Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3389 - יְרוּשָׁלַיִם
Jerusalem = “teaching of peace”
1) the chief city of Palestine and capital of the united kingdom and the nation of Judah after the split
proper name, of a location Jerusalem (in Assyrian Urusalim, Tel Amarna, Zim ZA, 1891,252, 254; Ursalimmu, COT Glossary; ᵐ5 Ιερουσαλημ; √ and meaning dubious; Rel Ew and others derive from יְרוּשׁ שׁלם possession of peace (or Salem's possession); Thes and others from יָרָה, i.e. יְרוּ + שָׁלֵם a foundation of peace; Grill ZAW, 1884,134ff. foundation of Shalem (Shalem = God of peace, = ׳י); but name not certainly Hebrew; according to Sayce Acad. Feb. 7,1891, 138; Higher Crit. 176 (opposed by Zim ZA. 1891,263), Jastr JBL xi, 1892,185 = Uru ( city) + Salim, proper name, of divinity); — usually יְרוּשָׁלַ֫םִ ( Qr perpetuum), Joshua 10:10 +; יְרוּשָׁלָ֑םִ 1 Samuel 17:54 +; לַ֫יִם-5t. according to Masora (see Frensdorff Mass. Magna, 293), namely Jeremiah 26:18; 1 Chronicles 3:5; 2 Chronicles 25:1; 32:9 (with ה locative), Esther 2:6, (but לָ֑֫םִ- 1 Chronicles 3:5 van d. H Baer), so Maccabean coins, Levy Geschichte. d. jüd. Münz. 42f.; with ה locative יְרוּשָׁלַ֫מֳה 1 Kings 10:2; Isaiah 36:2; Ezekiel 8:3; (לַ֫יְמָה- 2 Chronicles 32:9 above); לָ֑מֳה- 2 Kings 9:28; with prefixes: ׳בִּירו 2 Samuel 9:13 +; ׳לִירו 2 Kings 18:22 +; ׳מִירו 2 Samuel 15:11 +; ׳וִירו 2 Kings 23:1 +; — Jerusalem, renowned as capital of all Israel, afterwards of southern kingdom, seat of central worship in temple, first named as city of Canaanite Adoni-‚edek Joshua 10:1,3,5,23 (all J E), compare Joshua 12:10 (D); inhabited by Jebusites Joshua 15:63 (twice in verse) (P), Judges 1:21 (twice in verse), compare Judges 1:7 (Adoni-Bezek); identification with יְבוּס Judges 19:10, and הַיְבוּסִי (q. v.) Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:28 (both P); captured by Judah Judges 1:8; first named in connection with David 1 Samuel 17:54; taken possession of by David as king 2 Samuel 5:6; David's royal seat 2 Samuel 5:5; 2 Samuel 5:13; 2 Samuel 5:14; 2 Samuel 8:7; 2 Samuel 11:1 +; it remained the capital until taken by Nebuchadrezzar, B.C. 588, 2 Kings 25:1 +; it became the chief home of the returned exiles Ezra 1:11; Ezra 2:11; Nehemiah 2:11,17 +; mentioned Samuel 31t., Kings 92t., Chronicles 151t., Ezra 25t., Nehemiah 38t., Isa127t., Isa2,322t., Jeremiah 107t., Ezekiel 26t., Zechariah 41t., etc. — See also proper name, of a location יְבוּס, שָׁלֵם.
ירח (√ of following; meaning dubious; according to MV Buhl = ארח, of moon as wanderer, so Lag BN 46).
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יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (as found sometimes, though rarely, in the books of Chronicles, 1 Chronicles 3:5 also on some of the coins of the Maccabees, although others of them have the name spelled defectively, see Eckhel, Doctr. Numm. Vett. iii. page 466, seq.), commonly יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, anciently (Genesis 14:18) and poet. (Psal. 76:3 ) שָׁלֵם pr.n. Jerusalem (Gr. Ἱερουσαλήμ and Ἱεροσόλυμα), a royal city of the Canaanites (Joshua 10:1, Joshua 10:5, 15:8 ), and from the time of David and onward the metropolis of the Hebrews, and the royal city of the house of David; situated on the borders of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.
Interpreters differ as to the etymology and orthography. As to the first of its compounded parts, Reland (Palæstina, p. 832, seq.), and lately, Ewald (Heb. Gramm. p. 332), consider that יְרוּשָׁלַםִ stands for יְרוּשׁ־שָׁלַיִם the possession of peace, one שׁ being excluded; but this does not agree well with analogy: for, in Hebrew, the former of doubled letters is not in such a case usually excluded, but is commonly compensated with Dagesh forte; as in יְרֻבַּעַל for יָרוֹב בַּעַל; besides the form יְרוּשׁ with the meaning of possession (=יְרֻשָּׁה) neither occurs separately nor yet in composition. I prefer regarding יְרוּ as a segolate noun (of the form רְעוּ, מְתוּ), i.q. Arabic وَرًى men, and יְרוּשׁלם men or people of peace; or perhaps, house or habitation of peace; just as, on the contrary, أَهْلُ and بَيْتُ are transferred from the house to the inhabitants. The same word is found in the pr.n. of a desert, יְרוּאֵל, which may be more suitably rendered house of God than people of God; and the same interpretation of this name is found in Saadiah, who translates دار السلام and السلام مدينة house of peace, city of peace: [In Thes. Gesenius takes the former part of this name יְרוּ from the root יָרָה, signifying foundation, and thus ירושׁלם the foundation of peace]. As to the latter of the compound parts of this name, some suppose שָׁלַםִ and שָׁלַיִם to be the dual of שָׁלֶה quiet, and they think that a city in two parts was designated by this name, referring to 2 Samuel 5:9 (Ewald, loc. cit.): but no mention is made in the cited passage of a double city; and it may be pretty certainly concluded that ם in this word is originally radical, not servile; as shewn by the forms שָׁלֵם, Arab. شَلَمُ, شَلَّمُ Chald. יְרוּשְׁלָם, Gr. Σόλυμα, Ἱεροσόλυμα. It appears to me that whenever it is written defectively יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, it should be pronounced יְרוּשָׁלֵם the dwelling of peace: and at length the later writers regarded ־ֵם as an ancient form of the Dual, and on this account every where to have read יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, even in those places where it is written defectively in the text; [It is written with the Yod in very few places]. In like manner, Samaria was called in Hebrew and anciently, שֹׁמְרוֹן, Ch. שָׁמְרָן, and hence as if it were a dual, שָׁמְרַיִן; compare Lehrg. page 538.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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