the Fifth Week of Lent
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #2820 - חָשַׂךְ
1) to withhold, restrain, hold back, keep in check, refrain
1a1) to withhold, keep back, keep for oneself, keep from, hold in check, refrain, spare, reserve
1a2) to restrain, check
1b) (Niphal) to assuage, be spared
2182) kxh (ההסכ HhSK) AC: Withhold CO: ? AB: ?: [from: kx- keeping something covered]
V) kxh (ההסכ HhSK) - Withhold: To hold something back. [df: KVx] KJV (28): (vf: Paal, Niphal) spare, keep, withhold, refrain, asswage, reserve, forbear, hinder, punish - Strongs: H2820 (חָשַׂךְ)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect חָשַׂךְ Genesis 39:9 4t. (+ Ezekiel 30:18 Ba; see חשׁך; Isaiah 38:17 see below), חָשָׂ֑ךְ Isaiah 14:6, חָֽשְׂכוּ Job 30:10, חָשָׂ֑כוּ Jeremiah 14:10, etc.; Imperfect יַחְשׂךְ Job 16:5 2t.; 2 masculine singular תַּחְשׂךְ Isaiah 58:1, תַּחְשׂוֺךְ Proverbs 24:11; 2 feminine singular תַּחְשׂ֑כִי Isaiah 54:2, etc.; Imperative חֲשׂךְ Psalm 19:14; Participle חֹשֵׂךְ Proverbs 10:19; Proverbs 11:24; חוֺשֵׂךְ Proverbs 13:24; Proverbs 17:27; followed by —
1. a. withhold, keep back, keep for oneself, accusative, Genesis 22:12 (E), Genesis 22:16; Genesis 39:9 (followed by מִמֶּגִּי; both J); absolute Proverbs 21:26 (opposed to נָתַן); withhold the rod (שׁבט) in discipline, Proverbs 13:24; no object expressed Proverbs 11:24; Proverbs 24:11.
b. keep one from evil, calamity, She'ôl, etc., with accusative and מִן Genesis 20:6 (E), 1 Samuel 25:39; Psalm 19:14; מִמָּוֶת נַפְשָׁם׳ח Psalm 78:50 compare Job 33:18; Isaiah 38:7 (read חָשַׂכְתָּ or חֲשׂךְ for ᵑ0חָשַׁקְתָּ, see חשׁק); absolute hinder (i.e. calamities from coming) Isaiah 14:6; לְמַטָח מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ׳ח Ezra 9:13 thou hast kept back, downward (= and kept down), part of our iniquity, i.e. hast not punished us according to our full desert.
c. hold in check with accusative 2 Samuel 18:16 (or spare see below); object רַגְלֵיהֶם Jeremiah 14:10; especially of keeping silence, object מִּי Job 7:11 restrain my mouth, שׂפתים Proverbs 10:19, אמרים Proverbs 17:27; רֹק׳מִמָּנַי לֹא ח Job 30:10 from my face they have not withheld spittle (= they have spit in my face).
d. refrain (from doing what is mentioned in the context), absolute Isaiah 54:2; Isaiah 58:1.
e. spare, with accusative of person 2 Kings 5:20 he hath spared Naaman מִקַּחַת so as not to take (= and hath not taken anything) out of his hand; perhaps also 2 Samuel 18:16 Joab spared the people (see above).
f. reserve for, with accusative + לְ Job 38:23.
2 (absolute) restrain, check (pain) i.e. assuage, so apparently ᵑ0 Job 16:5 (see Di Kau; I would not restrain condolence of my lips, ᵐ5ᵑ6 Me, reading לא אחשׂך for יחשׂך). — Ezekiel 30:18 see חשׁך.
Niph`al Imperfect לְיוֺם אֵיד יֵחָשֶׂךְרָֿע Job 21:30 at the day of calamity the wicked is spared (passive of Qal 1 e); יֵחָשֵׂךְ Job 16:6 be assuaged, of pain (pass of Qal 2).
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חָשַׂךְ fut. יַחְשׂךְ
(1) to restrain, to hold in. (Syr. and Chald. חֲסַךְ, ܚܣܰܟ id. A kindred root is חָזַק.) 2 Samuel 18:16, “Joab restrained the people” from pursuing. Proverbs 10:19, חֹשֵׂךְ שְׂפָתָיו “he who restrains his lips.” Job 7:11, 16:5 Isaiah 58:1, “cry aloud (with the throat), אַל־תַּחְשׂוֹךְ keep not back (thy throat or mouth).” Followed by מִן to restrain from something, Genesis 20:6; 1 Samuel 25:39; 2 Samuel 18:16.
(2) to preserve, to keep safely from something, Proverbs 24:11; Psalms 78:50; Job 33:18 and
(3) to withhold something from any one, i.e. to deny it to him; followed by מִן of the person, and acc. of the thing, Genesis 39:9, 22:12 but verse 16 Genesis 39:16 without מִן of person.
(4) to spare, to be sparing of
(a) things (Germ. fparen). Proverbs 13:24, “he who spares the rod hates his son;” 11:24 21:26.
(b) men (Germ. fchonen). Isaiah 14:6; 2 Kings 5:20. Followed by לְ to reserve for something (für etwas auffparen), Job 38:23.
(1) to be restrained, pass. of No. 1, Job 16:6.
(2) pass. of No. 4, to be reserved for any thing, Job 21:30.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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