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Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos.
hand. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia.
not shortened. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 11:23 ). Compare Isaiah 50:2 . The phrase occurs nowhere else in the O.T.
iniquities. Hebrew. 'avah. App-44 . Same word as in verses: Isaiah 59:3 , Isaiah 59:12 . Not the same as in verses: Isaiah 59:6 , Isaiah 59:7 .
God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4 .
sins. Hebrew. chata'. App-44 .
have hid His face. Compare Isaiah 45:15 ; Isaiah 54:8 ; Isaiah 57:17 .
defiled. Hebrew. ga'al, to redeem, put for ga'al, to pollute, here, and Ezra 2:62 .Nehemiah 7:64 .Lamentations 4:14 .Daniel 1:8 , Daniel 1:8 . Zephaniah 3:1 .Malachi 1:7 , Malachi 1:12 .
calleth for justice = sueth in righteousness.
for truth = in truth.
trust = confide. Hebrew. b a t a h . App-69 .
vanity = confusion. Hebrew. tohu, as in Genesis 1:2 ("without form"). See note on Isaiah 24:10 .
lies = vanity.
iniquity. Hebrew. 'aven. App-44 . Same word as in verses: Isa 59:59 , Isaiah 59:6 , Isaiah 59:7 . Not the same as in verses: Isaiah 59:2 , Isaiah 59:3 , Isaiah 59:12 .
cockatrice = adders', or vipers'. See note on Isaiah 11:8 .
eggs . . . web. Note the Alternation in verses: Isaiah 5:6 .
weave. See note on Isaiah 19:9 .
viper. Occurs in Isaiah only here, and in the "former" portion (Isaiah 30:6 ). See App-79 .
Their feet = They. Feet being put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for the whole person. Quoted in Romans 3:15 , Romans 3:16 .
evil. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .
innocent blood. Reference to Pentateuch. Only here in Isaiah; five times in Deuteronomy (Isaiah 19:10 , Isaiah 19:13 ; Isaiah 19:21 , Isaiah 19:8 , Isaiah 19:9 ).
paths = highways. See note on Isaiah 7:3 .
The way, &c. See Romans 3:17 .
Judgment = righteousness.
justice = righteousness. Same as "judgment", Isaiah 59:8 .
We grope, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:29 ). Idea the same, but word different. The word in Deuteronomy is the same as in Genesis 27:12 , Genesis 27:22 ; Genesis 31:34 , Genesis 31:37 . Exodus 10:21 .Job 5:14 ; Job 12:25 . The word in Isaiah occurs nowhere else. App-92 .
night. Hebrew. nesheph. A Homonym, with two meanings: (1) darkness, as here; Job 24:15 .Proverbs 7:9 . 2Ki 7:5 , 2 Kings 7:7 . 2Ki 5:11 ; 2 Kings 21:4 .Jeremiah 13:16 ; (2) daylight, 1 Samuel 30:17 . Job 7:4 .Psalms 119:147 .
transgressions. Hebrew. pasha'. App-44 .
sins. Hebrew. chata'. App-44 . Note that these three words occur together in Leviticus 16:21 .
truth faileth = the truth is found missing,
maketh himself a prey: i.e. is liable to be despoiled, or outlawed. Rashi says, "is considered mad", as Authorized Version margin
arm. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia ( App-6 ). Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the power put forth by it.
He put on. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia . Note that all the armour is for defense.
breastplate = a coat of mail.
of vengeance for clothing = of avenging for clothing. Compare Isaiah 61:2 ; Isaiah 63:4 . The Oxf. Gesenius explains it as "of Jehovah as champion of Israel" (p. 528 b).
zeal = jealousy.
islands = maritime countries. See note on Isaiah 11:11 .
enemy. Hebrew. tzar, as in Isaiah 59:18 .
like a flood = like the flood: the Nile in its overflow.
Spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
lift up. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia .
standard: or, banner. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 17:15 ). Hebrew. nasas . App-92 .
the. Redeemer = a Redeemer: i.e. the Messiah. Quoted in Romans 11:26 , Romans 11:27 , showing that the fullness of the Gentiles must be the fullness of the Gentile times.
to = for: i.e. on behalf of. See note on Romans 11:26 .
for ever. This coming deliverance for Israel will be final, and cannot therefore as yet have taken place.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 59". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13