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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Romans 3

 

 

Other Authors
Verse 1

What, &c. = What then is the advantage of the Jew, or what is the, &c.

profit. Greek. opheleia. Only here and Jude 1:16.


Verse 2

every way = according to (Greek. kata. App-104) every way.

unto . . . committed = they were entrusted with. Greek. pisteuo. App-150. Compare 1 Thessalonians 2:4.

oracles. Greek. logion. See Acts 7:38.

God. App-98.


Verse 3

some. Greek. tines. App-124.

did not believe. Greek. apisteo. See Acts 28:24.

shall. The question is introduced by me (App-105).

unbelief. Greek. apistia. Occurs twelve times; first Matthew 13:58. In Rom., here, Romans 4:20; Romans 11:20, Romans 11:23.

make . . . without effect = nullify. Greek. kalargeo. See Luke 13:7.

faith = faithfulness. Greek. pistis. App-150.


Verse 4

God forbid. Literal. Let it not be. Greek. me (App-105) genoito. This strong asseveration occurs fifteen times. Here, verses: Romans 3:3, Romans 3:6, Romans 3:31; Romans 6:2, Romans 6:15; Romans 7:7, Romans 7:13; Romans 9:14; Romans 11:1, Romans 11:11. Luke 20:16. 1 Corinthians 6:15. Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:17; Galatians 3:21; Galatians 6:14.

true. Greek. alethes. App-175.

man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

liar. Greek. pseustes. In Paul"s Epp, only here, 1 Timothy 1:10. Titus 1:12.

written. Quoted from Psalms 51:4 (Septuagint)

justified. Greek. dikaioo. App-191. See Romans 2:13.

sayings. Greek. logos. App-121.

when Thou art judged. Literally in (Greek. en) Thy being judged (Greek. krino. App-122.)


Verse 5

unrighteousness. Greek. adikia. App-128.

commend = establish, set forth. Greek. sunistemi.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191. Compare Romans 1:17.

what shall we say? Greek. ti eroumen. This expression occurs seven times; here, Romans 4:1; Romans 6:1; Romans 7:7; Romans 8:31; Romans 9:14, Romans 9:30.

Is, &c. See "shall", Romans 3:3.

taketh = inflicts. Greek. epiphero. Occurances: Jude 1:9.

vengeance = the wrath. See Romans 1:18.

as. Greek. kata. App-104. Compare Romans 6:19. This is the Figure of speech Hypotimesis. App-6.


Verse 6

world. App-129. Compare Genesis 18:26.


Verse 7

hath more abounded = abounded, as Romans 5:15; Romans 15:13. Greek. perisseuo. Literally overflow. See 2 Corinthians 8:2, &c.

through. Greek. en. App-104.

lie. Greek. pseusma. Only here.

glory. Greek. doxa. See Romans 1:23 and John 1:14.

sinner. Greek. hamartolos. Compare App-128.


Verse 8

not . . . come? = (why) not (say), as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say. Let us do, &c. Figure of speech Epitrechon (App-6).

slanderously reported. Greek. blasphemeo. Compare Romans 2:24. Acts 13:45.

affirm. Greek. phemi. Only here in Romans. Occurs fifty-eight times, always "say", except here.

evil. Literal. the evil things. Greek. kakos. App-128.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

good. Literally the good things.

damnation. Greek. krima. App-177.

just. Greek. endikos. App-191.


Verse 9

are . . . they? = have we any advantage? or, have we any excuse to put forward? Gr. proecho. Only here; may be mid, or pass, voice.

No, in no wise = Not (Greek. ou. App-105) at all (Greek. pantos).

before proved = before convicted. Greek. proaitiaomai. Only here. Compare Romans 1:21.

Gentiles = Greeks. See Romans 2:9.

that they are = to be.

all Emph.

under. Greek. hupo. App-104.

sin. Greek. hamartia. App-128. Sin is the root, and "sins" are the fruit.


Verse 10

The quotation (Romans 3:10-18) is from several passages, of O.T. All refer to the same subject. Figure of speech Gnome (App-6). verses: Romans 3:10-12 (general) are from Ecclesiastes 7:20. Psalms 14:2, Psalms 14:3; Psalms 53:2, Psalms 53:3-4; verses: Romans 3:13-18 (particular) are from Psalms 5:9-10; Psalms 140:3; Psalms 10:7. Isaiah 59:7, Isaiah 59:8. Psalms 36:1. Verification of these references, from the standpoint of Paul"s argument, throws much light upon the O.T. passage, in which they occur.

There . . . one. Literally: There is not (Greek. ou) a righteous (man), not even one.

righteous. Greek. dikaios. App-191. Compare Romans 1:17.

no, not. Greek. oude.


Verse 11

none. Greek. ou. App-105.

understandeth. Greek. suniemi. Occurs twenty-six times.

Always "understand", save Mark 6:52 and 2 Corinthians 10:12.

seeketh after. Greek. ekzeteo. See Acts 15:17.


Verse 12

In Psalm 14 the Hebrew stands as in Authorized Version, but in the Septuagint (Alex. MS.) additional matter appears, word for word as in these verses: Romans 3:12-18. This is not found in Psa 53, a practical repetition of Psa 14.

They, &c. = All went.

gone . . . way. Greek. ekklino. Only here, Romans 16:17. 1 Peter 3:11.

become unprofitable = are worthless. Greek. achreioomai. Only here.

good. Greek. chrestotes. App-184.

no, not one = there is not as far as (Greek. heos) one.


Verse 13

Their. Psalms 5:9 shows that this refers to the boasters and workers of iniquity of Romans 3:5. Compare Romans 1:24-32; Romans 2:17, Romans 2:23.

throat: i.e. speech; by Figure of speech Metonymy. App-6. Greek. larunx;. Only here.

open sepulchre = opened sepulchre; literally a tomb that has been opened, emitting noisomeness.

sepulchre. Greek. taphos. Only here, Matthew 23:27, Matthew 23:29; Matthew 27:61, Matthew 27:64, Matthew 27:66; Matthew 28:1. Applied to any place where dead bodies are deposited. Mnemeion, rendered "sepulchre", is found only in Gospels and Acts 13:29, and means a monumental tomb. Compare Matthew 27:60.

tongues. See Psalms 140:11.

have used deceit = deceived. Greek. dolioo; only here. The kindred verb occurs 2 Corinthians 4:2.

the. Omit. poison. Greek. ioa. Occurs here and James 3:8; James 5:3.

asps. Rendered "adders" in Psalms 140:3. Greek. aspis. Only here. Compare James 3:5, James 3:6, James 3:8. Deuteronomy 32:33.

lips = language. Figure of speech Metonymy. App-6.


Verse 14

Whose mouth, &c. Compare Psalms 10:7.

full. Greek. gemo. Compare Matthew 23:25, Matthew 23:27.

cursing and bitterness = bitter imprecations. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.

cursing. Greek. ara. Only here. Properly a prayer, but commonly a prayer for evil, an imprecation.

bitterness. Greek. pikria. See Acts 8:23.


Verse 15

Their feet, &c. See Proverbs 1:16. Isaiah 59:7.

swift = sharp. Greek. oxys. Occurs only here and seven times in Rev., always "sharp".

shed. Greek. ekcheo. Only here in Rom. Elsewhere seventeen times, generally "pour out".


Verse 16

Destruction. Greek. suntrimma. Only here. Literally a breaking, or bruising. Compare Romans 16:20. John 19:36.

misery = distress. Greek. talaiporia. Here and James 5:1. Compare Romans 7:24. James 4:9.


Verse 17

have they not known = they knew not.


Verse 18

This is quoted from Psalms 36:1.

before. Greek. apenanti. See Acts 3:16.


Verse 19

know. Greek. oida. App-132.

law. See Romans 2:12.

saith. Greek. laleo. App-121.

under. Greek. App-104.

every mouth. No partiality for the Jew.

stopped = closed. Greek. phrasso. Here; 2 Corinthians 11:10. Hebrews 11:33.

guilty = under penalty. Greek. hupodikos. Only here.


Verse 20

the deeds of the law = works of law. Compare Romans 3:27.

the law = law. See Romans 2:12.

knowledge. App-132.


Verse 21

now = at this present time. Greek. nuni. First of twenty-one occurances.

without the law = apart from (Greek. choris) law.

is manifested. Greek. phaneroo. App-106. Compare Romans 1:19.

witnessed. Greek. martureo. Compare Romans 10:2. 2 Timothy 2:6.

by. Gr hupo. App-104.

the law and the prophets. An expression for the whole O.T. Compare Matthew 7:12. Luke 24:44.

prophets. App-189.


Verse 22

Even = And.

Jesus Christ. App-98.

and upon all. Most texts omit.

believe. App-150.

difference = distinction. Greek. diastole. Elsewhere, Romans 10:12. 1 Corinthians 14:7.


Verse 23

have. Omit.

Sinned. Greek. hamartano. App-128. In the first Adam as the federal head of the old creation.

come short. Greek. hustereo. Only here in Romans. Occurs sixteen times, always in the sense of failing, or lacking. Compare Matthew 19:20 (first occ). Mark 10:21. John 2:3. Hebrews 12:15.


Verse 24

freely. Greek. dorean. See John 15:25.

by. Dative case. No preposition.

grace. Greek. charis. App-184. Compare Romans 3:28; Romans 5:1, Romans 5:9.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 3:1.

redemption. Greek. apolutrosis. Occurs ten times. Here; Romans 8:23. Luke 21:28. 1 Corinthians 1:30. Ephesians 1:7, Ephesians 1:14; Ephesians 4:30. Colossians 1:14. Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 11:35.

Christ Jesus. App-98.


Verse 25

hath. Omit.

set forth = foreordained (margin) Greek. protithemi. See Romans 1:13.

to be = as.

propitiation. Greek. hilasterion. Only here and Hebrews 9:5. The word comes to us from the Septuagint. In Exodus 25:17 kapporeth (cover) is rendered hilasterion epithema, propitiatory cover, the cover of the ark on which the blood was sprinkled as the means of propitiation.

to, &c. = for (Greek. eis. App-104.) a declaration of (Greek. endeixis. Occurs also, Romans 3:26; 2 Corinthians 8:24. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:28).

for = by reason of. Greek. dia. App-104. Romans 3:2.

remission. Literally the passing over. Greek. paresis. Only here.

sins. Greek. hamartema. App-128.

past. Greek. proginomai. Only here. Compare Acts 17:30.

forbearance. Greek. anoche. See Romans 2:4.


Verse 26

at this time = in (Greek. en) the present season (App-195).

that, &c. = to (Greek. eis) His being.

just. Same as "righteous", Romans 3:10.

which believeth, &c. Literally the one out of (App-104.) faith of Jesus; i.e. on the principle of faith in Jesus. Compare Romans 1:17.

Jesus. App-98.


Verse 27

boasting. i.e. of the Jew; Romans 2:17-23. Greek. kauchesis, which means the act of boasting, while kauchema (Romans 4:2) refers to the subject of the boast.

excluded. Greek. ekkleio. Only here and Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:17.

what. Literally what manner of. Compare 1 Peter 1:11.

works. Same as "deeds", Romans 3:20.

Nay. Greek. ouchi. App-105.

the = a.


Verse 28

conclude = reckon. Greek. logizomai. See Romans 2:3.

the. Omit.


Verse 29

Is . . . only? Read, "What, is He, &c."? The question opens with the Greek conjunction e, translated "what" in 1 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 14:36.

not. Same as "nay", Romans 3:27.

also of the Gentiles = of Gentiles also.

Gentiles. See Romans 1:5.


Verse 30

Seeing = Since. Greek. epeiper. Only here.

it is one God = God is One, i.e. for both Jew and Gentile.

Which shall = Who will.


Verse 31

make void. Greek. katargeo, as Romans 3:3.

Yea = Nay. Greek. alla.

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Romans 3:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/romans-3.html. 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, September 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
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