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by E.W. Bullinger
Rom ROMANS. THE STRUCTURE OF THE EPISTLE AS A WHOLE. Romans 1:1-6 . THE GOSPEL. PROMISED BEFORE BY THE PROPHETS, AND REVEALED BY THEM. NEVER HIDDEN. Romans 1:7 . SALUTATION. Romans 1:8-10 , PRAYER CONCERNING PAUL''S VISIT TO THEM. Romans 1:10-13 . PAUL''S DESIRE TO VISIT THEM. Romans 1:14-16 . HIS MINISTRY OF THE GOSPEL. Romans 1:16 - Romans 8:39 . DOCTRINAL. Romans 9:1 - Romans 11:35 . DISPENSATIONAL. Romans 11:36 . The ASCRIPTION. The WISDOM OF GOD. AS TO THE DISPENSATIONS. Romans 12:1 - Romans 15:7 . PRACTICAL. Romans 15:8-12 . DISPENSATIONAL. Romans 15:13-21 . HIS MINISTRY OF THE GOSPEL. Romans 15:22-29 . PAUL''S DESIRE TO VISIT THEM. Romans 15:30-33 . PRAYER CONCERNING PAUL''S VISIT TO THEM. Romans 16:1-24 . SALUTATION. Romans 16:25-26 . THE MYSTERY. NEVER BEFORE PROMISED OR REVEALED, BUT KEPT SECRET THROUGH [ALL] THE AGE TIMES. Romans 16:27 . THE ASCRIPTION. TO "GOD ONLY WISE,"As TO THE MYSTERY. NOTES ON THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. 1. ROMANS comes first in order of the three great doctrinal epistles (Appdx-192). And rightly so, for it contains the ABC of the believer''s education. Until its lesson is learned, we know and can know nothing. The Holy Spirit has placed it first in Canonical order because it lies at the threshold of all "church" teaching, and if we wrong here we shall be wrong altogether. The design and scope of the Epistle supply the key to a right interpretation, as is shown by the Structure of the Epistle as a whole. The great subject is the revelation of God''s wrath against sin, and of the ground upon which alone the sinner can stand in righteousness before Him. The fundamental text is "The just shall live by faith" (Romans 1:17 ), and it shows Jew and Gentile alike short of the standard of God''s glory (Romans 3:23 ). All alike sinners, shut up under sin, and needing a Divine righteousness, the only difference being that to the Jew had been committed the oracles (utterances or revelations) of God. 2. The prominent feature of the Epistle is the long doctrinal portion from Romans 1:16 to Romans 8:39 . This shows that doctrine (instruction, 2 Timothy 3:16 ) is the important part and dominates the whole. It reveals what God has done with "sins" and with " sin "; and how the saved sinner, taken out from the deepest degradation, is justified by faith, and united to Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection-life. It teaches him that though his "old Adam" nature continues with him till the end, in ever-present hostility to God, yet that for those in Christ there is no judgment and, consequently, no separation "from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord". 3. Chapters Romans 9:11 are dispensational, and explain to us God''s dealings with "Jew" and "Gentile". The Jew is for the time being set aside "until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in", and during this period "blindness (hardness) in part is happened to Israel" (Romans 11:25 ). Romans 11:4 . The remainder of the Epistle is taken up with practical counsel as to the believer''s life, and closes with the postscript concerning the "mystery" (Romans 16:25 , Romans 16:26 ); for which see Appdx-193. 5. The Epistle was written from Corinth in the spring of A.D. 58, during the fourth year of Nero (see Appdx-180 and 192); probably during Paul''s sojourn in Greece after the departure from Ephesus (Acts 20:2 , Acts 20:3 ). It was sent by Phebe, "a servant of the church...at Cenchrea" (Romans 16:1 ). Romans 1:16 - Romans 8:39 . DOCTRINAL. Romans 1:16 - Romans 5:11 . Sins. The old nature. Its results. Romans 5:12-8:39 . Sin. The old nature. Itself. Romans 1:16 - Romans 5:11 . SINS. THE OLD NATURE. ITS RESULTS. Romans 1:16-17 . The power of God revealing a righteousness from God. Romans 1:18 . The wrath of God revealed. Romans 1:19 - Romans 2:11 . The wrath of God revealed. Romans 2:12 - Romans 5:11 . The power of God revealing a righteousness from God. Romans 1:16-17 . THE POWER OF GOD, &c. - Romans 1:16 . Salvation by faith through God''s power in providing righteousness. Romans 1:17 -. A divine righteousness revealed by God on faith-principle ( ek pisteos ), as regards Himself. - Romans 1:17 -. A divine righteousness revealed by God unto faith ( eis pistin ), as regards ourselves, i.e. exercised in us. Romans 1:19 - Romans 2:11 . THE WRATH OF GOD DESCRIBED AND SET FORTH. Romans 1:19-32 ; Romans 2:1 . Man''s ungodliness deserves it. Romans 2:2 . God''s judgment just. Romans 2:3-5 . Man''s impenitence deserves it. Romans 2:6-11 . God''s judgment just. Romans 1:19 - Romans 2:1 . MAN''S UNGODLINESS PROVED AND SET FORTH. Romans 1:19-20 . God''s power known. Ungodliness, therefore, without excuse. Romans 1:21 -. The glory of God rejected. Romans 1:21 -. Consequent mental corruption. Romans 1:22-23 . God''s glory degraded. Romans 1:24 . Consequent degradation of bodily acts. Romans 1:25 . God''s truth degraded. Romans 1:26-27 . Consequent degradation of bodily passions. Romans 1:28 -. The knowledge of God rejected. Romans 1:28-31 . Consequent mental corruption. Romans 1:32 - Romans 2:1 . God''s judgment known. Ungodliness, therefore, inexcusable. Romans 2:12 - Romans 5:11 . THE POWER AND RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD REVEALED. Romans 2:12 . The case of the Jew and Gentile. Romans 2:13-16 . General reasons. Romans 2:17-27 . The case of the Jew. Romans 2:28-29 . General reflection. Romans 3:1-26 . The case of the Jew. Romans 3:27-31 . General conclusion. Romans 4:1-22 . The case of Abraham. Romans 4:23 - Romans 5:11 . General application. Romans 4:1-22 . THE CASE OF ABRAHAM. Romans 4:1-3 . Abraham''s faith reckoned for righteousness. Romans 4:4-5 . Not by works, but according to grace. Romans 4:6-12 . Blessing to all who have like faith. Romans 4:13-16 -. Not through law, but according to grace. - Romans 4:16-17 . Blessing to all who have like faith. Romans 4:18-22 . Abraham''s faith reckoned for righteousness. Romans 4:23 - Romans 5:11 . GENERAL APPLICATION. Romans 4:23-25 . Atonement made. Romans 5:1-2 . Result:peace with God. Romans 5:3-5 . Not only so; glory also in tribulation. Romans 5:6-8 . Reason:the love of God in Christ. Romans 5:9-10 . Much more then; saved from wrath by His life. Romans 5:11 -. Result:joy in God. - Romans 5:11 . Atonement received. Romans 5:12 - Romans 8:39 . SIN:THE OLD NATURE ITSELF. Romans 5:12-21 . Condemnation to death of the first man; through the sin ( to paraptoma ) of one man:but, a justifying unto life through the righteous act ( to dikaioma ) of one man, the Second Man. Romans 6:1 - Romans 7:6 . We are not in sin, because we died with Christ. Romans 7:7-25 . Sin is in us, though we have risen with Christ. Romans 8:1-39 . No condemnation for the new man, to those who are alive unto God in Christ Jesus, and in whom is pneuma Christou , the new nature; because of the condemnation of sin in the flesh (in Christ, the Second Man). Romans 4:12-21 . CONDEMNATION OF THE FIRST MAN. Romans 5:12 . By one man''s sin death. Romans 5:13 . Sin not imputed where no law. Romans 5:14 -. The reign of death. Romans 5:14 . The type, Adam. Romans 5:15 . Not as by one sin, so the gracious gift. Romans 5:16-17 . Not as by one man, so the gracious gift. Romans 5:18-19 . By One Man''s righteous act many made righteous. Romans 5:20 . Sin imputed when law came. Romans 5:21 -. The reign of sin and death. Romans 5:21 . The Antitype, Jesus Christ our Lord. Romans 6:1 - Romans 7:6 . WE ARE NOT IN SIN BECAUSE WE DIED WITH CHRIST. Romans 6:1-11 . Identification with Christ in death and life. Romans 6:12-14 . Sin no longer has dominion, because we are dead to the law. Romans 6:15-19 . The old, and the new, master and servant. Romans 6:20-23 . Sin no longer has dominion, because we are alive in Christ. Romans 7:1-6 . Identification with Christ in life and death. Romans 6:1-11 . IDENTIFICATION WITH CHRIST IN DEATH AND LIFE. Romans 6:1-3 . Death to SIN cannot entail life in SINS. Romans 6:4-7 . By identification with Christ in His death and life , there cannot be continuance in SIN. Romans 6:8-10 . By identification with Christ in His death and life , there must be life with God. Romans 6:11 . Death to SIN entails life with God. Romans 6:12-14 . SIN (THE OLD MAN) NO LONGER HAS DOMINION. Romans 6:12 . Sin not to reign in the mortal body. (Dehortation.) Romans 6:13 -. The members, therefore, not to be surrendered as instruments of unrighteousness. (Negative.) - Romans 6:13 . The members to be surrendered to God as instruments of righteousness. (Positive.) Romans 6:14 . Sin not to lord it, because we are no longer under law but grace. (Reason for Dehortation in v . Romans 6:12 .) Romans 6:15-19 . THE OLD AND THE NEW MASTER. Romans 6:15-16 . Acts of obedience indicate the master served. Romans 6:17 . Change in acts of obedience. Romans 6:18 . Change in commands of new master. Romans 6:19 . The Master served indicates the nature of obedience rendered. Romans 6:20-23 . SIN NO LONGER HAS DOMINION. Romans 6:20 -. Servants of sin. - Romans 6:20 . Free men as to righteousness. Romans 6:21 -. The fruits, shame. - Romans 6:21 . The end, death. Romans 6:22 -. Free from sin. - Romans 6:22 -. Servants of God. - Romans 6:22 -. The fruit, holiness. - Romans 6:22-23 . The end, eternal life. Romans 7:1-6 . IDENTIFICATION WITH CHRIST IN LIFE AND DEATH. Romans 7:1 . Lordship of the law only during life. Romans 7:2 . Death releases from its claim. Romans 7:3 . Result remarriage lawful. Romans 7:4 -. We are dead to the law, in Christ. - Romans 7:4 . Result the way open for union with Christ in resurrection. Romans 7:5-6 . Lordship of the law by death. Romans 7:7-25 . SIN IS IN US THOUGH WE HAVE RISEN WITH CHRIST. Romans 7:7-12 . The Law. Its conflict with the old nature. Romans 7:13-16 . Manifestation of the Law in conscience. (The consent.) Romans 7:17-20 . Manifestation of the Law in the experience and the life. (The doing.) Romans 7:21-25 . The Law. Its conflict with the new nature. Romans 7:7-12 . THE LAW. ITS CONFILCT WITH THE OLD NATURE. Romans 7:7 . The Law not sin. (Negative.) Romans 7:8 . Sin using the commandment as a point of attack. Romans 7:9 -. Alive without sin. - Romans 7:9 -. Revival of sin. - Romans 7:9 . Result death. Romans 7:10 -. Commandment ordained for life. - Romans 7:10 -. Discovery on account of sin. - Romans 7:10 . Result death. Romans 7:11 . Sin using the commandment as a point of attack. Romans 7:12 . The Law holy. (Positive.) Romans 7:13-16 . MANIFESTATION OF LAW IN THE CONSCIENCE. Romans 7:13 . Manifestation of the evil of sin to the conscience. Romans 7:14 -. The law spiritual. - Romans 7:14 . The man sinful. Romans 7:15 -. The will like-minded with the law. - Romans 7:15 . The will like-minded with the man. Romans 7:16 . Consent of the will to the good in the law. Romans 7:17-20 . MANIFESTATION OF THE LAW IN THE EXPERIENCE AND THE LIFE. Romans 7:17 . No more I myself that do evil, but sin that dwelleth in me. Romans 7:18 -. No good in me as to my flesh. - Romans 7:18 -. Will favors the good, but has no ability. - Romans 7:18 . Will favors the good, but it is not performed. Romans 7:19 . Evil is what is performed as to my flesh. Romans 7:20 . No more I myself that do evil, but sin that dwelleth in me. Romans 7:21-25 . THE LAW. ITS CONFILCT WITH THE NEW NATURE. Romans 7:21 . Two opposing principles in the one man. Romans 7:22 . Delight in God''s law. Romans 7:23 . Conflict. Romans 7:24 -. Distress at sin''s law. - Romans 7:24-25 -. Deliverance. - Romans 7:25 . Two opposing services continued in the one man. Romans 8:1-39 . NO CONDEMNATION FOR THE NEW MAN. Romans 8:1-4 . "No Condemnation" for those who are in Christ, and the reason. Romans 8:5-15 . Spirit (the new nature) in us; now leading us. Romans 8:16-27 . The Holy Spirit''s witness with our "spirit", the new nature; leading it. Romans 8:28-39 . "No Separation" from Christ; secured for those who are in Christ; and the reason. Romans 8:5-15 . THE SPIRIT OR NEW NATURE IN US. Romans 8:5-7 . The carnal mind is death; the spiritual mind is life. Romans 8:8 . Those who are in the flesh (old nature) cannot please God. Romans 8:9 -. We are not in the flesh if Divine pneuma (the new nature) dwells in us. - Romans 8:9 . If pneuma Christou (the new nature) be not in us, we are not His. Romans 8:10 . If Christ be thus in us, then, though the body is mortal. Romans 8:11 . Our flesh is to be raised from the dead if Divine pneuma (the new nature) dwells in us. Romans 8:12 . Those who are not debtors to the flesh (the old nature) can please God. Romans 8:13-15 . The carnal to be reckoned as dead; then we live unto God, and are led by His Spirit as His Sons. Romans 8:16-27 . THE HOLY SPIRIT''S WORK IN US:LEADING THE NEW NATURE. Romans 8:16-18 . The Holy Spirit''s witness with the new nature as to our standing as the sons of God. Romans 8:19-21 . Creation waiting to share the coming glory of this manifestation of the liberty of the glory. Romans 8:22-25 . Creation uniting its groaning with ours waiting for the manifestation of our resurrection glory. Romans 8:26-27 . The Holy Spirit Himself helping our infirmities owing to our state , by His intercessions. Romans 8:28-39 . "NO SEPARATION" FROM CHRIST SECURED FOR THOSE WHO ARE IN CHRIST. THE REASON. Romans 8:28-32 . Secured by God''s purpose , as affecting our standing . Romans 8:33-39 . Secured by God''s love , as affecting our state . Romans 8:28-32 . SECURED BY GOD''S PURPOSE, AS AFFECTING OUR STANDING. Romans 8:28 . God''s purpose is working "all things" for good to His people. Romans 8:29-30 . God''s purpose in conforming us to His Son. Romans 8:31-32 -. God''s purpose in conforming His Son for us. - Romans 8:32 . God''s purpose in giving "all things" with His Son. Romans 8:33-39 . SECURED BY GOD''S LOVE, AS AFFECTING OUR STATE. Romans 8:33 . God''s love in securing us against all who would accuse . Romans 8:34 . Christ''s love (manifested in death and resurrection) securing us against all who would condemn . Romans 8:35-37 . Christ''s love (thus manifested by Him that loved us) securing us against all separation arising from the operations of things . Romans 8:38-39 . God''s love in Christ in securing us against all separation from the nature of things . Romans 9:1 - Romans 11:36 . DISPENSATIONAL. Romans 9:1-5 . Paul''s sorrow regarding Israel''s failure. Romans 9:6-13 . God''s purpose had respect only to a portion. Romans 9:14-29 . God''s purpose regarded only a remnant. Romans 9:30-33 . Israel''s failure in spite of the Prophets. Romans 10:1-13 . Israel''s failure in spite of the Law. Romans 10:14-21 . Israel''s failure in spite of the Gospel. Romans 11:1-10 . God''s purpose regarding the remnant accomplished. Romans 11:11-32 . God''s purpose will ultimately embrace the whole. Romans 11:33-36 . Paul''s joy regarding God''s purpose. Romans 9:6-13 . GOD''S PURPOSE HAD RESPECT ONLY TO A PORTION. Romans 9:6 . The word of God not having failed. Romans 9:7-8 . Election of seed. Different mothers. Romans 9:9 . The promise. Romans 9:10-11 . Election of seed. Same mother. Romans 9:12 . The prophecy. Romans 9:13 . The word of God confirmed. Romans 9:14-29 . GOD''S PURPOSE REGARDING ONLY A REMNANT. Romans 9:14-16 . Devine election justified by Scripture. Romans 9:17-18 . Gentiles hardened for sake of Israel. Romans 9:19-21 . Divine election not to be challenged. Romans 9:22-24 . Divine election benevolent so far as man can apprehend. Romans 9:25-26 . Israel restored to supremacy over Gentiles. Romans 9:27-29 . Divine election justified by Scripture. Romans 9:30-33 . ISRAEL''S FAILURE IN SPITE OF THE PROPHETS. Romans 9:30 . With the believer, no running or willing ( v . 16). Romans 9:31-32 -. With the runner or willer, no believing. - Romans 9:32-33 -. With the runner or willer, only stumbling. - Romans 9:33 . With the believer, no stumbling. Romans 10:1-13 . ISRAEL''S FAILURE UNDER THE LAW. Romans 10:1-3 . The righteousness of God. Israel''s ignorance of it. Romans 10:4 . Christ the end of the Law. Romans 10:5-10 . The righteousness of God. Teaching of the Law. Romans 10:11-13 . Christ the end of the Law. Witness of the Prophets. Romans 10:14-21 . ISRAEL''S FAILURE UNDER THE GOSPEL. Romans 10:14-15 . Israel heard. God vindicated. Romans 10:16 . Israel inexcusable. Romans 10:17-18 . Israel heard. God vindicated. Romans 10:19-21 . Israel inexcusable. Romans 11:1-10 . GOD''S PURPOSE REGARDING THE REMNANT ACCOMPLISHED. Romans 11:1-3 . The majority of Israel rejected God. Romans 11:4-6 . A remnant reserved, according to God''s election. Romans 11:7 -. The remnant obtained what the nation lost. - Romans 11:7-10 . Fate of majority. God hardened them. Romans 11:11-32 . GOD''S PURPOSE WILL EMBRACE THE WHOLE. Romans 11:11-16 . Israel provoked to jealousy. Romans 11:17-24 . The wild olive graft. Romans 11:25-32 . The hardening of Israel. Romans 11:11-16 . ISRAEL PROVOKED TO JEALOUSY. Romans 11:11 . Salvation to Gentiles provokes Israel to jealousy. Romans 11:12 . Benefit to world through Israel''s fall. Greater benefit will come from their fullness. Romans 11:13-14 . Paul''s apostleship provokes Israel to jealousy. Romans 11:15-16 . Greater benefit will be through their restoration. Romans 11:17-24 . THE WILD OLIVE GRAFT. Romans 11:17-18 . The wild olive graft, not to boast. Romans 11:19-20 . The wild olive to fear. Romans 11:21-22 . Reason for fear. Romans 11:23-24 . The reason for not boasting. Romans 11:25-32 . THE HARDENING OF ISRAEL. Romans 11:25 - Hardening to Israel. - Romans 11:25 . The fullness of the Gentiles. Romans 11:26-27 . The salvation of Israel, the end. Romans 11:28 -. The Gospel standpoint. Israel enemies. - Romans 11:28-29 . The election standpoint. Israel beloved. Romans 11:30 . Mercy to the nations. The result. Romans 11:31 . Disobedience of Israel, the means. Romans 11:32 . Mercy upon all, the end. Romans 11:33-35 . PAUL''S JOY REGARDING GOD''S PURPOSE. Romans 11:33 -. The depth of the riches. - Romans 11:33 -. Wisdom. - Romans 11:33 -. Knowledge. - Romans 11:33 -. His judgments unsearchable. - Romans 11:33 . His ways untraceable. Romans 11:34 -. Knowledge. - Romans 11:34 . His counselor (wisdom). Romans 11:35 . Who hath given Him His riches? Romans 12:1 - Romans 15:7 . PRACTICAL. Romans 12:1-2 . As regards God. Romans 12:3 - Romans 15:7 . As regards man. Romans 12:3 - Romans 15:7 . AS REGARDS MAN. Romans 12:3-8 . The brethren. Romans 12:9-21 . Social relationships. Romans 13:1-7 . Civil relationships. 1Romans 3:8-14; Romans 3:8-14 . Social relationships. Romans 14:1 - Romans 15:7 . The brethren. Romans 14:1 - Romans 15:7 . THE BRETHREN. Romans 14:1 . Reception of the weak. Romans 14:2-23 . Not to be judged. "For." Romans 15:1 . Their infirmities tolerated. Romans 15:2-6 . To be pleased. "For." Romans 15:7 . To be received. Romans 14:2-23 . THE WEAK NOT TO BE JUDGED. Romans 11:2-3 . Weakness as to practice. Romans 11:4 . Not to be judged. Romans 11:5-9 . Weakness as to belief. Romans 11:10-23 . Not to be judged. Romans 15:2-6 . THE BRETHREN TO BE PLEASED. "FOR." Romans 15:2 . Each one to please his neighbour. Romans 15:3-4 . Motive. The example of Christ, and the word of God. Romans 15:5 -. Each one to be likeminded. - Romans 5:6 . The example of Christ, and for the glory of God. Romans 16:1-24 . SALUTATIONS. Romans 16:1 :16 -. From Paul himself. - Romans 16:16-24 . From others than Paul.
the Sixth Week after Easter