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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #686 - ἄρα

Word Origin
probably from (142) (through the idea of drawing a conclusion)
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. therefore, so then, wherefore
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (30) NAS (46) HCS (42)
Matthew 7
Mark 2
Luke 6
Acts 6
Romans 11
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 3
Galatians 6
Ephesians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 2
Matthew 7
Mark 2
Luke 5
Acts 4
Romans 11
1 Corinthians 4
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 6
Ephesians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 2
Matthew 6
Mark 1
Luke 4
Acts 3
Romans 11
1 Corinthians 5
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 5
Ephesians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 2
PRT 35
PRT 19
PRT 36
PRT 40

Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἄρᾰ, ῥά

ῥά(which is enclitic and used after monosyllables, ἦ, ὅς, γάρ, etc., or words ending in a vowel or diphthong, e.g. ἐπεί), before a consonant ἄρ (perh. cf. Lith. i[rtilde] 'and'): expressing consequence, then, or mere succession, there and then, and in many derived uses. EARLIER USAGE: to denote,


1. immediate transition, there and then, straightway, ὣς φάτο βῆ δ' ἄρ' Ὄνειρος Il. 2.16: after a part., ὣς εἰπὼν κατ' ἄρ' ἕζετο 1.68, al.; πυθόμενος.. εἶπε ἄ. Hdt. 4.134, cf. 9.9; ἐρωτώσης τῆς μητρὸς ἀπεκρίνατο ἄρα X. Cyr. 1.3.2; with other Particles, δέ, ἦ, ὡς, etc., cf. ὁ δὲ Ἀστυάγης ἄ. εἶπεν ib. 4.10: also after Advbs. of Time, τότε δή ῥα, τῆμος ἄρα, etc.; οὕτως ἄρα Pl. Phdr. 259b; often in apodosi, as αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ θηήσατο.. αὐτίκ' ἄρ' ἤλυθεν Od. 5.77; repeated τὼ μὲν ἄρ'.. κεῖντο ἡ δ' ἄρ'.. ἀγόρευε Il. 21.426: in enumerations, e. g. in Homer's catalogue, then, next, οἱ δ' ἄρ' Ἀθήνας εἶχον 2.546; so in genealogies, Σίσυφος.. ὁ δ' ἄ. Γλαῦκον τέκεθ' υἱόν 6.154.

2. to draw attention, mark you! τὸν τρεῖς μὲν ἐπιρρήσσεσκον.. τῶν ἄλλων Ἀχιλεὺς δ' ἄρ' ἐπιρρήσσεσκε καὶ οἶος 24.456; with imper., ἀλλ' ἄγε δὴ κατ' ἄρ' ἕζευ 24.522: to point a moral or general statement, φευγόντων δ' οὔτ' ἂρ κλέος ὄρνυται οὔτε τις ἀλκή 5.532.

II connexion, such as,

1 that of antecedent and consequent, οἰνοχόει.. ἄσβεστος δ' ἄρ' ἐνῶρτο γέλως 1.599, cf. 24.507; τοὔνεκ' ἄρ' ἄλγε' ἔδωκε 1.96; freq. with οὕνεκα in protasi, 7.140, al.: also in questions, τίς τ' ἄρ τῶν ὄχ' ἄριστος ἔην; who then (say you) was.. ? 2.761: with demonstr. Pronoun in recapitulation, ἀλλ' υἱὸν Πριάμοιο.. τόν ῥ' Ὀδυσεὺς βάλε he it was, whom.., 4.501: freq. in such phrases as ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας 2.35, al.; ὣς ἄρ' ἔφη 1.584, al.; ἦ ῥα 3.355, al., thus, then he spoke. This usage is universal in Greek.

2. explanation of that which precedes, χωόμενον κατὰ θυμὸν ἐϋζώνοιο γυναικὸς τήν ῥα.. ἀπηύρων whom (and for this cause he was angry) they had taken away, 1.429; εἰ μὴ ὑπερφίαλον ἔπος ἔκβαλε.. φῆ ῥ' ἀέκητι θεῶν φυγέειν for he said, Od. 4.504: freq. with οὕνεκα; so with relatives, ἐκ δ' ἔθορε κλῆρος ὃν ἄρ' ἤθελον αὐτοί the very one which.., Il. 7.182.

LATER USAGE, always with inferential force:

1. in drawing conclusions (more subjective than οὖν), ἄριστον ἄ. ἡ εὐδαιμονία Arist. EN 1099a24; δῆλον ἄ. Id. Pol. 1295b33; in pseudo-syllogistic conclusions, Id. SE 174b11, Rh. 1401a3, al.: esp. by way of informal inference, as it seems, οὐκ ἄ. σοί γε πατὴρ ἦν Πηλεύς Il. 16.33; οὐδ' ἄ. πως ἦν ἐν πάντεσσ' ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα γενέσθαι 23.670; μάτην ἄρ', ὡς ἔοικεν, ἥκομεν S. El. 772; οὕτω κοινόν τι ἄ. χαρᾷ καὶ λύπῃ δάκρυά ἐστιν so true is it that.., X. HG 7.1.32; πολὺ γὰρ ἀμείνων ἄ. ὁ τοῦ ἀδίκου ἢ ὁ τοῦ δικαίου βίος Pl. R. 358c; ἦν ἄ. πυρός γ' ἕτερα.. θερμότερα Ar. Eq. 382; ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ' ἦσθα Trag.Adesp. 374; so in announcing the discovery or correction of an error, as οὐκ ἐννενοήκαμεν ὅτι εἰσὶν ἄ... Pl. R. 375d; φαίνεται πρὸ ποδῶν ἡμῖν κυλινδεῖσθαι καὶ οὐχ ἑωρῶμεν ἄρ' αὐτό ib. 432d; εἰκότως ἄ. οὐκ ἐγίγνετο· ὡς γὰρ ἐγὼ νῦν πυνθάνομαι.. X. An. 2.2.3.

2. in questions, expressing the anxiety of the questioner, τίς ἄ. ῥύσεται; who is there to save ? A. Th. 92; so in exclamations to heighten the expression of emotion, οἵαν ἄρ' ἥβην.. ἀπώλεσεν what a band of youth was that.. ! Id. Pers. 733; so ὡς ἄρα ib. 472, S. Fr. 577; τί μ' ἄ. τί μ' ὀλέκεις; Id. Ant. 1285; τί οὖν.. . X. Oec. 6.2; πῶς ἄ.; οὕτως ἄ., etc.; . alone, ἔζης ἄ. S. Fr. 686: esp. in ironical comments, Ar. Av. 476, 1371, etc.

3. epexegetic, namely, ἐρῶ, ὡς ἄ... Pl. Tht. 152d, cf. 156e.

4. for τοι ἄρα, τἄρα, v. sub τοι 11.2.

5. εἰ (or ἐάν) μὴ ἄ. unless perhaps, Pl. Ap. 38b, D. 58.4; separated from εἰ μή, Id. 9.20; with irony, εἰ μὴ ἄ. ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά ἐστιν X. Mem. 1.2.8.

6. in hypothetical clauses, to indicate the improbability of the supposition, ἢν ἄ. ποτὲ κατὰ γῆν βιασθῶσιν Th. 1.93, etc.; or simply, perhaps (sts. separated from εἰ), εἴ τις οὖν ὑμῶν ἄ... ὑπελάμβανεν D. 21.8; εἴ τις ἰδίᾳ τινὰ δεδιὼς ἄ. ἀπρόθυμός ἐστιν Th. 4.86.

IN CRASIS, freq. τἄρα, μεντἄρα, οὐτἄρα: also δήξομἄρα for δήξομαι ἄ., Ar. Ach. 325; οἰμώξετἄρα, κλαύσἄρα, Id. Th. 248, Pax 532: also in Trag., E. Hyps.Fr. 34.86. ἄρα never stands first in the sentence in Classical Greek (Arist. Mech. 851a22 is corrupt), but is found at the beginning of an apodosis in.Matthew 12:28,.Romans 10:17, and first in a sentence, Luke 11:48, Vett.Val. 305.20; in conclusion of syllogism, Herm. ap. Stob. 3.11.31.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἄρα (1), an illative particle (akin, as it seems, to the verbal root ἈΡΩ to join, to be fitted (cf. Curtius, § 488; Vanicek, p. 47)), whose use among native Greeks is illustrated fully by Kühner, ii., §§ 509, 545; (Jelf, §§ 787-789), and Klotz ad Devar. ii., pp. 160-180, among others; (for a statement of diverse views see Bäumlein, Griech. Partikeln, p. 19f). It intimates that, under these circumstances something either is so or becomes so (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 167): Latinigitur, consequently (differing from οὖν in 'denoting a subjective impression rather than a positive conclusion.' Liddell and Scott (see 5 below)). In the N. T. it is used frequently by Paul, but in the writings of John and in the so-called Catholic Epistles it does not occur. On its use in the N. T. cf. Winer's Grammar, §§ 53, 8 a. and 61, 6. It is found:

1. subjoined to another word: Romans 7:21; Romans 8:1; Galatians 3:7; ἐπεί ἄρα since, if it were otherwise, 1 Corinthians 7:14; (, cf. Buttmann, § 149, 5). When placed after pronouns and interrogative particles, it refers to a preceding assertion or fact, or even to something existing only in the mind: τίς ἄρα who then? Matthew 18:1 (i. e. one certainly will be the greater, who then?); Matthew 19:25 (i. e. certainly some will be saved; you say that the rich will not; who then?); Matthew 19:27; Matthew 24:45 (I bid you be ready; who then etc.? the question follows from this command of mine); Mark 4:41; Luke 1:66 (from all these things doubtless something follows; what, then?); Luke 8:25; Luke 12:42; Luke 22:23 (it will be one of us, which then?); Acts 12:18 (Peter has disappeared; what, then, has become of him?). εἰ ἄρα, Mark 11:13 (whether, since the tree had leaves, he might also find some fruit on it); Acts 7:1 (Rec.) (ἄρα equivalent to 'since the witnesses testify thus'); Acts 8:22 (if, since thy sin is so grievous, perhaps the thought etc.); εἴπερ ἄρα, 1 Corinthians 15:15, (אִם־נָא, εἰ ἄρα, Genesis 18:3). Οὐκ ἄρα, Acts 21:38 (thou hast a knowledge of Greek; art thou not then the Egyptian, as I suspected?); μήτι ἄρα (Latinnum igitur), did I then etc., 2 Corinthians 1:17.

2. By a use doubtful in Greek writings (cf. Buttmann, 371 (318); (Winers Grammar, 558 (519))) it is placed at the beginning of a sentence; and so, so then, accordingly, equivalent to ὥστε with a finite verb: ἄρα μαρτυρεῖτε (μάρτυρες ἐστε T Tr WH), Luke 11:48 (Matthew 23:31 ὥστε μαρτυρεῖτε); Romans 10:17; 1 Corinthians 15:18; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (15) (in L T Tr WH no conditional protasis preceding); 2 Corinthians 7:12; Galatians 4:31 (L T Tr WH διό); Hebrews 4:9.

3. in an apodosis, after a protasis with εἰ, in order to bring out what follows as a matter of course (German so ist ja the obvious inference is): Luke 11:20; Matthew 12:28; 2 Corinthians 5:14(15) (R G, a protasis with εἰ preceding); Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:29; Galatians 5:11; Hebrews 12:8; joined to another word, 1 Corinthians 15:14.

4. with γέ, rendering it more pointed, ἄραγε (L Tr uniformly ἄρα γέ; so R WH in Acts 17:27; cf. Winers Grammar, p. 45; Lipsius Gram. Untersuch., p. 123), surely then, so then (Latinitaque ergo): Matthew 7:20; Matthew 17:26; Acts 11:18 (L T Tr WH omit γέ); and subjoined to a word, Acts 17:27 (Winer's Grammar, 299 (281)).

5. ἄρα οὖν, a combination peculiar to Paul, at the beginning of a sentence (Winers Grammar, 445 (414); Buttmann, 371 (318) ("ἄρα ad internam potius caussam spectat, οὖν magis ad externam." Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 717; ἄρα is the more logical, οὖν the more formal connective; "ἄρα is illative, οὖν continuative," Winers, the passage cited; cf. also Kühner, § 545, 3)) (R. V.) so then (Latinhinc igitur): Romans 5:18; Romans 7:3, 25; Romans 8:12; Romans 9:16, 18; Romans 14:12 (L Tr omit WH brackets οὖν); 19 (L marginal reading ἄρα); Galatians 6:10; Ephesians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:15.

STRONGS NT 686: ἄραγε [ἄραγε, see ἄρα, 4.] [a&rage, see ἄρα, 1.]

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἄρα ,

illative particle, expressing a more subjective or informal inference than οὖν , then: prop. (as in c1.), the second word in the sentence, Romans 7:21; Romans 8:1, Galatians 3:7; ἐπεί ἄρα , 1 Corinthians 7:14 (with another word between) 1 Corinthians 5:10; as the first word, Luke 11:48, Acts 11:18, Romans 10:17, 1 Corinthians 15:18, 2 Corinthians 5:15; 2 Corinthians 7:12, Hebrews 4:9; so prop, in apodosis after protasis with εἰ , Matthew 12:28, Luke 11:20, Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:29; Galatians 5:11, Hebrews 12:8 (κενὸν ἄρα ), 1 Corinthians 15:14; often in interrogations, direct and indirect, τίς (τί ) ἄρα , Matthew 18:1; Matthew 19:25; Matthew 19:27; Matthew 24:45, Mark 4:41, Luke 1:66; Luke 8:25; Luke 12:42; Luke 22:23, Acts 12:18; εἰ ἄρα , Mark 11:13, Acts 8:22; εἴπερ ἄρα , 1 Corinthians 15:15; οὐκ ἄρα , Acts 21:38; μήτι ἄρα , 2 Corinthians 1:17; in strengthened forms, ἄρα γε , ἄραγε , Matthew 7:20; Matthew 17:26, Acts 17:27, and more freq. ἄρα οὖν (Epp. Paul.), so then, Romans 5:18; Romans 7:3; Romans 7:25; Romans 8:12; Romans 9:16; Romans 9:18; Romans 14:12; Romans 14:19 Galatians 6:10, Ephesians 2:19, 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 2 Thessalonians 2:15 (Bl., § 77, 2; 78, 5; MM, s.v.).†

ἄραγε , see ἄρα .

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

A sepulchral inscr. from S.W. Phrygia, C. and B. no. 466 (ii. p. 565), which Ramsay thinks Christian, mainly because of the name Amerimnos, has ἐὰν δέ τις αὐτῶν μὴ φοβηθῇ τούτων τῶν καταρῶν, τὸ ἀρᾶς δρέπανον εἰσέλθοιτο εἰς τὰς οἰκήσις αὐτῶν καὶ μηδίναν ἐνκαταλείψετο. Here ἀρά might represent κατάρα, by the principle illustrated for verbs in Proleg. p. 115; but this does not apply in the closely similar no. 563 (Akmonia), where Jewish origin is argued. The noun may be quoted from a source where no suspicion of Jewish or Christian influence can come in—the end of the great inscr. of Antiochus I. of Commagene, OGIS 383.236 (i/B.C.), παρανόμωι δὲ γνώμηι κατὰ δαιμόνων τιμῆς καὶ χωρὶς ἡμετέρας ἀρᾶς παρὰ θεῶν ἐχθρὰ πάντα : cf. Magn 105.53 (ii/B.C.) νό [μοις γ ]ὰρ ἱεροῖς καὶ ἀραῖς καὶ ἐπιτίμοις ἄνωθ ̣ε ̣ν διεκεκ ̣ώλ [υ ]το ἵνα μηθ ̣εὶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τοῦ [Διὸς ] . . . [μ ]ήτε ἐννέμῃ κτλ. For ἀρατός see Syll 303.17 (ii/B.C.), ἀρατὴν ἅμα καὶ σωτήριον [περὶ τῶ ]ν ἀπορουμένων ἀεὶ π [ρο ]τιθέντες γνώμην.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
αρα αρά άρα άρά ἄρα αρα¦γε ἄρα¦γε ara ára ara¦ge ára¦ge arage
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