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Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos .
the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
earth. Hebrew ha- 'arez . Occurs sixteen times in this chapter. Rendered "land" in verses: Isaiah 24:3 , Isaiah 24:11 , Isaiah 24:13
empty . Note the Figure of speech Synonymia , "empty", "waste", "upside down", "scattered abroad". See App-6 .
as . . . so. Figure of speech Simile .
the lender . . . the borrower. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 22:25 , Exodus 22:27 . Deuteronomy 15:2 ; Deuteronomy 24:10 , Deuteronomy 24:11 ). See App-92 .
The land: Hebrew. ha-'drez , as in Isaiah 24:1 .
utterly emptied. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia , for emphasis. Hebrew. hibb6k tibbdk .
utterly spoiled. Hebrew. hibb6z tibboz .
mourneth. See note on Isaiah 3:26 .
mourneth and fadeth away. languish. Hebrew. umlelah nablah tebel umlalu .
the earth, &c. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia . This is one of the three places where (in the Hebrew) one verse ends with "the earth" and the next verse begins with "the earth", being the Figure of speech Anadiplosis . The other two passages are Genesis 1:1 , Genesis 1:2 , and Hosea 2:23 , Hos 2:24 .
The earth. See last note on p. 959.
transgressed. Hebrew. 'abar . App-44 .
the laws. the everlasting covenant. Reference to Pentateuch. See note on Genesis 9:16 ; and App-92 , The Pentateuch was as well known to Isaiah as to the kings in whose reigns he prophesied.
Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth. Some codices, with four early printed editions (one in margin), and Syriac, read "Because of a curse the earth mourneth".
earth. Hebrew. 'erez .
desolate = laid waste. Hebrew. 'asham. Compare verses: Isaiah 24:10 , Isaiah 24:12 , Isaiah 24:23 .
new wine = must. Hebrew. tirosh . App-27 .
tabrets = drums. See note on drums, 1 Samuel 10:5 .
wine. Hebrew. yayin . App-27 .
strong drink. Hebrew. shekar App-27 .
confusion = desolation. Hebrew. tohu . Same word as "without form". Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 1:2 ). Occurs in "former" portion three times (here; Isaiah 29:1 , "thing of naught; "Isaiah 34:11 ); and in the "latter" portion eight times (Isaiah 40:17 , Isaiah 40:23 ; Isaiah 41:29 ; Isaiah 44:9 , "vanity; "Isaiah 45:18 , Isaiah 45:19 , "in vain; "Isaiah 49:4 , "naught; "Isaiah 59:4 , "vanity").
no man = no one.
desolation = astonishment. Hebrew. shamen . Compare Isaiah 24:6 , Isaiah 24:10 , Isaiah 24:23 .
sea. Note the Figure of speech Ellipsis = sea [saying]. See note on Psalms 109:5 .
fires: Or, valleys.
isles = maritime countries. See note on Isaiah 11:1 .
the righteous = the righteous One (singular): i.e. the One referred to in Isaiah 24:15 ; or, the nation, as in Isaiah 26:2 . compare Acts 3:14 ; Acts 7:52 ; Acts 22:14 .
I said = I had said: i. e the land. Figure of speech Prosopopaeia .
My leanness, my leanness. Figure of speech Epizeuxis , for emphasis.
treacherous dealers, &c. = traitors have betrayed.
Fear, and the pit, and the snare. Figure of speech Synonymia , and Figure of speech Paonomasia , not a "play on words", but for great and solemn emphasis. Hebrew. paphad , vapahath, happa vappaph (tr. Eng., scare, lair, snare).
fear. pit. snare. Figure of speech Paronomasia
again. Hebrew. happahad. huppahath. happahath bapah . See Luke 21:35 , and compare Jeremiah 48:43 , Jeremiah 48:44 .
the windows from on high, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 7:11 ).
are open = have opened.
foundations of the earth. See Isaiah 58:12 . Compare Isaiah 40:21 .
utterly broken down. Note Figure of speech Polyptoton . Hebrew breaking, breaks up. Same Figure of speech below.
clean dissolved. Hebrew bursting, bursts up.
moved exceedingly. Hebrew tottering, tottereth.
reel to and fro. Hebrew staggering, staggereth.
removed. Hebrew rocketh to and fro.
transgression = revolt. Hebrew. pasha . App-44 . Not the same word as in Isaiah 24:5 .
that are. Omit.
earth = the ground, or, Soil. Hebrew. ha-adamah . Compare Isaiah 6:12 .
pit. Not the same word as in verses: Isaiah 24:17 , Isaiah 24:18 . Here, Hebrew. bor , a dug-out pit, or dungeon. Occurs in Isaiah 14:15 , Isaiah 14:19 ; Isaiah 36:13 ; Isaiah 38:18 ; and in "latter" portion, Isaiah 51:1 . App-79 .
and = even.
visited: i.e. with the judgments foretold in the preceding Verses. Compare Isaiah 10:3 ; Isaiah 26:14 , Isaiah 26:16 ; Isaiah 29:6 .
confounded = blush (from shame).
ashamed = turn pale (from fear).
the LORD of hosts. See note on Isaiah 1:9 .
ancients = elders. Compare Revelation 4:4 .
gloriously = in glory, or "[shall be] a glory".
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 24". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent