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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #7651 - שִׁבְעָה
1) seven (cardinal number)
1a) as ordinal number
1b) in combination — 17, 700 etc
2808) obs (סהבאה ShBAh) AC: Swear CO: Oath AB: ?: Literally to seven oneself. A common practice was to make seven declarations when making an oath. This declaration can be making the oath seven times or doing seven things to show the sincerity of the oath. (eng: seven, an exchange of the s and sh)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שִׁבְעָה m. constr. שְׁבַע f. שִׁבְעַת m. cardinal numeral, seven. (Syriac ܫܒܰܥ, Arabic, سَبْعُ, also, Sanscrit, sapta, Zend. hapta, Pers. هفت, Egypt. ⲉⲫⲑⲁⲝ, Gr., Lat., ἑπτά, septem, in all of which, the letter t appears, which does not appear in this word in the Phœnicio-Shemitic languages, or in the Germanic; see the Gothic, sibum, Engl. seven, Germ. fieben). The absolute form commonly precedes a noun, as שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים Genesis 5:7 שֶׁבַע פָּרוֹת 41:18 שִׁבְעָה פָּרִים Numbers 23:1, 29 Numbers 23:29 more rarely it follows it, especially in the later Hebrew, מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַע Ezekiel 40:22 אֵלִים שִׁבְעָה 2 Chronicles 13:9, 29:21. (Numbers 29:32.) If a noun precedes in the construct state, it expresses the Ordinal, as שְׁנַת שֶׁבַע seventh year, 2 Kings 12:1. The construct form always precedes the noun, but it is only found in certain phrases, as שִׁבְעַת יָמִים (ein Tagfiebend), Genesis 8:10, 12 31:23, and very often; and שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת seven hundred, Genesis 5:26. שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה by sevens, 7:2. With suffix שְׁבַעְתָּם those seven, 2 Samuel 21:9. Seventeen is שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר masc., and שֶׁבַע עֶשְׂרֶה f. Genesis 37:2; 1 Chronicles 7:11. Farther, a septenary number was used amongst the Hebrews
(1) as a smaller round number (as in modern languages ten [Eng. a dozen]), Genesis 29:18, 41:2, seqq., 1 Samuel 2:5; Isaiah 4:1; Ruth 4:15; Proverbs 26:25; Job 1:2, Job 1:3, 2:13. [This appears, in most of these instances, to be the exact number.]
(2) as a holy number, as amongst the Egyptians, Arabians, Persians; see Genesis 21:28; Exodus 37:23; Leviticus 4:6, 17, etc. Compare the observations on this subject by Fr. Gedicke, Verm. Schriften, p. 32-60; v. Hammer, Encyclopädische Uebersicht d. Wissenschaften des Orients, p. 322.
The form שֶׁבַע is also
(a) adv. seven times, Psalms 119:164; Proverbs 24:16; Leviticus 26:18, 21 Leviticus 26:21.
(b) pr.n. of a town of the Simeonites, Joshua 19:2.
(c) [Sheba] pr.n. masc.
(α) 1 Samuel 20:1.
(β) 1 Chronicles 5:13. On the other hand שִׁבְעָה [Shebah] is pr.n. of a well, Genesis 26:33.
Dual שִׁבְעָתַיִם seven-fold, Genesis 4:15, 24 Psalms 12:7; 2 Samuel 21:9 כתיב.
Plur שִׁבְעִים seventy (commonly for a round number), Genesis 50:3; Isaiah 23:15; Jeremiah 25:11 compare Kor. 9:81. שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה seventy and seven-fold, Genesis 4:24.
Derivatives, שָׁבַע (שְׁבוּעָה), שָׁבוּעַ, שְׁבִיעִי; compare pr.n. אֱלִישֶׁבַע, בַּת־שֶׁבַע.
[“שִׁבְעָה Ch., seven, m., Daniel 4:13, 20, 22, 29 constr. שִׁבְעַת Ezra 7:4.”]
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20