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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

John 18

Verse 1

When Jesus, &c. = Jesus, having spoken.

Jesus. App-98.

words = things. went forth: i.e. from the place where He had

been speaking. See John 14:31.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

brook. Greek. cheimarros, a winter torrent. Occurs only here.

Cedron. Called Kidron (2 Samuel 15:23 and elsewhere in O.T.) David crossed it, when with a few faithful followers he fled from Absalom. The name seems to have been given both to the valley and to the torrent which, in winter, sometimes ran through it. Now Wady-en-Nar.

garden. Greek. kepos. An orchard or plantation. Compare Luke 13:19.

into. Greek. eis. App-104.

Verse 2

knew. Greek. oida. App-132.

with. Greek meta. App-104.

Verse 3

a band = the cohort; the word means the tenth part of a legion, therefore 600 men; but the term was probably used with some latitude.

officers. The Temple guard. Compare John 7:32, John 7:45, John 7:46. from. Greek ek, App-104.

chief priests. These were Sadducees (Acts 5:17). So Sadducees and Pharisees sunk their differences in order to destroy Him, just as Herod and Pilate were made friends (Luke 23:12) over His condemnation.

lanterns. Greek. phanos. Occurs only here. Compare App-106.

torches. Greek lampas. Generally rendered "lamp" (. Revelation 4:8; Revelation 8:10), but "light" in Acts 20:8.

weapons. The swords and staves of Luke 22:52.

Verse 4

upon. Greek. epi. App-101.

unto = to.

Verse 5

of Nazareth = the Nazarene. For some reason Nazareth had an evil name (See John 1:46), and so Nazarene was a term of reproach. The name has nothing to do with Nazarite (separated) applied to Joseph (Genesis 49:26), and those like Samson who took the vow of Num 6.

I am.Greek. ego eimi. These words were used nine times in John 4:26; John 6:20; John 8:24, John 8:28, John 8:58; John 13:19, as well as in John 18:5, John 18:6, John 18:8. Whatever may be said of the first two instances, the others are claims to the Divine title of Exodus 3:14 (App-98). See esp. John 8:58. There are fourteen instances of the metaphorical use of the phrase in connection with "bread", "light", &c.

Verse 6

backward. Greek. eis (App-104.) ta opiso.

to the ground. Greek chamai. Only here, and John 9:6.

Verse 7

asked = demanded. Greek. eperotao. A stronger word than erotao (App-134.), which occurs in John 18:19.

Verse 8

if. App-118.

Verse 9

That = In order

that. Greek. hina.

saying. Greek. logos. See Mark 9:32.

fulfilled. See John 17:12.

Of = Out of. Greek. ek. App-101.

none = not one (Greek. ouk oudeis), a double negative.

Verse 10

Then Simon, &c. = Simon Peter, therefore. Compare Luke 22:49.

sword. One of the two of Luke 22:38.

drew. Greek. helkuo. See John 12:32.

smote. Greek. paio. Only here, Matthew 26:68. Mark 14:47. Luke 22:64. Revelation 9:5.

servant = bond-servant. Greek. doulos. See John 13:16. In all the four Gospels the definite article is used, the servant. Malchus had advanced so as to seize the Lord, and thus became the object of Peter"s attack.

ear. Greek. otion. Only used in connexion with this incident, and in all four Gospels, the usual word being ous.

Verse 11

the cup. Compare Matthew 20:22, Matthew 20:23; Matthew 26:3, Matthew 26:9, Matthew 26:42. Revelation 14:10.

My Father. See on John 2:15.

not = in no wise. Greek. ou me. App-105.

Verse 12

captain. Greek. chiliarchos = commander of a thousand. One of the six tribunes attached to a legion. His presence shows the importance attached by the Romans to the arrest, the Jews having represented it as a case of dangerous sedition.

took: i.e. surrounded and seized. Compare Acts 26:21.

Verse 13

to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104. Annas. He had been deposed in 779 A. u. c., the year our Lord"s ministry began (App-179), and three others had been promoted and deposed before Caiaphas was appointed by Valerius Gratus. Our Lord was taken to Annas first, because his experience in the Law would the better enable him to formulate a charge against Him.

Verse 14

Caiaphas. See .

for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.

Verse 15

followed = was following.

another. Greek. altos. App-124.

known. Greek. gnostos. Compare ginosko. App-132. That this was John himself is highly improbable. He always designates himself "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (John 13:23; John 19:26; John 21:7, John 21:20). It is more probable it was some one of influence, as Nicodemus or Joseph of Arimathtea, both members of the Sanhedrin.

palace = Greek. aide. Originally the court, open to the air, around which the house was built, then the house itself.

Verse 16

stood = was standing.

at. Greek. pros. App-104.

her that kept the door = doorkeeper. Greek thuroros. Here and in John 18:17 feminine. Occurs elsewhere John 10:3. Mark 13:34 (masculine) Female porters were not uncommon. Compare Acts 12:13. The Septuagint reads in 2 Samuel 4:6, "The porter (feminine) of the house winnowed wheat, and slumbered and slept". Compare Josephus, Antiq., bk. vii, ch. ii. 1.

Verse 17

not. Greek. me. App-105.

this Man"s = this fellow"s. Spoken in contempt. Man"s. App-123.

not. Greek ou. App-105.

Verse 18

officers. The Chiliarch and Roman soldiers had gone back to their barracks (Antonia), leaving the Lord in the hands of the Jews.

stood . . . warmed. All these verbs are in the imperfect.

a fire of coals. Greek anthrakia. Only here and John 21:9.

Verse 19

asked. Greek. erotao. App-134.

of = concerning. Greek. pen. App-104.

doctrine. To elicit something to be used against Him.

Verse 20

spake. The texts read "have spoken".

openly. Greek parrhesia. Compare John 7:4.

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129.

in. Greek. en. App-104.

synagogue. See App-120. Omit "the". It is general, applying to more than one.

temple = temple courts. Greek. hieron. See Matthew 23:16.

have I said = I said.

nothing. Greek ouden, neutral of oudeis.

Verse 21

have said = said.

behold. Greek. ide. App-133.

Verse 22

And when He had thus spoken = But He having said these things.

struck . . . with the palm, . &c. = gave a blow. Greek. rapisma. Only here, John 19:3. Mark 14:65. This beginning of indignities may have been with or without a weapon.

Verse 23

have spoken = spoke.

evil = evilly. Greek. kakos, adverb of kakos (App-128.) in next clause.

smitest. Greek. dero. Occurs fifteen times. Translated "beat" except here, Luke 22:63, and 2 Corinthians 11:20. It has been alleged against the Lord that He did not carry out His own precept in Matthew 5:39. But those words were spoken during the first part of His ministry, when the kingdom was being proclaimed. See App-119. This was when the kingdom had been rejected, and the King was about to be crucified. Compare Luke 22:35-38.

Verse 24

Now. In the Received text, there is no word for "Now", but most of the critical texts insert oun, therefore.

had sent = sent. Greek. apostello. App-174. This shows that this preliminary inquiry was conducted by Annas. John omits the trial before Caiaphas.

unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

Verse 25

stood, &c. = was standing, &c., as in John 18:18.

denied. Greek. arneomai. See note on John 13:38. See App-160.

Verse 26

see. Greek. eidon. App-133.

Verse 27

Peter, &c. = Again therefore Peter denied.

immediately. Greek. eutheos. See John 13:30.

the = a.

crew = crowed. The first of the two cock-crowings. See App-160. The word is pkoneo, to make a sound with the voice.

Verse 28

Then = Therefore. This follows the decision of the Sanhedrin recorded in Matthew 26:58; Matthew 27:2 and parallel passages. See above, John 18:24.

from = away from. Greek. ape. App-104.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

hall of judgment. Greek praitorion. Latin. praetorium, the house of the Praetor. See Mark 15:16. Probably connected with the castle of Antonia, built by Herod the Great and named after Mark Antony. It was not Herod"s palace, as is clear from Luke 23:7. Compare same word in Acts 23:35. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:13.

it was early: i.e. in the early hours of the Preparation between 11pm and midnight.

lest, &c. = in order that they might not. Greek. hina me.

defiled. Greek. miaino. Only here, Titus 1:15, Titus 1:15. Hebrews 12:15. Jude 1:8. eat the passover. At the close of this Preparation Day, the 14th Nisan, "at even". See App-156.

Verse 29

went out. Greek. exerchomai. All the texts add exo, outside.

accusation = charge. Greek kategoria. Compare Eng. "category".

against. Greek. kata. App-104.

Verse 30

malefactor = evildoer. Greek. kakopoios. Only here and 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 2:14; 1 Peter 3:16; 1 Peter 4:15. Compare Luke 23:32. They expected Pilate to take their word for it, and condemn Him unheard. See Acts 25:16.

Verse 31

Take ye Him = Take Him yourselves.

judge. Greek. krino. App-122.

according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

It is not lawful. For violations of their law they seem to have had the power of stoning to death. See John 8:59; John 10:31. Acts 7:59. But they feared the people, and so had determined to raise the plea of rebellion against Ceasar and throw the odium of the Lord"s death upon Pilate.

not . . . any man. Greek. ouk oudeis. A double negative.

Verse 32

signifying, &c. See John 12:33.

should die = is about to die.

Verse 33

called. Greek. phoneo. See John 18:27.

the King, &c. This shows the malicious charge the Jews had made.

Verse 34

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

others. Greek. altos. App-124.

Verse 35

hast Thou done? didst Thou?

Verse 36

servants. Greek huperetes. Same word as "officer", John 18:3.

now. Greek. nun, as in John 17:5.

Verse 37

Art thou a king then? = Is it not then (Greek. oukoun. Occurs only here) that Thou art a king? or, So then a king Thou art?

To this end = To (Greek. eis. App-104.) this, i.e. for this purpose.

for this cause. Exactly the same words, eis touto, as in previous clause.

bear witness = testify. Greek. martureo. See on John 1:7,

the truth. See on John 14:6, and p. 1511.

My voice. See John 8:47; John 10:3, John 10:4, John 10:16, John 10:27.

Verse 38

What is truth? The question of many a man. Pilate was not "jesting", as Lord Bacon says. He was doubtless sick of the various philosophies and religions which contended for acceptance.

no. Greek oudeis. fault. Greek aitia (compare aiteo, App-134.), a charge, accusation; hence a ground of charge.

Verse 39

custom. Greek sunetheia. Only here and in 1 Corinthians 11:16.

at. Greek en. App-104.

will ye . . . ? = do ye wish . ? Greek. boulomai. App-102. Only occurrence of this word in John.

the King of the Jews. It was this taunt that led them to retort by the threat of Laesa majestatis (high treason) against Pilate himself (John 19:12).

Verse 40

cried = cried aloud, shouted. Greek kraugazo. Compare John 19:6, John 19:15. Acts 22:23.

this Man = this fellow. Compare John 7:27; John 9:29.

Barabbas. Aramaic. App-94.

robber = bandit, highway robber. Greek. Mates. Compare Mark 11:17; Mark 14:48; Mark 15:27. Not kleptes. thief. The two words together in John 10:1, John 10:8. They chose the robber, and the robber has ruled over them to this day.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 18". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.