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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #863 - ἀφίημι

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G575) and hiemi (to send, an intens. form of eimi, to go)
Parts of Speech
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  1. to send away
    1. to bid going away or depart
      1. of a husband divorcing his wife
    2. to send forth, yield up, to expire
    3. to let go, let alone, let be
      1. to disregard
      2. to leave, not to discuss now, (a topic) 1c
  2. of teachers, writers and speakers
      1. to omit, neglect
    1. to let go, give up a debt, forgive, to remit
    2. to give up, keep no longer
  3. to permit, allow, not to hinder, to give up a thing to a person
  4. to leave, go way from one
    1. in order to go to another place
    2. to depart from any one
    3. to depart from one and leave him to himself so that all mutual claims are abandoned
    4. to desert wrongfully
    5. to go away leaving something behind
    6. to leave one by not taking him as a companion
    7. to leave on dying, leave behind one
    8. to leave so that what is left may remain, leave remaining
    9. abandon, leave destitute
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 2308 ‑ חָדַל (khaw‑dal');  3318 ‑ יָצָא (yaw‑tsaw');  3722 ‑ כָּפַר (kaw‑far');  5117 ‑ נוּחַ (noo'‑akh);  5375 ‑ נָסָה (naw‑saw', naw‑saw');  5414 ‑ נָתַן (naw‑than');  5428 ‑ נָתַשׁ (naw‑thash');  5545 ‑ סָלַח (saw‑lakh');  5800 ‑ עָזַב (aw‑zab');  6605 ‑ פָּתַח (paw‑thakh');  7043 ‑ קָלַל (kaw‑lal');  7503 ‑ רָפָה (raw‑faw');  7662 ‑ שְׁבַק (sheb‑ak');  7971 ‑ שָׁלַח (shaw‑lakh');  8058 ‑ שָׁמַט (shaw‑mat');  8159 ‑ שָׁעָה (shaw‑aw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (174)
Matthew 55
Mark 43
Luke 38
John 19
Acts 2
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 7
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 2
Revelation 3
NAS (155)
Matthew 50
Mark 38
Luke 33
John 16
Acts 4
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 4
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 2
Revelation 3
CSB (135)
Matthew 45
Mark 30
Luke 29
John 15
Acts 3
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 3
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 2
Revelation 3
BSB (143)
Matthew 47
Mark 34
Luke 31
John 15
Acts 3
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 3
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 2
Revelation 3
ESV (124)
Matthew 39
Mark 28
Luke 29
John 14
Acts 3
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 3
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 1
Revelation 2
WEB (175)
Matthew 57
Mark 44
Luke 38
John 18
Acts 2
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 6
Hebrews 2
James 1
1 John 2
Revelation 3
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


2 sg. ἀφίης Pl. Phlb. 50d, etc., 3 sg. ἀφίησι, also ἀφίει, Ion. ἀπίει Hdt. 2.96, 1 pl. ἀφίεμεν Ar. Nu. 1426; imper. ἀφίει Id. V. 428: impf. ἀφίειν, with double augm. ἠφίειν Pl. Euthd. 293a; 3 sg. ἀφίει Il. 1.25, IG 22.777.15, D. 6.20, Ion. ἀπίει Hdt. 4.157, ἠφίει Th. 2.49, Pl. Ly. 222b, ἤφιε Mark 11:16; Mark 2:1-28 pl. ἀφίετε D. 23.188; 3 pl. ἀφίεσαν E. Heracl. 821, Th. 2.76, D. 21.79, etc., ἠφίεσαν X. HG 4.6.11, ἠφίουν Isa 6.40 (dub.): fut. ἀφήσω Il. 2.263, etc., Ion. ἀπ- Hdt. 7.193: pf. ἀφεῖκα X. An. 2.3.13, D. 56.26: aor. I ἀφῆκα, Ion. ἀπ-, ἀφέηκα, used in ind. only, Il. 23.841, etc.: aor. 2 ind. only in dual and pl., ἀφέτην, ἀφεῖμεν, ἀφεῖτε or ἄφετε, ἀφεῖσαν or ἄφεσαν; imper. ἄφες, subj. ἀφῶ, opt. αφείην (2 pl. ἀφεῖτε Th. 1.139), inf. ἀφεῖναι, part. ἀφείς: — Med., ἀφίεμαι, Ion. ἀπίεμαι, Hdt. 3.101, Th. 2.60, etc.: impf. 3 sg. ἀφίετο Od. 23.240, D. 25.47: fut. ἀφήσομαι E. Hel. 1629: aor. 2 ἀφείμην X. Hier. 7.11; imper. ἀφοῦ, ἄφεσθε, S. OT 1521, Ar. Ec. 509; inf. -έσθαι Isoc. 6.83, part. -έμενος Pl. R. 354b; Arc. inf. ἀφεῶσθαι SIG 306.19 (Tegea, iv B. C.): Pass., pf. ἀφεῖμαι S. Ant. 1165, Pl. Lg. 635a; inf. ἀφεῖσθαι SIG 577.77 (Milet., iii/ii B. C.): plpf. 2 sg. ἀφεῖσο Men. Epit. 572: rarer pf. 3 pl. ἀφέωνται John 20:23, imper. ἀφεώσθω IG 5(2).6.14: aor. ἀφείθην E. Ph. 1377, ἀφέθην Batr. 87, Ion. ἀπείθην Hdt. 6.112; later Aeol. inf. ἀφέθην Milet. 3 No.152.34 (ii B. C.): fut. ἀφεθήσομαι Pl. R. 472a, etc. [ mostly in (except in augm. tenses): always in Att. Hom. also has ἀφῑετε, metri gr., Od. 7.126 ]:


1. send forth, discharge, of missiles, ἔγχος, δίσκον ἀφῆκεν, Il. 10.372, 23.432; ἀφῆκ' ἀργῆτα κεραυνόν 8.133; ἀπῆκε βέλος Hdt. 9.18, etc.: hence in various senses, ἀ. ἑαυτὸν ἐπί τι throw oneself upon, give oneself up to it, Pl. R. 373d; ἀ. αὑτὸν εἰς τὴν πολιτείαν Plu. Alc. 13; ἀ. γλῶσσαν let loose one's tongue, make utterance, Hdt. 2.15, E. Hipp. 991; ἀ. φθογγήν ib. 418; ἔπος S. OC 731; φωνάς D. 18.218; γόους E. El. 59 (v. infr. 11.2); ἀρὰς ἀφῆκας παιδί Id. Hipp. 1324; ἀ. θυμὸν ἔς τινας give vent to.. (v. infr. 11.2), S. Ant. 1088; ὀργὴν εἴς τινα vent upon.., D. 22.58; ἀ. δάκρυα shed tears, Aeschin. 3.153; ἀ. παντοδαπὰ χρώματα change colour in all ways, Pl. Ly. 222b; freq.of liquids, etc., emit, ἀ. τὸ ὑγρόν, τὸν θολόν, τὸ σπέρμα, etc., Arist. HA 487a18, 524a12, 489a9; ἀ. τὸ ᾠόν, τὸ κύημα, ib. 568b30, a22; of plants, ἄνθος ἀφιεῖσαι putting forth, Od. 7.126, cf. Thphr. HP 7.7.3; of a spider, ἀ. ἀράχνιον Arist. HA 555b5; ἱδρῶτα Plu. Mar. 26; put forth, produce, καρπόν Thphr. HP 3.4.5; φύλλον ib. 6.5.1 (but ἀ. σπέρμα leave issue, Mark 12:22): Pass., to be emitted, Il. 4.77 (tm.); of troops, to be let go, launched against the enemy, Hdt. 6.112.

2. let fall from one's grasp, Il. 12.221; opp. κατέχω, Plu. 2.508d; πόντιον ἀ. τινά E. Hec. 797.

3. give up or hand over to, τὴν Ἰωνίην τοῖσι βαρβάροισι Hdt. 9.106; ἐχθροῖς αἶαν A. Th. 306; ἀ. τινὰ δημόσια εἶναι Th. 2.13: Pass., ἡ Ἀττικὴ ἀπεῖτο ἤδη Hdt. 8.49.

II send away,

1 of persons, κακῶς ἀφίει Il. 1.25; αὐτὸν δὲ κλαίοντα.. ἀφήσω 2.263. let go, loose, set free, ζωόν τινα ἀ. 20.464; let loose, βοῦς Hdt. 4.69; περιστεράς Alex. 62.3; ἀ. Αἴγιναν αὐτόνομον Th. 1.139; ἀ. ἐλεύθερον, ἀζήμιον, Pl. R. 591a, Lg. 765c; τινὰς ἀφορολογήτους Plb. 18.46.5; ἀφέντ' ἐᾶν τινα S. Aj. 754, cf. E. Fr. 463; ἐς οἴκους, ἐκ γῆς, S. OT 320, E. IT 739: c. acc. pers. et gen. rei, release from a thing, ἀποικίης Hdt. 4.157: in legal sense, acquit of a charge or engagement, φόνου τινα D. 37.59 (abs., ἐὰν αἰδέσηται καὶ ἀφῇ ibid.); συναλλαγμάτων Id. 33.12: c. acc. only, acquit, Antipho 2.1.2, etc. (v. infr. 2 c): Pass., κινδύνου ἀφιέμενοι Th. 4.106; τοὺς γέροντας τοὺς ἀφειμένους released from duty, Arist. Pol. 1275a15; ἐγκλημάτων ἀφεῖσο Men. Epit. 572. let go, dissolve, disband, of an army or fleet, Hdt. 1.77, etc.; dismiss, δικαστήρια (opp. λύειν ἐκκλησίαν) Ar. V. 595. put away, divorce, γυναῖκα Hdt. 5.39; ἀ. γάμους break off a marriage, E. Andr. 973; ἀ. τὸν υἱόν disown him, Arist. EN 1163b22 (but with metaph. from releasing a debtor). dedicate, τὰ νεογνὰ τῷ θεῷ X. Cyn. 5.14; ἱερὸν.. ἄβατον ἀφεῖτο Pl. Criti. 116c.

2. of things, get rid of, ἀφέτην πολυκαγκέα δίψαν Il. 11.642; ἀφίει μένος [ἔγχεος ] slackened its force, 13.444; ἀ. ὀργήν put away wrath (v. supr. 1.1), A. Pr. 317; ὀργήν τινι Arr. An. 1.10.6; γόους (v. supr. 1.1) E. Or. 1022; νόσημα Hp. Prorrh. 2.39; ἀ. πνεῦμα, ψυχήν, give up the ghost, E. Hec. 571, Or. 1171: in Prose, give up, leave off, μόχθον Hdt. 1.206; ξυμμαχίαν, σπονδάς, Th. 5.78, 115, etc.: Med., ἀ. τὸ προλέγειν D.S. 19.1. ἀ. πλοῖον ἐς.. loose ship for a place, Hdt. 5.42. in legal sense (v. supr. Ib), c. dat. pers. et acc. rei, ἀ. τινὶ αἰτίην remit him a charge, Id. 6.30; τὰς ἁμαρτάδας Id. 8.140. β', cf..Matthew 6:12, al.; τὰς δίκας.. ἀφίεσαν τοῖς ἐπιτρόποις D. 21.79; ἀ. τινὶ εἰς ἐλευθερίαν χιλίας δραχμάς Id. 59.30, cf. IG 22.43 A 27; ἀ. πληγάς τινι excuse him a flogging, Ar. Nu. 1426; ἀ. ὅρκον Jusj. in Lexap. And. 1.98; φόρον Plb. 21.24.8 (Pass.); δάνειόν τινι.Matthew 18:27.


1.leave alone, pass by, Hdt. 3.95, etc.; neglect, τὰ θ[] εῖα S. OC 1537; τὸν καιρόν D. 1.8; λέκτρων εὐνάς A. Pers. 544: folld. by a predicate, ἀφύλακτον ἀ. τὴν ἑωυτῶν leave unguarded, Hdt. 8.70; ἄτιμον, ἔρημον ἀ. τινά, S. OC 1279, Ant. 887; ἀ. τινὰς ὀρφανούς John 14:18; ἀ. τι ἀόριστον Arist. Pol. 1265a39; leave, περὶ κινήσεως, ὅθεν ὑπάρχει, τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀφεῖσαν Id. Metaph. 985b20, cf. 987b14: Pass., esp. in pf. imper., ἀφείσθω ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος missum fiat, Id. EN 1166a34, cf. Pol. 1286a5, 1289b12.

2. c. acc. et inf., ἀ. τὸ πλοῖον φέρεσθαι let the boat be carried away, Hdt. 1.194; μὴ ἀφεῖναί με ἐπὶ ξένης ἀδιαφορηθῆναι PLond. 2.144.14 (i A. D.). c. acc. pers. et inf.,

1. suffer, permit one to do a thing, ἀ. τινὰ ἀποπλέειν Hdt. 3.25, cf. 6.62, al., etc.: with inf. understood, ἡνίκα προῖκ' ἀφιᾶσιν (sc. θεᾶσθαι) οἱ θεατρῶναι Thphr. Char. 30.6: c. subj., ἄφες ἐκβάλω Matthew 7:4, cf. Arr. Epict. 1.9.15; ἄφες ἐγὼ θρηνήσω POxy. 413.184 (i A. D.); ἄφες ἵνα.. Arr. Epict. 4.13.19; οὐκ ἤφιεν ἵνα.. Mark 11:16 : Pass., ἀφείθη σχολάζειν Arist. Metaph. 981b24. seemingly intr. (sc. στρατόν, ναῦς, etc.), break up, march, sail, etc., Hdt. 7.193; ἀ. ἐς τὸ πέλαγος Th. 7.19; cf. 11.2b.

2. c. inf., give up doing, ἀφεὶς σκοπεῖν τὰ δίκαια Diph. 94. Med.,

1. send forth from oneself, much like Act.; θορήν Hdt. 3.101.

2. loose something of one's own from, δειρῆς δ' οὔ πω.. ἀφίετο πήχεε λευκώ she loosed not her arms from off my neck, Od. 23.240.

3. freq. in Att. c. gen. only, τέκνων ἀφοῦ let go of the children ! S. OT 1521; τοῦ κοινοῦ τῆς σωτηρίας ἀ. Th. 2.60; λόγων Pl. Grg. 458c, Aeschin. 1.178; μὴ ἀφίεσο τοῦ Θεαιτήτου, ἀλλ' ἐρώτα Pl. Tht. 146b, etc.; ἀφεῖσθαι τοῦ δικαίου τούτου D. 37.1; ἀφέμενος τῆς ἰαμβικῆς ἰδέας Arist. Po. 1449b8.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἀφίημι; present 2 person singular ἀφείς (from the form ἀφέω, Revelation 2:20 for Rec. ἐᾷς) (3 person plural ἀφίουσιν Revelation 11: Tdf. editions 2, 7, from a form ἀφιέω; cf. Buttmann, 48 (42)); imperfect 3 person singular ἤφιε, with the augment before the preposition, Mark 1:34; Mark 11:16, from the form ἀφίω; whence also present 1 person plural ἀφίομεν Luke 11:4 L T Tr WH for ἀφίεμεν Rec. and 3 person ἀφίουσιν Revelation 11:9 L T Tr WH; (see WH's Appendix, p. 167); future ἀφήσω; 1 aorist ἀφῆκά, 2 person singular ἀφῆκες Revelation 2:4 T Tr WH (cf. κοπιάω); 2 aorist imperative ἄφες, ἄφετε, subjunctive 3 person singular ἀφῇ, 2 person plural ἀφῆτε (infinitive ἀφεῖναι (Matthew 23:23 L T Tr WH; Luke 5:21 L text T Tr WH)), participle ἀφείς, ἀφέντες; passive, present ἀφίεμαι (yet 3 person plural ἀφιονται John 20:23 WH marginal reading etc.; cf. ἀφίω above); perfect 3 person plural ἀφέωνται (a Doric form (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 14, 3 a.; B 49 (42); Kühner, § 285, 4), Matthew 9:2, 5; Mark 2:5,(9) — in both these Gospels L (except in Mark marginal reading) T Tr WH have restored the present 3 person plural ἀφίενταί; Luke 5:20, 23; Luke 7:47 (48); John 20:23 L text T Tr text WH text; 1 John 2:12); 1 aorist ἀφεθην; future ἀφεθήσομαι; cf. Winers Grammar, § 14, 3; Buttmann, 48 (42); (WHs Appendix, p. 167; Veitch, under the word ἵημι); (from ἀπό and ἵημι); (fr. Homer down); to send from (ἀπό) oneself;

1. to send away;

a. to bid go away or depart: τούς ὄχλους, Matthew 13:36 (others refer this to 3 below); τήν γυναῖκα, of a husband putting away his wife, 1 Corinthians 7:11-13 (Herodotus 5, 39; and a substantive, ἄφεσις, Plutarch, Pomp c. 42, 6).

b. to send forth, yield up, emit: τό πνεῦμα, to expire, Matthew 27:50 (τήν ψυχήν, Genesis 35:18; Herodotus 4, 190 and often in other Greek writings (see πνεῦμα, 2)), φωνήν to utter a cry (emittere vocem, Livy 1, 58), Mark 15:37 (Genesis 45:2 and often in Greek writings; (cf. Heinichen on Eusebius, h. e. 8, 14, 17)).

c. to let go, let alone, let be; α. to disregard: Matthew 15:14. β. to leave, not to discuss now, a topic, used of tethers, writers, speakers, etc.: Hebrews 6:1 (Euripides, Andr. 392; Theophrastus, char. praef. § 3; for other examples from Greek writings see Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 144f) (others take the word in Hebrews, the passage cited as expressive of the duty of the readers, rather than the purpose of the writer; and consequently refer the passage to 3 below). γ. to omit, neglect: Matthew 23:23 (Luke 11:42 R G); Mark 7:8; Romans 1:27. δ. to let go, give up, a debt, by not demanding it (opposed to κρατεῖν, John 20:23), i. e. to remit, forgive: τό δάνειον, Matthew 18:27; τήν ὀφειλήν, Matthew 18:32; τά ὀφειλήματα, Matthew 6:12; τά παραπτώματα, Matthew 6:14; Mark 11:25f. (T Tr WH omit Mark 11:26); τάς ἁμαρτίας, τά ἁμαρτήματα, τάς ἀνομίας, Matthew 9:2, 5; Matthew 12:31; Mark 2:5, 7; Mark 3:28; Luke 5:20f, 23; Romans 4:7 (from Psalm 31:1 ()); 1 John 1:9; James 5:15 (Isaiah 22:14; Isaiah 33:24, etc.); ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας, Acts 8:22, (τήν αἰτίαν, Herodotus 6, 30; τά χρέα, Aelian v. h. 14, 24); absolutely, ἀφιέναι τίνι to forgive one: Matthew 12:32; Matthew 18:21, 35; Mark 4:12; Luke 11:4; Luke 12:10; Luke 17:3; Luke 23:34 (L brackets WH reject the passage).

e. to give up, keep no longer: τήν πρώτην ἀγάπην, Revelation 2:4.

2. to permit, allow, not to hinder;

a. followed by a present infinitive (Buttmann, 258 (222)): Mark 10:14; Luke 18:16 ἄφετε ἔρχεσθαι καί μή κωλύετε αὐτά, Matthew 13:30; Mark 1:34; John 11:44; John 18:8. by the aorist infinitive: Matthew 8:22; Matthew 23:13 (14); Mark 5:37; Mark 7:12, 27; Luke 8:51; Luke 9:60; Luke 12:39; Revelation 11:9.

b. without an infinitive: Matthew 3:15 (ἄφες ἄρτι permit it just now). with an accusative of the person or thing permitted: Matthew 3:15 τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτόν, Mark 5:19; Mark 11:6; Mark 14:6; Luke 13:8; John 12:7 R G; ; Acts 5:38 (L T Tr WH; R G ἐάσατε); Revelation 2:20 (Rec. ἐᾷς).

c. ἀφίημι τίνι τί, to give up a thing to one: Matthew 5:40 (ἄφες αὐτῷ καί τό ἱμάτιον).

d. followed by ἵνα: Mark 11:16; John 12:7 L T Tr WH, a later construction, cf. Winers Grammar, § 44, 8; Buttmann, 238 (205).

e. followed by the simple hortative subjunctive: Matthew 7:4; Luke 6:42 (ἄφες ἐκβάλω); Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:36 (ἄφετε ἴδωμεν); Epictetus diss. 1, 9, 15 ἄφες δειξωμεν, 3, 12, 15 ἄφες ἴδω. Cf. Buttmann, 209f (181f); Winer's Grammar, 285 (268).

3. to leave, go away from one; to depart from anyone,

a. in order to go to another place: Matthew 22:22; Matthew 26:44; Mark 8:13 (Matthew 16:4 καταλιπών); ; John 4:3; John 16:28.

b. to depart from one whom one wishes to quit: Matthew 4:11; so of diseases departing, ἀφῆκεν τινα πυρετός, Matthew 8:15; Mark 1:31; Luke 4:39; John 4:52.

c. to depart from one and leave him to himself, so that all mutual claims are abandoned: τόν πατέρα, Matthew 4:22; Mark 1:20; Matthew 18:12 (Luke 15:4 καταλείπει). Thus also ἀφιέναι τά ἑαυτοῦ to leave possessions, home, etc.: Matthew 4:20; Matthew 19:27, 29; Mark 1:18; Mark 10:28; Luke 5:11; Luke 18:28f.

d. to desert one (wrongfully): Matthew 26:56; Mark 14:50; John 10:12.

e. to go away leaving something behind: Matthew 5:24; John 4:28.

f. to leave one by not taking him as a companion: opposed to παραλαμβάνειν, Matthew 24:40f: Luke 17:34f.

g. to leave on dying, leave behind one: τέκνα, γυναῖκα, Matthew 22:25; Mark 12:20, 22 (Luke 20:31 καταλείπω). h. to leave so that what is left may remain, leave remaining: οὐ μή ἀφεθῇ ὧδε λίθος ἐπί λίθον (or λίθῳ), Matthew 24:2; Mark 13:2; Luke 21:6. 1:ἀφιέναι followed by the accusative of a noun or pronoun with an accusative of the predicate (Buttmann, § 144, 18): Luke 10:30 (ἡμιθανῆ); John 14:18 (τινα ὀρθανον); Matthew 23:38; Luke 13:35 (but Lachmann omits ἔρημος in both passages, WH text omits in Matthew, G T Tr WH omit in Luke; that being omitted, ἀφιέναι means to abandon, to leave destitute of God's help); Acts 14:17 (ἀμάρτυρον ἑαυτόν (L T Tr αὐτόν (WH αὑτόν which see))).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἀφ -ίημι ,

[in LXX for H5375, H5117 hi., H5414, H5545 ni., H5800, etc.;]

1. to send forth, send away, let go: of divorce (DB, iii, 2748), τ . γυναῖκα (Hdt.), 1 Corinthians 7:11-13; of death, τ . πνεῦμα (Genesis 35:18, Hdt., al.), Matthew 27:50; φωνήν , to utter a cry, Mark 15:37; of debts, to remit, forgive (cl.), τ . δανεῖον , Matthew 18:27; τ . ὀφειλήν , Matthew 18:32; esp. of sins (Cremer 296 f.), τ . ἁμαρτίας , ἁμαρτήματα , ἀνομίας , Matthew 9:2, Romans 4:7 (LXX), 1 John 1:9, al.; punctiliar and iterative prey. (M, Pr., 119), Mark 2:5, Luke 11:4; Ion. pf., ἀφέωνται (M, Pr., 38), Luke 5:23.

2. to leave alone, leave, neglect: Matthew 4:11; Matthew 5:24; Matthew 15:14 Mark 1:20; Mark 1:31 John 4:3; John 4:28, al.; τ . ἐντολὴν τ . θεοῦ , Mark 7:8; τὸν τ . ἀρχῆς τ . Χριστοῦ λόγον , Hebrews 6:1; τ . ὀγάπην τ . πρώτην , Revelation 2:4; ptcp., ἀφείς , pleonastic (as in Aram.; M, Proverbs 14:1-35; Dalman, Words, 21 f.), Matthew 13:36; Matthew 22:22, Mark 8:13, al.

3. to let, suffer, permit: Matthew 3:15; c. acc, Matthew 3:15; Matthew 19:14, al.; c. acc rei et dat. pers., Matthew 5:40; c. inf. pres., Matthew 23:14, al.; aor., Mark 5:37, al.; in late Gk. (M, Pr., 175 f.), seq. ἵνα , Mark 11:16, John 12:7; c. subjunct. (M, Pr., l.c.; Bl. § 64, 2), Matthew 7:4; Matthew 27:49, Mark 15:36, Luke 6:42 (see further MM, s.v.).

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Some abnormal NT forms of this very ";irregular"; verb may be illustrated : cf. Moulton, Einleitung, p. 82 f. The unaugmented aor. pass. ἀφέθησαν in Romans 4:7 (from LXX Psa. 31꞉1 [MT Psalms 31:1] where א has ἀφείθησαν ) is matched by OGIS 435.9 (ii/B.C.) ἀφέθη ; but BGU IV. 1022.8 (A.D. 196) ἀφθείθημεν (i.e. ἀφείθ .). Ἀφέωνται is to be compared with the imper. ἀφεώσθω in Michel 585.14 (Arcadian ? iii/B.C.), as well as with the Herodotean ἀνέωται : see Proleg. p. 38 n. Against this note imper. ἀφείσθω in CPHerm 119 versoiii. 14 (Gallienus). The pres. ἀφεῖς in Revelation 2:20 and Ex 32.82 is best taken as a regular contraction of ἀφίεις , from ἀφίω (not a contract verb), which is the normal conjugation into which the –μι verb tends here to merge itself : evidence for ἀφιέω seems to be wanting. The assumption of an ἀφέω , formed by proportion from ἀφήσω , is insufficiently supported by the barbarous Silco inscr., OGIS 201.13 (vi/A.D.). The MGr is ἀφήνω , with aor. ἄφησα and ἀφῆκα

Proleg. p. 175, may be referred to for the quasi-auxiliary use of ἄφες , MGr ἄς . We may quote P Amh II. 37.10 (B.C. 172) ἄφες αὐτὸν χαίρειν , P Hib I. 41.6 (c. B.C. 261) α ̣̀ϕ ̣[ε ]ς ̣ αὐτὸν εἰσαγαγεῖν ";allow him to collect"; (Edd.); but P Oxy III. 413.184 α ̣͗φες ἐγὼ αὐτὴν θρηνήσω (literary, i/A.D.). The Latin sine, sinite videamus in Matthew 27:49 and Mark 15:36 severally, may well mean ";Let us see,"; as Pallis renders it (ἂς δοῦμε ) in both cases, only differing in the speakers. The verb has not yet become a mere auxiliary : it may still be rendered ";allow me to,"; etc. For the same use in another part of the verb cf. P Oxy VII. 1067.5 (iii/A.D.) ἀφῆκες αὐτὸν μὴ κηδεῦσαι αὐτόν , ";you have allowed his burial to be neglected"; (Ed.). So, with infin. again, in P Par 47.14 (c. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski.2, p. 89) ὅτι περάσεται ὁ δ ̣ραπέ [τη ]ς μὴ ἀφῖναι ἡμᾶς ἐ ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι .

The uses of ἀφίημι start from the etymological sense ";throw"; seen in the cognate abicio. Thus in Syll 356.26 (B.C. 6) ἀφεῖναι τὴν γάστραν = ";let the pot drop."; From this primitive physical meaning may be derived the common meaning ";leave, let go."; So with dat. (as in Matthew 5:40) P Tebt II. 421.9 (iii/A.D.) θέλις αὐτὸν ἀφεῖναι τῇ θυγατρί σ [ου ] ἄφες ";if you wish to let your daughter have it, do so"; (Edd.). P Grenf I. 26.9 (B.C. 113) τὴν δὲ ἡμιολίαν ἀφῆκ e, ";waived the extra 50%,"; will serve as an ex. of the use seen in Matthew 18:27, which leads to the general idea of ";forgiveness."; Similarly in OGIS 90.12 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) εἰς τέλος ἀφῆκεν , of the ";total remission"; of certain taxes. (See for the NT usage of the word in this sense Brooke Joh. Epp. p. 20 f.) Not far from this is the use seen in P Oxy IV. 744.10 (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐὰν . . τέκῃς , ἐὰν ᾗν ἄρσενον ἄφες , ἐὰν ᾗν θήλεα ἔκβαλε , ";if it is a boy, let it be; if a girl, expose it."; ";To let alone"; may mean ";neglect"; or ";leave undone,"; as BGU III. 775.18 (ii/A.D.) τὰ ἤδη προ ̣λημαὶ ἄφες ἄχρ ̣ης ἄν γένομε ἐκῖ καὶ συνάρωμεν λόγον ";leave the preparations (?) till I get there and we can confer together,"; or again as in P Lond 144.14 (? i/A.D.) (= II. p. 253) μὴ ἀφεῖναί με ἐπὶ ξένης ἀδιαφορηθῆναι , ";not to leave me to be neglected in a strange land."; It has an explanatory clause in a letter of Hadrian’s age, P Oxy X.1293.18 μὴ θελήσῃ τις ἀφεῖναι μέρος μὴ ἐνένκας , ";lest one of them should want to leave part behind and not bring it"; (Edd.). BGU III. 814 (iii/A.D.), a very ungrammatical complaint from a son to his mother, three times shows the verb meaning ";abandon, desert,"; with an irregular dative object : .16 ἀφ [ ]κ ̣[ [ς ] μοι οὕ ]τως μηδὲν ἔχων (for ἔχοντι ), .18 ἀφῆκές [μοι οὕ ]τ ̣ω ̣ς ] ω ̣̔ς κ ̣υ ̣ων ̣ (for κυνί ), .27 μὴ ἀφήσις μοι οὕτος . So in the ";Erotic Fragment,"; P Grenf I. 1.16 (literary, ii/B.C.) κύριε , μή μ᾽ ἀφῆις —an appeal from a forsaken girl to her lover. P Lille 29ii. 32 (iii/B.C.) ἀφεῖσθα [ι τῆς κατα ]δίκης will illustrate its use with a gen. of ";releasing from"; : so P Oxy VIII.1119.17 (A.D. 254) ὑμεῖς οἱ κράτιστοι οὐ μόνον ἀφίεται [ἡμᾶς πασῶν παρ᾽ ἄλλοις ἀρχῶν ]—the suppl. seems sure. P Petr II. 13 (19).7 f. (middle of iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski Epp..2, p. 19) μάλιστα μὲν οὖν τὴν πᾶσαν σπουδὴν πόησαι [το ]ῦ ἀφεθῆναι σε διὰ τέλους , ";above all things, then, make every effort to be finally relieved of your duties"; (Ed.). Witkowski (in loc.) says ἀφιέναι is ";vox sollemnis de missione militum."; It may be that a similar ";formal"; dismissal or sending away of the multitudes is to be found in Matthew 13:36 Mark 4:36; but it may just as well mean simply ";let go,"; as in ordinary colloquial speech. The equivalence of the Latin mittere is seen in the compound, P Ryl II. 126.14 (A.D. 28–9) ἐπαφεὶς τὰ ἑατοῦ πρόβατα καὶ βοικὰ κτήνη εἰς ἅ γεωργῶ . . ἐδάφ (η ) ";let his sheep and cattle into . . fields which I cultivate"; (Ed.) : cf. ";liquidis immisi fontibus apros"; in Vergil (Ecl.2.59). Finally, for the use of ἀφιέναι with a predicative adj. placed with the object, cf. P Fay 112.13 (A.D. 99) ἀθέρις (sc.στον ) αὐτὸν ἕως σήμερον ἀφῖκας , ";up to to-day you have left it unharvested"; (Edd.), P Oxy III. 494.5 (A.D. 156) ἐλεύθερα ἀφίημι . . δοῦλά μου σώματα , of manumission under a Will.

[Supplemental from 1930 edition]

For form ἄφιε , see P Oxy XIV. 1758.12 (ii/A.D.), note.



The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
αφεθη αφεθή αφέθη ἀφεθῇ αφεθήναι αφεθησαν αφέθησαν ἀφέθησαν αφεθησεται αφεθήσεται αφεθήσεταί ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθήσεταί αφειναι ἀφεῖναι αφεις αφείς ἀφεὶς ἀφεῖς αφεισά αφείσα αφεντες αφέντες ἀφέντες Αφες άφες Ἄφες αφετε άφετε άφετέ ἄφετε αφεωνται αφέωνται αφέωνταί ἀφέωνται ἀφέωνταί αφη αφή ἀφῇ αφηκα αφήκα αφήκά ἀφῆκά αφηκαμεν αφήκαμεν ἀφήκαμεν αφηκαν αφήκαν ἀφῆκαν αφήκας αφηκατε αφήκατε ἀφήκατε αφήκε αφήκέ αφηκεν αφήκεν ἀφῆκεν ἀφῆκέν αφηκες ἀφῆκες αφής αφησει αφήσει ἀφησεὶ ἀφήσει αφησεις αφήσεις ἀφήσεις αφήσουσί αφησουσιν αφήσουσιν ἀφήσουσιν αφησω αφήσω ἀφήσω αφητε αφήτε ἀφῆτε αφίεμεν αφιεναι αφιέναι αφίεναι ἀφιέναι αφιενται αφίενται ἀφίενταί αφιεται αφίεται ἀφίεται αφιετε αφίετε ἀφίετε αφιετω αφιέτω ἀφιέτω αφιημι αφίημι ἀφίημι αφίησι αφίησί αφιησιν αφίησιν ἀφίησιν αφιομεν ἀφίομεν αφιουσιν ἀφίουσιν αφίω αφίων αφωμεν αφώμεν ἀφῶμεν ήφιε ηφιεν ἤφιεν aphe aphē aphêi aphē̂i apheinai apheînai apheis apheìs apheîs apheka aphêká aphēka aphē̂ká aphekamen aphēkamen aphḗkamen aphekan aphêkan aphēkan aphē̂kan aphekate aphēkate aphḗkate apheken aphêken aphêkén aphēken aphē̂ken aphē̂kén aphekes aphêkes aphēkes aphē̂kes aphentes aphéntes apheontai apheōntai aphéontai aphéontaí aphéōntai aphéōntaí Aphes Áphes aphesei apheseì aphēsei aphēseì aphḗsei apheseis aphēseis aphḗseis apheso aphēsō aphḗso aphḗsō aphesousin aphēsousin aphḗsousin aphete aphête aphēte aphē̂te áphete aphethe aphethē aphethêi aphethē̂i aphethesan aphethēsan aphéthesan aphéthēsan aphethesetai aphethēsetai aphethḗsetai aphethḗsetaí aphiemi aphiēmi aphíemi aphíēmi aphienai aphiénai aphientai aphíentaí aphiesin aphiēsin aphíesin aphíēsin aphietai aphíetai aphiete aphíete aphieto aphietō aphiéto aphiétō aphiomen aphíomen aphiousin aphíousin aphomen aphômen aphōmen aphō̂men ephien ēphien ḗphien
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