, one's life Proverbs 20:2; Habakkuk 2:10 according to De VB (others below 3 q. v.)
2 sin, miss the goal or path of right and duty:
a. against man, absolute Exodus 5:16 (E), 1 Samuel 26:21; 2 Samuel 19:21; 1 Kings 18:9; 2 Kings 18:14; with לְ of the person against whom or towards whom one sins, Genesis 40:1 (E), Judges 11:27; 1 Samuel 2:25; 1 Samuel 19:4; 1 Samuel 24:12,1Kings 8:31 2 Chronicles 6:22; מה חטאתי לך wherein have I sinned against thee ? Genesis 20:9 (E) Jeremiah 37:18; with בְּ, אל תחטאו בילד Genesis 42:22 (E) do not sin against the lad, against David 1 Samuel 19:4,5.
b. elsewhere always against God, absolute Exodus 20:20 (E), Exodus 9:34 (J) Joshua 7:11 (D) Leviticus 4:3; Leviticus 5:1,11,17 (twice in verse); Leviticus 5:21; Leviticus 5:23; Numbers 16:22 (P), Nehemiah 6:13; Job 1:5,22; Job 7:20; Job 10:14; Job 24:19; Job 35:6; Psalm 4:5; Psalm 78:32; Isaiah 43:27; Isaiah 64:4; Jeremiah 2:35; Lamentations 5:7; Ezekiel 3:21 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 16:51; Ezekiel 28:16; Ezekiel 33:12; Hosea 8:11 (strike out We Kl. Proph.) Hosea 8:11; Hosea 10:9; Hosea 13:2; לא נתתי לחטא חכי I have not permitted my palate to sin Job 31:30; Participle חֹטֵא, used as adjective, sinful nation Isaiah 1:4; sinful person Ezekiel 18:4,20; but usually as noun, sinner Proverbs 11:31; Proverbs 13:22; Proverbs 14:21; Ecclesiastes 2:26; Ecclesiastes 7:26; Ecclesiastes 8:12; Ecclesiastes 9:2,18; Isaiah 65:20. Sin is confessed: חָטָאנוּ we have sinned Numbers 14:40; Numbers 21:7 (E) Judges 10:15; 1 Samuel 12:10; 1 Kings 8:47 2 Chronicles 6:37; Nehemiah 1:6; Psalm 106:6; Lamentations 5:16; Daniel 9:5,15; חטאתי I have sinned Exodus 9:27; Numbers 22:34 (J) 1 Samuel 15:24,30; 2 Samuel 24:10,17; 1 Chronicles 21:8,17; Job 33:27. Sin is universal: אין אדם אשׁרלא יחטא there is no man who sinneth not 1 Kings 8:46 2 Chronicles 6:36, כי אדם אין צדיק בארץ אשׁר יעשׂה טובולא יחטא Ecclesiastes 7:20 for man there is none righteous in the earth who doeth good and sinneth not; with לְ, against God Genesis 20:6 (E), Genesis 39:9 (J), Exodus 32:33; Numbers 32:33 (both J E), Deuteronomy 9:16; Deuteronomy 20:18; 1 Samuel 2:25; 1 Samuel 12:23; 1 Samuel 14:33,34; 1 Kings 8:33,35,46,50 2 Chronicles 6:24,26,36,39; 2 Kings 17:7; Hosea 4:7; Micah 7:9; Zephaniah 1:17; Jeremiah 40:3; Jeremiah 44:23; Jeremiah 50:7,14; Ezekiel 14:13; Isaiah 42:24; Job 8:4; Psalm 78:17; Psalm 119:11; Nehemiah 1:6; in confession חטאתי ל Exodus 10:16; Joshua 7:20 (J), 2 Samuel 12:13 Psalm 41:5; Psalm 51:6; חטאנו ל Deuteronomy 1:41; Judges 10:10; 1 Samuel 7:6; Jeremiah 3:25; Jeremiah 8:14; Jeremiah 14:7,20; Daniel 9:8,11; with בְּ of instrument, lips Job 2:10, tongue Psalm 39:2; wherein Ezekiel 37:23; Leviticus 4:23 (P), therein Leviticus 5:22 (P); ellipsis of בְּ in pharse לי׳עונם אשׁר ח ( their) iniquity wherein they sinned against me Jeremiah 33:8 (twice in verse); בשׁגגה by error, unwittingly Leviticus 4:2,22,27; Leviticus 5:15; Numbers 15:27,28 (all P); against thy judgements Nehemiah 9:29; with עַל with regard to Leviticus 5:5; Numbers 6:11(P) Nehemiah 13:26; with cognate accusative חֲטָאָה׳ח Exodus 32:30,31 (JE); חַטָּאת׳אשׁר ח Numbers 12:11(J) Leviticus 4:3,28 (twice in verse); Leviticus 4:35; Leviticus 5:6,10,13 (all P) Leviticus 19:22 (twice in verse) (H), Deuteronomy 9:18; 1 Kings 14:16,22; 1 Kings 15:30; 1 Kings 16:13,19; 2 Kings 21:17; Ezekiel 18:24; Ezekiel 33:16; ל׳חטאת אשׁר ח Jeremiah 16:10; Nehemiah 1:6; על׳חטאת אשׁר ח Leviticus 4:14 (P); ׳חֵטְא ח Lamentations 1:8; חֵטְא׳אשׁר ח Deuteronomy 19:15.
3 incur guilt, penalty by sin, forfeit: וחטאתי לך כל הימים Genesis 43:9 I shall incur the blame of sinning against thee all my days, compare Genesis 44:32 (J); with accusative חוֺטֵא נפשׁ for feiting oneself, one's life Proverbs 20:2; Habakkuk 2:10 according to most, yet see below
1 — ׳והביא אשׁמו אשׁר ח Leviticus 5:7 he shall bring his trespass-offering which he has incurred by sin; ׳קרבנו אשׁר ח Leviticus 5:11; מןהֿקדשׁ׳את אשׁר ח ישׁלּם Leviticus 5:16 what he hath incurred by taking of the holy thing he shall pay.
Pi`el Perfect חִטֵּא Leviticus 14:52; suffix חִטְּאוֺ Numbers 19:19, חִטֵּאתָ Exodus 29:36 2t.; 3 plural חִטְּאוּ Ezekiel 43:22 (twice in verse); Imperfect יַיְחַטֵּא Leviticus 8:15; suffix וַיְהַטְּאֵהוּ Leviticus 9:15, תְּחַטְּאֵנִי Psalm 51:9, אֲחַטֶּנָּה Genesis 31:39, וַיְחַטְּאוּ 2 Chronicles 29:24; Infinitive חַטֵּא Leviticus 14:49; Ezekiel 43:23; Participle הִמְחַטֵּא Leviticus 6:19; —
1 bear loss: אָנֹכִי אֲחַטֶּנָּה I bare the loss of it Genesis 31:39 (E; lit I let it be missing ? possibly read אֲחֻטּנה I was made to miss it ?).
2 make a sin-offering: with suffix referring to שׁעיר Leviticus 9:15 (P); to sin-offering Leviticus 6:19 (P); על המזבח upon the altar Exodus 29:36 (P; not cleanse the altar RV); את דמם המזבחה׳ח 2 Chronicles 29:24 made a sin-offering with their blood on the altar.
3 purity from sin: the altar, by putting the blood of the sin-offering on its horns, Leviticus 8:15 (P), Ezekiel 43:20,22 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 43:23; the sanctuary, by applying to it the blood of the sin-offering Ezekiel 45:18.
4 purity from uncleanness: the house of the leper by application of the mixture of living water and blood of the bird Leviticus 14:49,52 (P); a person, by application of then mixture of living water and ashes of the red heifer Numbers 19:19 (P), by sprinkling with a hyssop spring Psalm 51:9.
Hiph`il Perfect הֶחֱטִיא 1 Kings 14:16 17t., הֶחֶטִ֯י (Kt error for החטִיא) 2 Kings 13:6; suffix הֶחֱטִיאָם 2 Kings 17:21; plural הֶחֱטִיאוּ 1 Kings 16:13; Nehemiah 13:26; Imperfect יַחֲטִא Judges 20:16; 2 Kings 21:11; תַּחֲטִיא Deuteronomy 24:4; וַתַּחֲטִא 1 Kings 16:2; 1 Kings 21:22; plural יַחֲטִיאוּ Exodus 23:33; Infinitive הַחֲטִיא Ecclesiastes 5:5; 1 Kings 16:19; Jeremiah 32:35 (Qr), הַחֲ֯טִי Jeremiah 32:35 (Kt error); Participle plural construct מַחֲטִיאֵי Isaiah 29:21; —
1 miss the mark: קֹלֵעַ בָּאֶבֶןאֶלהַֿשַּׂעְרָה וְלֹא יַחֲטִא Judges 20:16 slinging with stones at an hair and would not miss.
2 induce or cause to sin: with accusative Exodus 23:33(JE), Nehemiah 13:26; elsewhere in the phrase החטיא את ישׂראל ( he) caused Israel to sin 1 Kings 14:16; 1 Kings 15:26,30,34; 1 Kings 16:2,13,19,26; 1 Kings 21:22; 1 Kings 22:53; 2 Kings 3:3; 2 Kings 10:29,31; 2 Kings 13:2,6,11; 2 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 15:9,18,24,28; 2 Kings 23:15; with suffix reference to Israel 2 Kings 17:21; את יהודה 2 Kings 21:11,16; Jeremiah 32:35 (sometimes with 2nd accusative — חטאת, or אשׁר reference to חטאת: — 1 Kings 15:26,34; 1 Kings 16:26; 2 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 21:16; peob. also 1 Kings 14:16; 1 Kings 15:30; 1 Kings 16:13; no 2nd accusative 1 Kings 16:2,19; 1 Kings 21:22; 1 Kings 22:53; 2 Kings 21:11; 2 Kings 23:15; Jeremiah 32:35; the rest are ambiguous).
3 bring into guilt, condemnation, punishment: מחטיאי אדם Isaiah 29:21 who bring a man into condemnation; לא תחטיא את הארץ Deuteronomy 24:4 thou shalt not bring the land into guilt; אל תתןאתפֿיך לחטיא אתבֿשׂרך Ecclesiastes 5:4 do not permit thy mouth to bring thy flesh into punishment.
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִתְחַטָּא Numbers 19:12 4t., יִתְחַטְּאוּ Numbers 8:21; יִתְחַטָּ֑אוּ Job 41:17, תִּתְחַטְּאוּ Numbers 31:19, תִּתְחַטָּ֑אוּ Numbers 31:20; —
1 miss oneself, lose oneself, figurative for be bewildered, beside oneself, מִשְּׁבָרִים יִתְחַטָּאוּ Job 41:17 by reason of consternation they are beside themselves ("" יגורו are afraid).
2 purity oneself from uncleanness, only in P:
a. Levites Numbers 8:21.
b. those in contact with thedead Numbers 19:12,13,20; Numbers 31:19,20; with בְּ, בְּמֵי נִּדָּה Numbers 31:23; by a mixture of ashes of the red heifer with fresh water Numbers 19:12.
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חָטָא fut. יֶחֱטָא
(1) prop. to miss, to err from the mark, speaking of an archer (the opposite idea to that of reaching the goal, to hit the mark), see Hiph. Judges 20:16 of the feet, to make a false step, to stumble (Proverbs 19:2), Germ. fehlen, verfehlen, specially fehlfchießen, fehltreten. (The same origin is found in Arab. خَطِىءَ to miss the mark, opposite to صاب to hit the mark, see Jeuhari in the specimen edited by Scheid, p. 67-71, and Greek ἁμαρτάνω, used of a dart, Il. x. 372; iv. 491; of a way, Od. vii. 292.) The opposite of מָצָא to hit upon, to find, German treffen. Proverbs 8:36, חֹטְאִי חֹמֵס נַפְשׁוֹ “he who wanders from me, injures his own soul.” Opposed to מֹצְאִי verse 35. Job 5:24, “thou numberest thy flock, וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא and missest none;” none is wanting, all the flocks are there. (In this signification it agrees with the Ethiop. ኀጥአ፡ not to find, not to have, to lack, see Ludolf, Lex. Ethiop. p. 288.)
(2) to sin (to miss or wander from the way, or to stumble in the path of rectitude), followed by לְ of the person against whom one sins, whence חָטָא לַיהֹוָה Genesis 20:6, Genesis 20:9; 1 Samuel 2:25, 7:6, etc.; also followed by בְּ of the thing in which one has sinned, Genesis 42:22; Leviticus 4:23; Nehemiah 9:29 followed by עַל Levit. 5:22 Numbers 6:11; Nehemiah 13:26. There is a pregnant construction in Leviticus 5:16, אֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־ הַקֹּדֶשׁ “that which he hath sinned (taken sinfully) from the holy things.”
(3) to become liable to a penalty or forfeiture of something by sinning, followed by an acc. Leviticus 5:7 comp. verse 11 Proverbs 20:2, חוֹטֵא נַפְשׁוֹ “he becomes liable to the penalty of his life,” brings his life into danger, compare Habakkuk 2:10. Genesis 43:9, “unless I bring him back וְחָטָאתִי וגו׳ I shall be liable (i.e. I shall bear the blame) through all my life.”
(1) to bear the blame (to take the consequence of sin), followed by an acc., Genesis 31:39 hence
(2) to offer for sin. Levit. 6:19, הַמְחַטֵּא אֹתָהּ “he who offers it” (the sin offering). Levit. 9:15, וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ “and offered it as a sin-offering.”
(3) to expiate, to cleanse by a sacred ceremony, i.q. כִּפֵּר, as men, Numbers 19:19; Psalms 51:9 vessels, a house, etc. Leviticus 8:15, followed by עַל Exodus 29:36.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to miss the mark (as an archer), Judges 20:16 (Arab. Conj. IV.).
(2) causat. of No. 2, to lead into sin, to seduce some one to sin, Exodus 23:33. 1 Kings 15:26, וּבְחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱטִיא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל “and in his sin which he made Israel to sin,” to which he seduced Israel (used here, as often in other places, concerning idolatry). 1 Kings 16:26; 2 Kings 3:3, 10:29.
(3) [“to cause to be accused of sin, Deuteronomy 24:4; Ecclesiastes 5:5 also”] i.q. הִרְשִׁיעַ to declare guilty, to condemn, in a forensic sense, Isaiah 29:21.
(1) i.q. Kal to miss or wander from the way, used of a man terrified and confounded, and thus in a precipitate flight mistaking the way. Job 41:17 comp. Schultens. Opp. Min. p. 94.
(2) reflect. of Piel No. 3, to purify oneself, Numbers 19:12, seq. 31:20.
The derived nouns follow immediately after.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.