scourged. Greek. mastigoo. Not the same word as in Matthew 27:26. Mark 15:15, which is phragelloo. Compare John 2:15. A Florentine Papyrus of A.D. 85 contains the following addressed by a Prefect in Egypt to one Phibion: "Thou wast worthy of scourging . . . but I deliver thee to the people. "Deissmann, Light, &c., p. 267.
of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
thorns. The sign of earth"s curse (Genesis 3:18).
purple. Greek. porphureos. The adjective occurs only here, John 19:5, and Revelation 18:16.
Hail. See on Matthew 27:29.
smote Him, &c. = gave Him blows. See John 18:22.
therefore. All the texts omit.
forth = outside. Greek. exo. See John 18:29.
Behold. Greek. ide. App-133.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.
no. Greek. oudeis.
fault. See John 18:38.
in. Greek. en. App-104. And yet he had scourged Him, illegally, hoping thereby to satiate the blood-thirst of the Jews.
Then = Therefore.
crown of thorns; literally the thorny crown. Not the same expression as in John 19:2.
the purple robe. To the horrible torture of the flagellum had been added the insults and cruelties of the soldiers. Compare Isaiah 50:6.
Man. Greek. anthropos. App-123. Pilate hoped the pitiable spectacle would melt their hearts. It only whetted their appetite.
chief priests. These would, no doubt, include Caiaphas.
officers. See 18. s. These temple guards are con spicuous for their zeal, due perhaps to the Lord"s interference with the sellers of .
saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.
cried out. See John 18:40.
Crucify. See App-162. Omit "Him" in each case.
Take ye Him = Take Him yourselves.
no = not. Greek. ou. App-105.
by = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.
our = the.
ought. Greek opheilo. Elsewhere in John only in John 13:14.
made Himself, &c. This was the charge on which the Sanhedrin condemned Him. See Matthew 26:65, Matthew 26:66. Compare Leviticus 24:16.
Son of God. App-98.
saying. Greek. logos. See Mark 9:32.
the more afraid. A dreadful presentiment was growing in Pilate"s mind, due to what he may have heard of the Lord"s miracles, to His bearing throughout the trial, and to his wife"s message.
into. Greek. eis. App-104.
judgment hall. See John 18:28.
Whence art thou? This was Pilate"s fifth question of
the Lord. See John 18:33, John 18:35, John 18:37, John 18:38. It expressed the fear that was growing within him. Pilate may have been a freethinker (as some infer from John 18:38), but like free-thinkers of all ages, he was not free from superstition. Was this Man, so different from all others he had ever seen, really a supernatural Being?
not. Greek. ou. App-105.
knowest. Greek. oida. App-132.
power = authority. Greek. exousia. App-172.
no . . . at all. Greek. ouk oudeis. A double negative.
against. Greek. kata. App-104.
except. Greek. ei me" = if not,
from above. Greek. anothen. See on John 3:3.
therefore = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. John 19:2) this.
he that, &c. : i.e. Caiaphas. Judas had delivered Him to the Sanhedrin, the Sanhedrin to Pilate.
delivered. See on John 19:30, "gave up".
the. Omit "the".
from thenceforth = on (Greek. ek. App-104.) this.
sought = was seeking.
Caesar. Greek. Kaisar. This title was adopted by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. Frequently found in inscriptions. Deissmann, Light, &c., p. 383. Octavius added the title Augustus (Luke 2:1) = Greek. Sebastos (Acts 25:21, Acts 25:25).
When Pilate, &c. = Pilate therefore having heard.
that saying. All the texts read "these words".
in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
judgment seat. Greek. bema: literally a pace, a step, then a platform or raised place. In this case it was a stone platform with a seat in the open court in front of the Praetorium. Occurs only here in John.
in. Greek. eis. App-104.
the Pavement. Greek. lithostrotos = strewn with stone: i.e. of mosaic or tesselated work.
Gabbatha. Aramaic. App-94. The meaning of this word is uncertain.
the preparation: i.e. the day before the Passover was eaten "at even" on the 14th Nisan. All four Gospels state that our Lord was entombed on the Preparation Day (verses: John 19:31, John 19:42. Matthew 27:62. Mark 15:42. Luke 23:54). See App-165.
the sixth hour: i.e. midnight. The hours in all the Gospels are according to Hebrew reckoning: i.e. from sunset to sunset. See App-156. Some have thought that the events from John 13:1 could not be crowded into so brief a space, but the Jews were in deadly earnest to get all finished before the Passover, and in such a case events move quickly.
he saith, &c. In irony here, as in pity (John 19:5). Some have thought that, in John 19:13, "sat" should be "set Him". Justin Martyr says, "They set Him on the judgment-seat and said, " Judge us" "(First Apology, xxxv). But out of forty-eight occurrences of the verb kathiza, only one other (Ephesians 1:20) is, without question, used transitively.
Away with. Greek. airo. First occurrence in John 1:29. The imperative aron is used in exactly the same way in a Papyrus from Oxyrhynchus, in a letter from a boy to his father. Deissmann, Light, p. 187.
Shall I . . . ? = Is it your King I am to crucify?
We have, &c. This was their final and deliberate rejection of their King, and the practical surrender of all their Messianic hopes. Compare 1 Samuel 8:7.
but. Same as "except" in John 19:11.
delivered, &c.: i.e. to their will (Luke 23:25). Thus the Lord"s execution was in Jewish hands (Acts 2:23). The centurion and his quaternion of soldiers merely carried out the decision of the chief priests, Pilate having pronounced no sentence, but washed his hands, literally as well as metaphorically, of the matter.
to be = in order that (Greek. hina) He might be.
cross. Greek. stauros. See App-162.
skull. Greek. kranion. See Matthew 27:33.
Golgotha. Aramaic. App-94.
two other = other two. App-164.
other. Greek. altos. App-124.
with. Greek. meta. App-104.
on either side one. Greek. enteuthen kai enteuthen: literally hither and thither, i.e. on this side and on that side. This was before the parting of the garments (John 19:23). See App-164.
and, &c.: literally and the middle one, Jesus.
And = Moreover.
wrote. John alone mentions that Pilate wrote it himself. See App-163.
on. Greek. epi. App-104.
the writing was = it was written.
OF NAZARETH = the Nazarene. See John 18:5.
for = because. Greek. hoti.
nigh. Probably just outside the north wall, between the Damascus Gate and Herod"s Gate, and near the so-called grotto of Jeremiah, about half a mile from the Prsetorium. See Conder"s Jerusalem, p. 161, &c., and Palestine Exploration Society"s maps.
the chief priests of the Jews. This expression occurs only here. They were no longer God"s priests.
not. Greek. ou. App-105.
he = that fellow. Greek. ekeinos. Spoken with contempt.
What, &c. Figure of speech Amphibologia. App-6.
I have written. It therefore stands written for ever. Caiaphas as representative of the Jews proclaimed the Lord as Saviour for the world, Pilate fastens upon the Jews the hated name of the Nazarene as their King.
the soldiers. These were probably slaves attached to the legion who were employed as executioners.
took = received. The garments were their perquisite.
coat. Greek. chiton. A tunic worn next the body, and reaching to the knees.
without seam. Greek. arraphos. Occurs only here. Josephus says one of the high priest"s garments was without seam.
the top = the parts above (Greek. ta anothen). Compare Matthew 27:51. Mark 15:38.
throughout = through (Greek. dia. App-104. John 19:1) the whole.
among themselves = to (Greek. pros. App-104.) one another.
for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.
the scripture, &c. See John 13:18; John 17:12; John 18:9, John 18:32. The quotation is from Psalms 22:18.
raiment. Same word as "garments" in John 19:23.
for = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
These things, &c. = The soldiers therefore indeed did these things. The Greek particle men is ignored both by Authorized Version and by Revised Version It marks a contrast with what follows.
Now = But.
stood = were standing.
by = beside. Greek. para. App-104.
Mary. See App-100. John omits the name of his own mother Salome, who was there also (Matthew 27:56).
When. &c. Read, "Jesus therefore, seeing".
loved. Greek. agapao. App-135.
Woman. See on John 2:4.
behold. Gr idou. App-133.; but the texts read ide. App-133.
son. Greek. huios. App-108. Joseph being evidently dead, and her firstborn son (Matthew 1:25) dying, there would be no support for Mary. In view of John 7:3-5, it was a befitting arrangement.
from. Greek. apo. App-104.
unto his own. Greek. eis (App-104.) ta idia. This expression occurs in John 1:11; John 16:32. Acts 21:6. A different phrase in John 20:10.
After. Greek. meta. App-104.
were now accomplished = have been already finished. Greek. teleo Not the same word as "fulfilled", which is teleioo = consummated. There is a deep sig nificance here. He saw the casting of the lots, and knew that all that the Scripture had foretold of others was finished. There yet remained a prediction for Him to realize, that of Psalms 69:21. See note on Psalms 69:1.
Now. All the texts omit.
vinegar. See note
had received = received. [on Matthew 27:84.
It is finished. Greek. teleo, as in John 19:28. Psa 22 ends with. the word "done". Of the seven sayings from the Cross, Matthew (John 27:46) and Mark (John 15:34) record one (Psalms 22:1); Luke three (John 23:34, John 23:43, John 23:46); and John three (verses: John 19:26, John 19:27, John 19:28, John 26:30). It is clear from Luke 23:44 that the promise to the malefactor was before the darkness. The words of Psalms 22:1 were uttered at thebeginning or during the course of the three hours darkness. Probably the Lord repeated the whole of Psalm 22, which not only sets Him forth as the Sufferer, but also foretells the glory that is to follow. Perhaps other Scriptures also, as a terrible witness against the chief priests, who were present (Mark 15:31. Luke 23:35), and must have heard.
bowed. This suggests that till then He had kept His head erect. He now lays down His life, as He said (John 10:18).
gave up. Greek paradidomi. This word occurs fifteen times in John; translated nine times "betray", of Judas; five times "deliver", of the chief priests and Pilate.
ghost. Greek pneuma. App-101. Matthew says, apheke to pneuma, sent forth His spirit (John 27:50); Mark (John 15:37) and Luke (John 23:46) say, exepneuse, breathed out, i.e. drew His last breath. Compare Genesis 2:7. Psalms 104:29, Psalms 104:30; Psalms 146:4. Ecclesiastes 12:7.
remain. Greek. mend. See p. 1511. Compare Deuteronomy 21:23.
upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
on. Greek en. App-104.
an high day. It was the first day of the Feast, the 15th Nisan. See Leviticus 23:6, Leviticus 23:7. Our Wednesday sunset to Thursday sunset. See App-156.
besought. Greek erotao. App-134.
legs. Greek skelos. From the hip downwards. Occurs only in these three verses.
broken. Greek. katagnumi = broken in pieces, shattered. Occurs only in these verses and in Matthew 12:20.
taken away. Same word as in John 19:15.
the first, &c. See App-164.
crucified with. Greek. sustauroo. Only here, Matthew 27:44. Mark 15:32. Romans 6:6. Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:20.
to. Greek. epi. App-104.
pierced. Greek. nusso. Occurs only here.
side. Greek. pleura, Only here; John 20:20, John 20:25, John 20:27. Acts 12:7.
forthwith = immediately. Greek euthus.
blood and water. The question of the physical cause of the Lord"s death has been much discussed; but we need not seek a natural explanation of what John records as a miraculous sign. The blood and water may have been symbolical of the sprinkling with blood and cleansing with water of the Old Covenant. See , Hebrews 9:19-22. 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:8.
saw. Greek. horao. App-133.
bare record. Greek. martureo.
record. Greek. marturia. Both these are characteristic words in this Gospel. See note on John 1:7, and p. 1511.
true = reliable, genuine. See App-175and p. 1511.
true = true to fact. See App-175and p. 1511.
A. bone, &c. This has reference to Exodus 12:46. Numbers 9:12. Thus in all things He was the antitype of the Passover lamb.
broken. Greek suntribo. Not the same word as in verses: John 19:31, John 19:32. Compare Psalms 34:20.
an other. Greek. heteros. App-124. saith. Note the careful discrimination in the words used. The former Scripture was fulfilled, i.e. filled full. This is not fulfilled, but in order to its fulfilment it was necessary that He should be pierced. See Zechariah 12:10. It was fulfilled in the case of those who looked upon Him, but waits for its com plete fulfilment when the spirit of grace and supplication is poured out on repentant Israel, look. Greek. opsomai. App-133.
on. Greek. eis. App-104.
pierced. Greek. ekkenteo. Only here and Revelation 1:7 = pierced through. Includes therefore the piercing of the hands and feet. Compare Psalms 22:16.
this = these things.
of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.
Arimathsea. Probably Ramah, where Samuel was born. 1 Samuel 1:1, 1 Samuel 1:19. Called in the Septuagint Armathaim.
a disciple . . . but secretly. Matthew calls him "a rich man" (John 27:57); Mark, "an honourable counsellor" (John 15:43); Luke, "a good man and a just" (John 23:50). See on John 18:16.
for = because of. Greek. dia. App-104. John 19:2.
take away . . . took. Greek. airo. Same word as in verses: John 15:31.
gave him leave. Greek. epitrepo. Generally translated "suffer". Matthew 8:21, &c. Compare Acts 21:39, Acts 21:40.
also Nicodemus. Read, Nicodemus also.
Nicodemus. See John 3:1, and John 7:50.
to. Greek. pros. App-104.
by night. Now he comes openly, as Joseph did,
and brought = bringing.
a mixture. Greek. migma. Occurs only here. Some read heligma = a roll.
myrrh. Greek. smurna. Only here and in Matthew 2:11,
aloes. a fragrant aromatic wood. Occurs only here in N.T. Referred to four times in O.T.
pound. Greek. litra. See John 12:3 and App-51.
wound. Greek. deo. Generally translated "bind". See John 11:44; John 18:12, John 18:24. The other evangelists use a different word.
linen clothes = linen cloths or bandages. The rolls" used for swathing the bodies of the rich (Isaiah 53:9). The Rabbis say criminals were wrapped in old rags.
bury = entomb. Greek. entaphiazo. Only here and Matthew 26:12. The noun entaphiasmos occurs in John 12:7 and Mark 14:8.
garden. Greek. kepos. See John 18:1.
new. Greek. kainos. See on Matthew 9:17.
sepulchre = tomb. Greek. mnemeion. Before this in John translated "grave", John 5:28; John 11:17, John 11:31, John 11:38; John 12:17.
wherein = in (Greek. en. App-104.) which.
never man yet = not yet any one. Greek. oudepo oudeis.
There laid they Jesus. Here the body (John 19:38) is called "Jesus". Compare John 20:2.
because of = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104. John 19:2.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Easter