corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.05.25
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #1242 - διαθήκη

Transliteration
diathḗkē
Phonetics
dee-ath-ay'-kay  
Word Origin
from (1303)
Parts of Speech
Noun Feminine
TDNT
2:106,157
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. a disposition, arrangement, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid, the last disposition which one makes of his earthly possessions after his death, a testament or will
  2. a compact, a covenant, a testament
    1. God's covenant with Noah, etc.
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 264 ‑ אַחֲוָה (akh‑av‑aw');  1285 ‑ בְּרִית (ber‑eeth');  1697 ‑ דָּבָר (daw‑bawr');  3789 ‑ כָּתַב (kaw‑thab');  5715 ‑ עֵדוּת (ay‑dooth');  8003 ‑ שָׁלֵם (shaw‑lame');  8452 ‑ תּוֹרָה (to‑raw');  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (33) NAS (33) HCS (33)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Luke 2
Acts 2
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 1
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Hebrews 14
Revelation 1
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Luke 2
Acts 2
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 1
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Hebrews 14
Revelation 1
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Luke 2
Acts 2
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 1
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Hebrews 17
Revelation 1
BYZ TIS TR
N-ASF 5
N-DSF 2
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 16
N-NPF 2
N-NSF 7
N-ASF 5
N-DSF 2
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 16
N-NPF 2
N-NSF 6
N-ASF 5
N-DSF 2
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 16
N-NPF 2
N-NSF 7
NA WH
N-ASF 5
N-DSF 2
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 16
N-NPF 2
N-NSF 6
N-ASF 5
N-DSF 2
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 17
N-NPF 2
N-NSF 7


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

διαθήκη, ἡ, (διατίθημι)

I disposition of property by will, testament, Ar. V. 584, 589, D. 27.13, etc.; κατὰ διαθήκην by will, OGI 753.8 (Cilicia), Test.Epict. 4.8, BGU 1113.5 (i B.C.), etc.: in pl., διαθήκας διαθέσθαι Lys. 19.39; θέσθαι CIG 2690 (Iasus).

II

1. αἱ ἀπόρρητοι δ. mystic deposits on which the common weal depended, prob. oracles (cf. διαθέτης), Din. 1.9 codd.

2. name of an eyesalve, because the recipe was deposited in a temple, Aët. 7.118.

III compact, covenant, ἢν μὴ διαθῶνται διαθήκην ἐμοί Ar. Av. 440; freq. in LXX, Genesis 6:18, al.; καινή, παλαιὰ δ., Luke 22:20; 2 Corinthians 3:14; disposition (with allusion to 1), Galatians 3:15, cf. Hebrews 9:15. = cross διάθεσις 11, σώματος δ. Democr. 9.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

διαθήκη, διαθήκης, (διατίθημι);

1. a disposition, arrangement, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid (German Verordnung, Willensverfugung): Galatians 3:15, where under the name of a man's disposition is meant specifically a testament, so far forth as it is a specimen and example of that disposition (cf. Meyer or Lightfoot at the passage); especially the last disposal which one makes of his earthly possessions after his death, a testament or will (so in Greek writings from (Aristophanes), Plato, legg. 11, p. 922 c. following down): Hebrews 9:16f

2. a compact, covenant (Aristophanes av. 440), very often in the Scriptures for בְּרִית (Vulg. testamentum). For the word covenant is used to denote the close relationship which God entered into, first with Noah (Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:9ff (cf. Sir. 44:18)), then with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and their posterity (Leviticus 26:42 (cf. 2 Macc. 1:2)), but especially with Abraham (Genesis 15 and Genesis 17), and afterward through Moses with the people of Israel (Exodus 24; Deuteronomy 5:2; Deuteronomy 28:69 ()). By this last covenant the Israelites are bound to obey God's will as expressed and solemnly promulged in the Mosaic law; and he promises them his almighty protection and blessings of every kind in this world, but threatens transgressors with the severest punishments. Hence, in the N. T. we find mention of αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης (הַבְּרִית לוּחות, Deuteronomy 9:9, 15), the tables of the law, on which the duties of the covenant were inscribed (Exodus 20); of κιβωτός τῆς διαθήκης (הַבְּרִית אֲרון, Deuteronomy 10:8; Deuteronomy 31:9; Joshua 3:6, etc.), the ark of the covenant or law, in which those tables were deposited, Hebrews 9:4; Revelation 11:19; of διαθήκη περιτομῆς, the covenant of circumcision, made with Abraham, whose sign and seal was circumcision (Genesis 17:10ff), Acts 7:8; of τό αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης, the blood of the victims, by the shedding and sprinkling of which the Mosaic covenant was ratified, Hebrews 9:20 from Exodus 24:8; of αἱ διαθῆκαι, the covenants, one made with Abraham, the other through Moses with the Israelites, Romans 9:4 (L text Tr marginal reading διαθήκη) (Sap). 18:22; Sir. 44:11; 2 Macc. 8:15; Epistle of Barnabas 9 [ET]; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 177 (166))); of αἱ διαθῆκαι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, the covenants to which the promise of salvation through the Messiah was annexed, Ephesians 2:12 (συνθηκαι ἀγαθῶν ὑποσχέσεων, Wis. 12:21); for Christian salvation is the fulfillment of the divine promises annexed to those covenants, especially to that made with Abraham: Luke 1:72; Acts 3:25; Romans 11:27; Galatians 3:17 (where διαθήκη is God's arrangement, i. e. the promise made to Abraham). As the new and far more excellent bond of friendship which God in the Messiah's time would enter into with the people of Israel is called, חֲדָשָׁה בְּרִית, καινή διαθήκη (Jeremiah 38:31 ()) — which divine promise Christ has made good (Hebrews 8:8-10; Hebrews 10:16) — we find in the N. T. two distinct covenants spoken of, δύο διαθῆκαι (Galatians 4:24), viz. the Mosaic and the Christian, with the former of which (τῇ πρώτη διαθήκη, Hebrews 9:15, 18, cf. 8:9) the latter is contrasted, as καινή διαθήκη, Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24 (in both passages in R G L (in Matthew in Tr also)); Luke 22:20 (WH reject the passage); 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Hebrews 8:8; κρείττων διαθήκη, Hebrews 7:22; αἰώνιος διαθήκη, Hebrews 13:20; and Christ is called κρείττονος or καινῆς or νέας διαθήκης μεσίτης: Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24. This new covenant binds men to exercise faith in Christ, and God promises them grace and salvation eternal. This covenant Christ set up and ratified by undergoing death; hence, the phrases τό αἷμα τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης, τό αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης (see αἷμα sub at the end) (Hebrews 10:29); τό αἷμα μου τῆς διαθήκης, my blood by the shedding of which the covenant is established, Matthew 26:28 T WH and Mark 14:24 T Tr WH (on two genitives after one noun cf. Matthiae, § 380, Anm. 1; Kühner, ii., p. 288f; (Jelf, § 543, 1, cf § 466; Winers Grammar, § 30, 3 Note 3; Buttmann, 155 (136))). By metonymy of the contained for the container παλαιά διαθήκη is used in 2 Corinthians 3:14 of the sacred books of the O. T. because in them the conditions and principles of the older covenant were recorded. Finally must be noted the amphiboly or twofold use (cf. Philo de mut. nom. § 6) by which the writer to the Hebrews, in Hebrews 9:16f, substitutes for the meaning covenant which διαθήκη bears elsewhere in the Epistle that of testament (see 1 above), and likens Christ to a testator — not only because the author regards eternal blessedness as an inheritance bequeathed by Christ, but also because he is endeavoring to show, both that the attainment of eternal salvation is made possible for the disciples of Christ by his death (Hebrews 9:15), and that even the Mosaic covenant had been consecrated by blood (Hebrews 9:18ff). This, apparently, led the Latin Vulg. to render διαθήκη wherever it occurs in the Bible (i. e. in the New Testament, not always in the Old Testament; see B. D. under the word , and B. D. American edition under the word ) by the wordtestamentum.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

διαθήκη , -ης ,

(< διατίθημι ),

[freq. in LXX, and nearly always for H1285;]

1. as usually in cl., a disposition, testament, will (Plat, al.): Galatians 3:15 (R, mg., but v. Lft., in l), Hebrews 9:16-17 (R, txt.; MM, Exp., xi,; Milligan, NTD, 75; Abbott, Essays, 107; Deiss., LAE, 341; but v. infr.).

2. As in LXX (for H1285) = cl. συνθήκη , a convention, arrangement, covenant (exc. in the disputed cases mentioned above, always between God and man, "perhaps with the feeling that the δια - compound was more suitable than the συν - for a covenant with God -συνθ . might suggest equal terms," MM, Exp., l.c.): Galatians 3:15 (R, txt., but v. supr., and cf. Thayer, s.v.), Hebrews 9:16-17 (R, mg., Westc., in l,; Hatch, Essays, 47; but v. supr.), Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luke 1:72, Acts 3:25; Acts 7:8, Romans 11:27 (LXX), 2 Corinthians 3:14, Galatians 3:17, Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 8:9-10 (LXX) Hebrews 9:4; Hebrews 9:15-17; Hebrews 9:20 (LXX) Hebrews 10:16 (LXX), Hebrews 10:29; Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 13:20, Revelation 11:19; καινὴ δ ., Matthew 26:28, and Mark 14:24 (R, mg.), Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6, Hebrews 8:8 (LXX) Hebrews 9:15; pl. Romans 9:4, Galatians 4:24, Ephesians 2:12.†


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

In papyri and inscrr. the word means testament, will, with absolute unanimity, and such frequency that illustration is superfluous. P Petr III. 6 (b).12 (c. B.C. 236) τὴ ]ν διαθήκη [ν καταλεί ]πω will be about the earliest example : P Grenf I. 17.7 (c. B.C. 147 or 136) and ib. 21.4 (B.C. 126) also fall within the LXX period. So do such inscrr. as OGIS 338.7 (B.C. 133), of the instrument by which King Attalus of Pergamum devised his country to Rome, Michel 1001 iv. 8 (c. B.C. 200) κατὰ διαθήκαν (the testament of Epicteta, in Theran Doric), and one of iii/B.C. in Ἀθηνᾶ xx. p. 167 κατὰ τὰς διαθήκας. Syll 827.9 (i/B.C.) might also be cited—houses and gardens bequeathed by a woman to Aphrodite Urania, κατὰ τὰς διαθήκας τὰς κειμένας ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τῆς Ἀφροδίτης καὶ παρ᾽ Εὐνομίδει τῶι ἄρχοντι καὶ παρὰ τῶι θεσμοθέτει Κτησιφῶντι. We may also mention BGU IV. 1151.7 (B.C. 14) καθ᾽ ἣν ἔθετο διαθήκ (ην) διὰ τοῦ τῶν Ἰο ̣υ ̣δ ̣α ̣ι ̣ω ̣ν ̣ ἀρχείου, if illustration is needed to show that the Jews used the word in this sense. Cagnat IV. 804 (= C. and B. ii. p. 475, no. 330), a bilingual inscr. from Apamea, has heredes ex testamento rendered by κληρονόμοι κατὰ διαθήκην. On the verb διατίθεμαι see s.v.; we may mention here that ἀδιάθετος = intestate, as in BGU IV. 1185.17 (end of i/B.C.) ἐὰν δέ τινες ἐξ αὐτῶν τελευτήσωσι ἀδιάθετοι, P Oxy IX. 1201.8 (A.D. 258) τῶν κατὰ διαδοχὴν κληρονομηθέντων ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἀδιαθέτου τετελευτηκότος.

Against this word stands συνθήκη (not in NT), which Aquila substituted in 4 Kings 23.21 for LXX διαθήκη. It is to the last the word for compact, just as διαθήκη is always and only the word for will. The index to Syll will sufficiently prove this for συνθήκη, for which we may add the ostracon in Chrest. I. 110A.10 (B.C. 110) (p. 141) ε μὴν ἅτ ̣ε διενεκθέντες πρὸς ἑαυτο ̣υ ̣, ς ̣ ἐπὶ τοῦ δρόμου τοῦ Ἀπολλωνιήου τῇ β ̄ τοῦ αὐτοῦ μηνὸς τὰς συνθήκας ἐδώκαμεν Περιγένῃ τῶι γραμματεῖ. Any thought of some special ";Hebraic"; flavour about the use of διαθήκη for covenant is excluded by the isolated but absolutely clear passage in Aristophanes (Birds 439), where compact is the unmistakeable meaning. This passage is enough to prove that διαθήκη is properly dispositio, an ";arrangement"; made by one party with plenary power, which the other party may accept or reject, but cannot alter. A will is simply the most conspicuous example of such an instrument, which ultimately monopolized the word just because it suited its differentia so completely. But it is entirely natural to assume that in the period of the LXX this monopoly was not established, and the translators were free to apply the general meaning as a rendering of בּרִית. For this course there was an obvious motive. A covenant offered by God to man was no ";compact"; between two parties coming together on equal terms. Διαθήκη in its primary sense, as described above, was exactly the needed word.

Passing thus to the NT, we ask whether we are bound to keep to one rendering throughout. Westcott and W. F. Moulton in their commentaries on Hebrews 9:16 f., and formerly G. Milligan (Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews, p. 166 ff.) held that covenant must stand everywhere. Deissmann (St Paul, p. 152) insists on testament everywhere, if we may judge from an express reference to Luke 22:29 compared with .20, and Galatians 3:15 ff; Galatians 4:24, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6, together with ";very frequent"; appearance in LXX. Now we may fairly put aside the idea that in LXX ";testament"; is the invariable meaning : it takes some courage to find it there at all. But on the other hand, a Hellenist like the auctor ad Hebraeos, or even a Jew like Paul, with Greek language in the very fibre of his thought, could never have used δ. for covenant without the slightest consciousness of its ordinary and invariable contemporary meaning. He would use the ";Biblical"; word—";Biblical"; in this case being synonymous with ";archaic";—but always with the possibility of a play on the later meaning of the word. This is what comes in Hebrews 9:15 ff. (probably also in Galatians 3:15), according to the usual view, which is responsible for the RV text in the former : see Milligan Documents, p. 75. Deissmann, among other difficulties, would have to prove that in iii/B.C. the older general meaning, established by Aristophanes, was extinct. The view to which we have capitulated, after strongly supporting the Westcott doctrine, is less heroic than consistent holding to one English word, but it can claim to account for its inconsistency. Among recent monographs may be mentioned an article by E. Riggenbach in Theolog. Studien Th. Zahn . . dargebracht, and lexical studies by F. O. Norton (1908), J. Behm (1912) and E. Lohmeyer (1913). See also Ferguson Legal Terms Common to the Macedonian Inscrr. and the NT (Chicago, 1913), p. 42 ff.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
διαθηκαι διαθήκαι διαθῆκαι διαθηκη διαθήκη διαθήκῃ διαθηκην διαθήκην διαθηκης διαθήκης διαθηκων διαθηκών διαθηκῶν διάθρυπτε διαθρύψεις διεθρύβη διεθρύβησαν diathekai diathêkai diathēkai diathē̂kai diatheke diathēkē diathḗke diathḗkē diathḗkei diathḗkēi diatheken diathēkēn diathḗken diathḗkēn diathekes diathēkēs diathḗkes diathḗkēs diathekon diathekôn diathēkōn diathēkō̂n
Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, May 25th, 2019
the Fifth Week after Easter
ADVERTISEMENT
Search for…
 or 
Choose a letter to browse:
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology