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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3722 - כָּפַר
1) to cover, purge, make an atonement, make reconciliation, cover over with pitch
1a) (Qal) to coat or cover with pitch
1b1) to cover over, pacify, propitiate
1b2) to cover over, atone for sin, make atonement for
1b3) to cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites
1c1) to be covered over
1c2) to make atonement for
1d) (Hithpael) to be covered
V) rpk (כפר KPR) - Cover: KJV (102): (vf: Paal, Hitpael, Pual, Piel) atonement, purge, reconcile, forgive, purge, pacify, mercy, cleanse, disannul, appease, put, pardon, pitch - Strongs: H3722 (כָּפַר)
bm) ripk (כפיר KPYR) - I. Village:A village is a community outside of the city walls and covered with protection from the city. II. Young lion:[Unknown connection to root;] KJV (32): lion, village, young - Strongs: H3715 (כְּפִיר)
gm) rpfk (כופר KWPR) - I. Covering:A covering such as pitch or a monetary covering such as a bribe or ransom. II. Village:A village is a community outside of the city walls and covered with protection from the city. KJV (19): ransom, satisfaction, bribe, camphire, pitch, village - Strongs: H3723 (כָּפָר), H3724 (כֹּפֶר)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
כָּפַר prop. to cover, to cover over, whence כְּפוֹר and כַּפֹּרֶת a covering. Arabic كَفَرَ fut. I. and غَفَرَ to cover. Specially
(2) to cover over, to overspread with anything, as with pitch, to pitch, Genesis 6:14 compare כֹּפֶר No. 2, and Pu.
(3) covered with hair, to be hairy, shaggy, see כְּפִיר.
(4) to cover sins, i.e. to pardon; compare כֹּפֶר No. 4, and כִּפֶּר. Arab. كفر II. to expiate a crime, كفر to pardon.
Piel כִּפֶּר fut. יְכַפֵּר
(1) to cover, i.e. to pardon sin (comp. כִּסָּה); followed by acc. Psalms 65:4, 78:38 followed by עַל (like other verbs of covering), Jeremiah 18:23; Psalms 79:9 followed by לְ Deuteronomy 21:8 also followed by לְ Ezekiel 16:63, and בְּעַד of pers. (compare הֵגֵן בְּעַד Psalms 3:4). 2 Chronicles 30:18.
(2) causat. to obtain forgiveness.
(a) to expiate an offence, followed by an acc. Daniel 9:24; Ezekiel 45:20 followed by עַל Lev. 5:26 followed by בְּעַד (for) Exodus 32:30 followed by מִן Levit. 4:26 Numbers 6:11.
(b) to make expiation for an offender, to free him from charge; followed by עַל of pers., Exodus 30:10; Leviticus 4:20 followed by בְּעַד Leviticus 16:6, 11 Leviticus 16:11, 24 Leviticus 16:24; Ezekiel 45:17 followed by בְּ Levit. 17:11 to inanimate things which were accounted to be defiled; followed by an acc., Leviticus 16:33 followed by עַל Leviticus 16:18. Examples of full construction are, Leviticus 5:18, וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ “and the priest shall make atonement for him, on account of his sins;” and, 4:26, וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַבֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ “and the priest shall make atonement for him from his sin.”
(c) to appease any one who has been injured, or is angry; with an acc. of pers., Genesis 32:21; Proverbs 16:14 also to appease an impending calamity, i.e. to remove it by expiation, Isaiah 47:11. The sacrifice by which the expiation is made, is put with בְּ prefixed, 2 Samuel 21:3; Numbers 5:8.
(1) to be covered, i.e. obliterated; prop. used of letters which were covered and deleted by drawing the style over them; Isaiah 28:18, יְכֻפַּר בְּרִיתְכֶם “your covenant shall be obliterated,” i.e. abolished; a phrase derived from written agreements. (Aram. ܟܦܰܪ, כַּפֵּר to smear over, to abolish.)
(2) Pass. of Piel 2, a, to be expiated; of sin, Isaiah 6:7, 22:14 27:9.
(3) Pass. of Piel 2, b, to be freed from charge, (of a guilty person), to receive pardon, Exodus 29:33; Numbers 35:33.
Hithpael, fut. יִתְכַּפֵּר 1 Samuel 3:14, and
Nithpael, נִכַּפֵּר Deuteronomy 21:8, to be expiated, of sin.
The derived nouns immediately follow, except כְּפוֹר, כְּפִיר, and pr.n. כְּפִירָה.
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