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Cry aloud = Hebrew "call with the throat": i.e. deep down as in the oriental throat. It denotes not a wild cry, but solemnity with restraint. transgression = rebellion. Hebrew. pasha' App-44 .
the house of Jacob. See note on Isaiah 2:6 .
forsook. See note on Isaiah 1:4 .
God. Hebrew. Elohim.
justice = righteousness. Compare Ex. 21-23.
Wherefore . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis.
afflicted our soul. Reference to Pentateuch. This is a strictly Levitical technical expression (Leviticus 16:29 , Leviticus 16:31 ; Leviticus 23:27 , Leviticus 23:32 .Numbers 29:7; Numbers 29:7 ). This shows that the People were not in exile as alleged, but in the Land. See also the references to other observances below (Isaiah 58:13 ). Note that in Isaiah 58:0 and Isaiah 59:0 we have the reference to the Day of Atonement; in Isaiah 60:0 and Isaiah 61:0 , to the Sabbatical and Jubilee years. Isaiah 60:0 refers to the feast of Tabernacles with its "ingathering" (verses: Isaiah 58:3-5 , Isaiah 58:13 ), which followed the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:27 , Leviticus 23:34 ).
soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 . Some codices, with one early printed edition, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate, read "souls" (plural)
Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos.
ye fast. Referring to Day of Atonement, which was still observed; and in the Land, not in exile, as alleged.
wickedness = lawlessness. Hebrew. rasha' App-44 .
ye shall not. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "and ye shall not".
to make = if ye would make.
chosen. See note on Isaiah 1:29 .
a man. Hebrew. adam . App-14 .
soul. Hebrew. nephesh . App-13 .
bulrush. See note on Isaiah 9:14 .
the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
bands = pangs. See note on Psalms 73:4 .
to deal = to break. The technical term for giving or partaking of food, as in Luke 24:30 , Luke 24:35 .Acts 2:42 , Acts 2:46 ; Acts 20:7 , Acts 20:11 ; Act 27:36 . 1 Corinthians 10:16 ; 1 Corinthians 11:24 . Compare Job 42:11 .Lamentations 4:4 .Ezekiel 18:7 ; Ezekiel 24:17 . Hosea 9:4 .
bread. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), for all kinds of food.
poor. Hebrew. 'anah. See note on Proverbs 6:11 .
hide not. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "do not thou hide".
thine own flesh. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 29:14 ).
thine health. Hebrew thy healing. Referring to the healing of wounds.
be = bring up.
rereward = rearguard. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 14:19 , Exodus 14:20 ). Compare Isaiah 52:12 .
cry. In distress.
draw out thy soul. Some codices, with Syriac, read "give out thy bread".
be. Supply Ellipsis (of verb "become"). Or, we have the Figure of speech Oxymoron . See App-6 .
guide = (gently) guide.
drought. Hebrew droughts (plural of majesty) = great drought.
make fat = invigorate.
build = rebuild. This is still future.
to dwell in: or, leading home.
thy foot. Some codices, with one early printed edition, read "thy feet" (plural)
from the sabbath. Reference to Pentateuch, as in Isaiah 56:2 .
pleasure. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read "pleasures" (pl).
holy. See note on Exodus 3:5 .
thine own words = vain words: or, keep making talk,
delight thyself = revel.
cause thee to ride, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:13 ; Deuteronomy 33:29 ).
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 58". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/