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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #1285 - בְּרִית
1) covenant, alliance, pledge
1a) between men
1a1) treaty, alliance, league (man to man)
1a2) constitution, ordinance (monarch to subjects)
1a3) agreement, pledge (man to man)
1a4) alliance (of friendship)
1a5) alliance (of marriage)
1b) between God and man
1b1) alliance (of friendship)
1b2) covenant (divine ordinance with signs or pledges)
2a) covenant making
2b) covenant keeping
2c) covenant violation
1043) rb (בר BR) AC: Feed CO: Grain AB: ?: The pictograph b is a picture of a tent but also represents the family which resides inside the tent. The r is a picture of a head. Combined these have the meaning of "family of heads". The plant families of grains such as wheat and barley have a cluster of seeds at the top of the stalk called "heads". These grains were used for food for both man and livestock. (eng: barley - a grain; beer - made from grain; boar - as fat; barn - grain storage; pure - as clean with soap with an exchange for the p and b)
A) rb (בר BR) AC: ? CO: Grain AB: ?: Grains grown in fields were used for meal to make flour as well as feed for livestock. The stalks of the grains were burned to make potash for making soap. What is cleaned with soap becomes white or bright.
Nm) rb (בר BR) - I. Grain:Grain, and field, as a place for growing grain. II. Soap:Made from the ashes of the grain stalks. III. Clean:Cleanliness from soap. Also pure as a moral cleanliness. KJV (33): corn, wheat, son, about, clean, pur, choice, clear, purely, son - Strongs: H1248 (בַּר), H1249 (בַּר), H1250 (בָּר), H1251 (בַּר)
V) rrb (ברר BRR) - I. Clean:The cleaning or polishing of something to make it bright or pure. II. Choice:Something that is clean or pure. KJV (18): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) pure, choice, chosen, clean, clearly, manifest, bright, purge out, polished, purge, purified - Strongs: H1305 (בָּרַר)
bm) riba (אביר ABYR) - Strong: The mighty power of a bird in flight. Anything or anyone of great strength, physical or mental. KJV (23): might, bulls, strong, mighty, stouthearted, valiant, angels, chiefest - Strongs: H46 (אָבִיר), H47 (אַבִּיר)
V) arb (ברא BRA) - Fill: The fattening or filling up of something. The filling of the earth in ge1with sun, moon, plants, animals, etc. And the filling of man with life and the image of God. KJV (54): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Piel) create, creator, choose, make, cut down, dispatch, done, fat - Strongs: H1254 (בָּרָא)
Nf4) tirb (ברית BRYT) - Covenant: A covenant is instituted through a sacrifice of a choice, fatted, animal which is cut into two and the parties of the covenant pass through the pieces. If one party fails to meet the agreements of the covenant then the other may do the same to them. (see Genesis 15:10,17and Jeremiah 34:18-20) KJV (284): covenant, league, confederacy, confederate - Strongs: H1285 (בְּרִית)
- A2743 Kbr (Mix)
- A2041 Qrb (Thrust, Sword)
- A2042 Srb (Cypress)
- A2052 Rbc (Prevail, Warrior)
- A2520 Rbo (Cross)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
I. between men.
1 trety, alliance, league: Abraham and Amorites Genesis 14:13; Edom and its allies Obadiah 7; with Philistines Genesis 21:27,32 (E) Genesis 26:28 (J); Jacob and Laban Genesis 31:44 (J); Joshua and Gibeonites Joshua 9:6,7,11,15,16 (J); Israel and Canaanites Exodus 23:32; Exodus 34:12,15 (JE) Deuteronomy 7:2; Judges 2:2; Ammonites and Jabesh 1 Samuel 11:1; Solomon and Hiram 1 Kings 5:26; Ahab and Benhadad 1 Kings 20:34; Syria and Israel 1 Kings 15:19 2 Chronicles 16:3; Nebuchadnezzar and Zedekiah Ezekiel 17:13-19; nations against Israel Psalm 83:6; nations with Egypt Ezekiel 30:5; Ephraim and Assyria Hosea 12:2; Judah and Israel Ezekiel 16:61; Judah and Tyre Amos 1:9; Assyria and Judah Isaiah 33:8; נגיד ברית a prince in league (with him) Daniel 11:22 (so He Ew; Hi Meinh Bev reference to high priest Onias III, & translate prince of covenant, compare AV RV); figurative, with death Isaiah 28:15,18; with stones of the field Job 5:23.
2 constitution, ordinance, between monarch and subjects: David and Abner 2 Samuel 3:12,13,21; David and the elders of Israel 2 Samuel 5:3 = 1 Chronicles 11:3; Zedekiah and his people Jeremiah 34:8-18; hostile prince and Israelites Daniel 9:27.
3 agreement, pledge: Jehoiada and captains 2 Kings 11:4 2 Chronicles 23:1; with onself Job 31:1; with Leviathan to be a servant Job 40:28; between man and man Hosea 10:4 compare בעל ברית Judges 8:33; Judges 9:4 = אל ברית Judges 9:46.
4 alliance of friendship between David and Jonathan 1 Samuel 18:3; 1 Samuel 20:8; 1 Samuel 23:18 compare Psalm 55:21.
5 alliance of marriage Proverbs 2:17; Malachi 2:14. — In all cases כרת ברית is the technical phrase for making covenant except Jeremiah 34:10 באו בברית; Daniel 9:27 הגביר ברית לְ. Various prepositions are used, most often לְ Exodus 23:32 +, but also עִם Genesis 26:28 +, אֵת 2 Samuel 3:12 +, בֵּין 2 Chronicles 16:3.
II. between God and man.
1 alliance of friendship ("" סוֺד) Psalm 25:14.
2 covenant, as a divine constitution or ordinance with signs or pledges (see אוֺת).
a. with Noah Genesis 9:9-17 (P) Isaiah 54:10; Jeremiah 33:20,25; a divine promise that there would be no other deluge.
b. with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob Genesis 15:18 (J) Genesis 17:2-21Exodus 2:24; Exodus 6:4,5; Leviticus 26:42 (P) 2 Kings 13:23; 1 Chronicles 16:15 = Psalm 105:8; Psalm 105:10; Nehemiah 9:8; Jeremiah 34:18; a promise to multiply their seed, give them the land of Canaan, and make them a blessing to the nations.
c. with Israel at Sinai = Horeb, with a covenant sacrifice Exodus 19:5; Exodus 24:7,8 (E) Exodus 34:10,27,28 (J) Exodus 31:16; Leviticus 2:13 (P) Leviticus 24:8; Leviticus 26:9,15,25,44,45 (H) Deuteronomy 4:13; renewed in plains of Moab Deuteronomy 28:69; with blessings and curses Deuteronomy 29:20; frequently referred to in other books 2 Chronicles 34:32; Psalm 25:10; Psalm 44:18; Psalm 50:5; Psalm 50:16; Psalm 74:20; Psalm 78:10; Psalm 78:37; Psalm 103:18; Psalm 106:45; Psalm 111:5; Psalm 111:9; Isaiah 56:4,6; Jeremiah 1:2,3,6,8,10; Jeremiah 14:21; Jeremiah 22:9; Jeremiah 31:32; Ezekiel 16:8,59,60; Ezekiel 44:7; Daniel 9:4; Daniel 11:28,30,32; Hosea 6:7; Hosea 8:1; Zechariah 9:11; Zechariah 11:10; a divine constitution given to Israel with promises on condition of obedience and penalties for disobendience, in the form of tables of the covenant Deuteronomy 9:9,11,15, inscribed with the ten words, placed in ׅ׳ארון ברית(י the ark of the covenant Numbers 10:33 40t. (see ארון; in 1 Samuel 4:3,4 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 4:5 omits ברית after ארוןᵐ5 We Dr); set forth in דברי הברית words of the covenant Exodus 34:28 (J) Deuteronomy 28:69; Deuteronomy 29:8; 2 Kings 23:3 (= 2 Chronicles 34:31) Jeremiah 11:2-8; written in ספר הברית the book of the covenant Exodus 24:7 (E compare Exodus 34:27 J) 2 Kings 23:2,21 (compare 2 Chronicles 34:30).
d. with Phinehas Numbers 25:12,13 (P), a constitution, establishing an everlasting priesthood in his line; compare ברית הכהנים Nehemiah 13:29 & ברית הלוי Malachi 2:4,8.
e. with Joshua and Israel Joshua 24:25 (E), an ordinance or constitutional agreement to serve Yahweh only.
f. with David Psalm 89:4; Psalm 89:29; Psalm 89:34; Psalm 89:39; Psalm 132:12; Jeremiah 33:21 (compare 2 Samuel 7 = 1 Chronicles 17); a divine promise to the seed of David of an everlasting kingdom, the relation of sonship, and the superintendence of the temple (compare Psalm 2..)
g. Jehoiada and the people 2 Kings 11:17 2 Chronicles 23:3, a constitutional agreement to be the people of Yahweh.
h. Hezekiah and the people 2 Chronicles 29:10, a constitutional agreement to reform the worship.
i. Josiah and the people 2 Kings 23:3, a constitutional agreement to obey the book of the covenant.
j. Ezra and the people Ezra 10:3, a constitutional agreement to put away foreign wives and observe the Law.
k. the prophetic covenant, a divine promise through a series of prophets to establish a new constitution ברית חדשׁה Jeremiah 31:31, with new institutions and precepts Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:8; Isaiah 55:3; Isaiah 59:21; Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 31:31,33; Jeremiah 32:40; Jeremiah 50:5; Ezekiel 16:60,62; Ezekiel 20:37; Ezekiel 34:25; Ezekiel 37:26; Hosea 2:20. In Isa2 the Messianic servant is ברית עם Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:8, compare מלאך הברית Malachi 3:1.
1 covenant making: כרת ברית Genesis 15:18; Exodus 34:10,27 (J) Joshua 24:25 (E) Deuteronomy 5:2,3; Deuteronomy 28:69; Deuteronomy 29:13; Deuteronomy 29:24; 1 Kings 5:26; 2 Kings 11:17; 2 Kings 17:35,38; 2 Kings 23:3; 2 Chronicles 21:7; 23:3,16; 29:10; 34:30; Ezra 10:3; Nehemiah 9:8; Psalm 50:5; Psalm 89:4; Isaiah 55:3; Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 11:10; Jeremiah 31:31,32,33; Jeremiah 32:40; Jeremiah 34:13; Ezekiel 34:25; Ezekiel 37:26; Hosea 2:20; הקים ברית establish a covenant Genesis 6:18; Genesis 9:9,11,17; Genesis 17:7,19,21; Exodus 6:4 (P) Ezekiel 16:60,62, but confirm covenant Leviticus 26:9 (?;H) Deuteronomy 8:18; נתן ברית Genesis 17:2; Numbers 25:12 (P); שׂם ברית 2 Samuel 23:5 (poetry); עבר בברית Deuteronomy 29:11; בא בברית 2 Chronicles 15:12; Ezekiel 16:8; צוה ברית Psalm 111:9; נשׂא בריתעל פי Psalm 50:16. (compare further on these Dr J Ph xi. 1882,210 ff.)
2 covenant keeping: on the part of man שׁמר ברית 1 Kings 11:11; Nehemiah 1:5; Nehemiah 9:32; Psalm 78:10; Psalm 103:18; Psalm 132:12; Daniel 9:4, נצר ברית Deuteronomy 33:9; Psalm 25:10, מחזיקיםבברית Isaiah 56:4,6; on the part of God זכר ברית Genesis 9:15,16; Exodus 2:24; Exodus 6:5 (all P), Leviticus 26:42 (3t. in verse) (H; on suffix compare Di Ges§ 128, 1 R b) Leviticus 26:45 (H) Psalm 105:8; Psalm 106:45; Psalm 111:5; 1 Chronicles 16:15; Ezekiel 16:15,60. Thus we have נאמנת Psalm 89:29; ברית עולם Genesis 9:16; Genesis 17:7,13,18,19; Exodus 31:16; Leviticus 24:8; Numbers 18:19; Numbers 25:13 (P) 2 Samuel 23:5 (poetry) 1 Chronicles 16:17 (= Psalm 105:10) Isaiah 24:5; Isaiah 55:3; Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 32:40; Jeremiah 50:5; Ezekiel 16:60; Ezekiel 37:26; ברית מלח Leviticus 2:13; 2 Chronicles 13:5; 21:7 (a cov't. with sacrificial meal and salt; on cov't. with salt in Arabia compare We Skizzen iii. 124); ברית שׁלום Numbers 25:12 (P) Isaiah 54:10; Ezekiel 34:25; Ezekiel 37:26; הברית והחסד Deuteronomy 7:9,12; 1 Kings 8:23 (= 2 Chronicles 6:14) Nehemiah 1:5; Nehemiah 9:32; Daniel 9:4; ברית קדשׁ Daniel 11:28,30; מסרת הברית Ezekiel 20:37.
3 covenant violation: עבר ברית Deuteronomy 17:2; Joshua 7:11,15; Joshua 23:16 (D) Judges 2:20; 2 Kings 18:12; Hosea 6:7; Hosea 8:1; הפר ברית Genesis 17:14; Leviticus 26:15,44 (H) Deuteronomy 31:16,20 (J) Judges 2:1; Isaiah 24:5 (twice in verse); Jeremiah 11:10; Jeremiah 14:21; Jeremiah 31:32; Jeremiah 33:20,21; Ezekiel 16:59; Ezekiel 17:18,19; Ezekiel 44:7; Zechariah 11:10; עזב ברית 1 Kings 19:10,14; Jeremiah 22:9; Daniel 11:30; מאס ברית 2 Kings 17:15; נאר ברית Psalm 89:39; חלל ברית Psalm 89:34; Malachi 2:10; שׁקר בברית Psalm 44:18; שׁכח ברית Deuteronomy 4:23,31; Jeremiah 50:5.
בְּרוֺשׁ, בְּרוֺת see below ברשׁ.
בָּרוּת see below I. ברה.
בֵּרוֺ֫תָה, בֵּרֹתי see below באר.
ברז (? compare Aramaic כרז bore, pierce, or Arabic , appear).
(1) a covenant, so called from the idea of cutting (see the root No. 1), since it was the custom in making solemn covenants to pass between the divided parts of victims (see the root כָּרַת [“and Genesis 15:9, etc.”]). [“But the idea suggested by Lee (Heb. Lex. h. v.) deserves attention, viz. that בְּרִית is strictly nothing more than an eating together, banquet, from בָּרָה No. 2, since among Orientals, to eat together is almost the same as to make a covenant of friendship. The Hebrews too were accustomed to eat together when entering into a covenant, see Genesis 31:54 and in this way we obtain an explanation of בְּרִית מֶלַח covenant (an eating?) of salt; see מֶלַח.” Ges. add.] It is used of a covenant entered into between nations, Joshua 9:6, seq.; between individuals and friends, 1 Samuel 18:3, 23:18 of a marriage covenant, Malachi 2:14 בַּעֲלֵי בְּרִית פ׳ Genesis 14:13, and אַנְשֵׁי בְּרִית פ׳ Obadiah 1:7, those joined by league to any one. אֵל בְּרִית Judges 9:46, i.q. בַּעַל בְּרִית verse Judges 9:4, “God of covenant,” see בַּעַל No. 5,. In speaking of the making of a covenant, the verbs כָּרַת, הֵקִים, נָתַן, שׂוּם are used, 2 Samuel 23:5 בּוֹא בְּ, עָבַר בְּ Deuteronomy 29:11, which see; of its violation, הֵפֵר, חִלֵּל, עָזַב, שִׁקֵּר בְּ. The covenant of any one is the covenant entered into with him, Leviticus 26:45; Deuteronomy 4:31 בְּרִית יְהֹוָה “a covenant entered into with Jehovah,” Deuteronomy 4:23, 29:24, etc. Specially and most frequently used of the covenant and league made between God and Abraham (Genesis 15:18), confirmed by Moses (Exodus 24:7, Exodus 24:8 [This is another covenant]; 34:27 Deuteronomy 5:2), to be renewed and amended after the exile, by the intervention of prophets (Isaiah 42:6, 49:8 ) and the Messiah (Malachi 3:1 comp. Jeremiah 31:33). [Gesenius has utterly confused the old covenant with the new.] The land promised and given to the people by this covenant is called אֶרֶץ הַבְּרִית Ezekiel 30:5 and the people itself[?] בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ “(the people) of the holy covenant,” Daniel 11:28, 30 Daniel 11:30 מַלְאַךְ הַבִּרִית “the messenger, μεσίτης, of the (new) covenant,” i.e. Messiah, Malachi 3:1.
(2) In other places it is the condition of this covenant, namely
(a) the promise of God, Isaiah 59:21 and very often
(b) the precepts of God which Israel had to keep, i.e. the divine law, i.q. תּוֹרָה. Hence לוּחוֹת הַבְּרִית Deuteronomy 9:9, 15 אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה and אֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית the ark in which the law or the tables of the law were kept (see אָרוֹן ). דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית “the words of the law,” -Jer. 11:28 ; 34:18 Exodus 34:28 דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים “the precepts of the law, ten precepts;” סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית “the book of the law,” used both of its earliest beginnings, Exodus 24:7 and of the whole collection of laws, 2 Kings 23:2, 21 2 Kings 23:21; 2 Chronicles 34:30.
As to a covenant of salt, see under מֶלַח.
(3) Sometimes ellipt.
(a) i.q. מַלְאַךְ בְּרִית messenger, herald, declarer and μεσίτης of the new covenant, or of a new law and religion, Isaiah 42:6, 49:8 compare Malachi 2:8.
(b) i.q. אוֹת בְּרִית “sign of the covenant,” used or circumcision, Genesis 17:10, 13 Genesis 17:13 compare 11 Genesis 17:11.