Lectionary Calendar
Friday, July 19th, 2024
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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Bible Commentaries
John 19

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

CROWNED WITH THORNS V. 1-3

1) "Then Pilate therefore took Jesus," (tote oun elaben ho Pilatos ’ ton leosun) "Then Pilate took Jesus," took charge of Him whom he had already pronounced to be innocent of the charges against Him, John 18:38. Pilate previously having found Him innocent had said, "I will scourge Him and let Him go," Luke 23:22.

2) "And scourged him." (kai emastigosin) "And he scourged him, or caused him to be scourged," beaten with a whip, until His back was cut with many cruel and horrible stripes, Isaiah 53:5; Matthew 27:26. It was probably because of this scourging that He was unable to bear His cross from Pilate’s hall all the way to Calvary, Luke 23:26; Mark 15:21; Matthew 27:32. The whip was weighted with lead and sharp pieces of bone to lacerate with each stroke.

Verse 2

1) "And put it on his head," (epethekan periebalon auton) "They put it on his head," as a symbol of mockery of His claim to royalty, open shame and intended humiliation. Man lost his right of jurisdiction or kingship over the earth through sin and the fall that brought thorns as a curse, Genesis 3:18; Jesus wore this crown of thorns to restore man to a regal relationship with God, that man might wear a crown of life, and a crown of righteousness, 2 Timothy 2:8; Revelation 2:10.

3) "And they put on him a purple robe." (kai himation poruroun periebalon auton) "And they threw a purple garment around him," a symbol of royalty, only to mock Him, then take the robe away" The "they’’ refers to the Roman soldiers who sported with Him, at Jesus’ expense, Matthew 27:28; Luke 23:11; Psalms 69:19.

Verse 3

1) "And said," (kai erchonto pros auton kai elegon) "And they came to him and said," the Roman soldier band, also called Herod’s "men of war," of cold, cruel, emotions, Luke 23:11; as He was "despised and rejected of men," Isaiah 53:3.

2) "Hail, King of the Jews!" (chaire ho basileus ton loudaion) "Hail, 0 you King of the Jews!" Matthew 27:29 adds that they "put a reed in his right hand, and mocked him," while Mark 15:18-19 further describes the scene.

3) "And they smote him with their hands." (kai ediosan auto hrapismata) "And they gave him blows," or slapped Him with their hands, repeatedly, with Mark 15:19 explaining, "and they smote him on the head with a reed," that had been put in His hand, in derision, as a King’s sceptre. "And did spit upon Him, and bowing their knees worshipped him," as they called Him with derision, "King of the Jews."

Verse 4

PILATE PRESENTS JESUS TO THE MULTITUDE V. 4-13

1) "Pilate therefore went forth again," (kai ekselthen palin ekso ho Pilatos) "And Pilate went out and away again," for a third time, John 18:29; John 18:38, from the judgment hall, like a vacillating, people-pleasing politician of jelly-spine character.

2) "And saith unto them," (kai legei autois) "And said directly to them," to his official Jewish accusers, the meandering mass of envious murder-bent Jewish rulers, John 11:47-53; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:28.

3) "Behold, I bring him forth to you," (ide ago humin auton ekso) "Behold I bring him out," face to face with you, to advise you, to announce my decision regarding your charges against Him, that you may see Him, now beaten with many bloody stripes, though twice publicly pronounced innocent, John 18:38.

4) "That ye may know that I find no fault in him." (hina gnote hote oudemian aitian heurisko en auto) "In order that you all may know that I find no crime in him," no guilt-or cause for criminal punishment, at all. It was a second time he had publicly made the announcement, but this time he brought Jesus out to appease their thirst for blood, that they might see he had beaten Him, and mocked Him ingloriously, John 19:1-3; Isaiah 53:3-9; Acts 8:32-33.

If there were "no fault in Him," why then the crown of thorns upon His brow? Why the purple and scarlet robe, and why the smiting and scourging? What perverted justice! To deride, mock, and scoff at a man publicly declared innocent, what wickedness!

Verse 5

1) "Then came Jesus fourth," (ekselthen oun ho lesous ekso) "Then Jesus came outside," of Pilate’s judgment hall, where He had been questioned by Pilate, harassed and abused by the war soldiers of the Romans, beaten, spat upon and smitten, or slapped in the face, John 19:1-2.

2) "Wearing the thorns, and the purple robe." (phoron ton akanthinon stephanon kai to porphuroun himation) "Wearing the thorny wreath (as if it were a crown) and the purple garment," also referred to as a scarlet robe, and as a gorgeous robe, when before Herod’s soldiers, Mark 15:17; Mark 15:20; Luke 23:11; Matthew 27:28; He is thus brought out before the Jews.

3) "And Pilate saith unto them," (kai legei autois) "And he (Pilate) said to them," the Jewish accusers who thirsted for His blood, to those who milled about the street near the judgment hall, being stirred up or incited against Jesus by the ruling Jewish rabble of chief priests, elders, scribes, and the whole council of Israel, Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1.

4) "Behold the man!" (idou ho anthropos) "Behold the man," innocent and helpless, He was the Lamb of God, John 1:29. He was now being "led as a sheep to the slaughter," Isaiah 53:7; Acts 8:32-33. Though spoken to ridicule, it was a manifestation of the true love of God, and of Jesus, for their enemies.

Verse 6

1) "When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him," (hote oun eidon auton hoi archiereis kai hoi huperetai) "Then when the administrative priests and officers (attendants) saw him," as He came forth in a gory, blood-besmirched, grisly condition, from the stripes of His scourging, the thorn pierced brow that caused blood to run down His face, from the thorny reed pressed in His hand as a mock sceptre, and the slapping of His face, following a long cruel sleepless night of betrayal and arraignment.

2) "They cried out, saying," (ekraugasan legontes) "They shouted out, repeatedly;" These administrative priests and their aids, not the laity, led the demands for His death, inciting the people to cry out to "release Barabbas, crucify the Christ" Like a pep-squad for a sporting event, these wicked rulers cried out, Matthew 27:20-22; Mark 15:11-14.

3) "Crucify him, crucify him:" (stauroson) "Crucify, crucify;" Though Pilate had found in Him nothing worthy of death, and had said so. Repeatedly they said it, as they paced the street area like blood thirsty lions or tigers bent on destroying their prey, making the kill, for they had long since decreed His death; Like a mafia mob, they trailed Him, John 11:47-53.

4) "Pilate saith unto them," (legei autois ho Pilatos) "Pilate replied directly to them," as a time-server and a face-saver, evading responsibility for the dastardly cruel deed himself, but setting Jesus up for their kill.

5) "Take ye him, and crucify him:" (labete auton humeis kai staurosate) "You all take him and crucify him:" In angry sarcasm Pilate said it, for he did not consider Jesus to be guilty of treason. I will furnish the soldiers, you all be both witnesses and judge against Him, if you may, but leave me out of it, out of your religious prejudices; But did he do justly? 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

6) "For I find no fault in him." (ego gar ouch heurisko en auto aitian) "For I do not find a crime in him." For the third time Pilate had publicly acquitted Jesus of any wrong, yet he released Him, gave his consent for the Jews to take Him, witness against Him, and crucify Him, at the hand of the Roman soldiers, John 18:38; John 19:4; John 19:6.

Verse 7

1) "The Jews answered him," (apekrithesan auto hoi loudaioi) "The Jews responded to him," defensively and aggressively, based on His claim to be the Son of God, Mark 14:62.

2) "We have a law," (hemeis nomon echomen) "We have or hold to a law," a religious law of worship and service, as given by Moses, Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 24:16.

3) "And by our law he ought to die," (kai kata ton nomon opheilei apothanein) "And according to, or in harmony with, the law he ought to die," to be put to death, Leviticus 24:16; For the fact that He claimed to be the Son of God, that they considered blasphemy, Matthew 9:3.

4) "Because he made himself the Son of God." (hoti huion theou heauton epoiesen) "Because he made himself (the) heir-Son of God," John 5:18; John 10:33. It was an issue of supposed breach of Moses’ law, their religious law, that they now complained against Jesus, charging Him with blasphemy, a matter over which the Roman law took no jurisdiction, Leviticus 24:16.

Verse 8

1) "When Pilate therefore heard that saying," (hote oun ekousen ho Pilatos touton ton logon) "Then when Pilate heard this word," claim, or assertion that Jesus posed as the Son of God, a thing they interpreted to be blasphemy, Matthew 9:3; John 10:33, that was punishable by a stoning death, not crucifixion, under their law, Leviticus 24:16.

2) "He was the more afraid;" (mallon ephobethe) "He was or came to be (to exist) more afraid," with uncertain fear, more fearful of the political implications of his having anything to do in the matter of their controversy. He also feared having part in executing or lynching an innocent person. "Fear of man" brings a snare, and it appears that Pilate feared political pressure, what men thought, more than God, Proverbs 29:25; Matthew 10:28.

Verse 9

1) "And went again into the judgment hall," (kai eiselthen eis to praitorion palin) "And again he entered or went back into the praetorium or judgment hall," away from the clamor and howling of the chief priests for the blood of Jesus by crucifixion, John 19:6.

2) "And said unto Jesus," (kai legei to lesou) "And asked Jesus," personally and directly, regarding His person and identity, 1 Timothy 3:16.

3) "Whence art thou?" (pothen ei su) "Whence are you?" or bluntly he asked what is your ancestry, your origin? Is it from heaven or of the earth? That is, are you the Son of God? Since Pilate had already declared Him innocent three times after which he still told the Jews they had his permission to take Jesus and crucify Him, and since Pilate could not act on Jewish religious issues, to have answered Pilate He would have been "casting pearls before swine," See? Matthew 7:6.

4) "But Jesus gave him no answer." (ho de lesous apokrisin ouk edoken auto) "However Jesus did not give him an answer," thus fulfilling the Scriptures, Psalms 39:9; Isaiah 53:7; as declared fulfilled, Matthew 27:12; Matthew 27:14; 1 Peter 2:23.

Jesus simply refused to wrangle or become party to Pilate’s "flip-flop" vacillation, because he had now three times declared Him innocent.

Verse 10

1) "Then saith Pilate unto him," (legi oun auto ho Pilatos) "Then Pilate said to him," in a resentful manner, with a tone of reprimand, as if he had done Jesus a favor that should be appreciated; what a favor, offering to cast Him to the howling wolves, John 19:6.

2) "Speakest thou not unto me?" (emoi ou laleis) "Do you not mean to speak to me?" to reply to my question at all? Why speak to one who posed as a friend and then publicly announces to your enemies "you may take Him and crucify Him."

3) "Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee," (ouk oidas hoti eksousian echo staurosai se) "Do you not know or recognize that I have authority to crucify you?" If I had chosen to do so, as if Jesus did not know what was in the heart of Pilate, John 2:24-25.

4) "And have power to release thee?" (apolusai se kai eksousian echo) "And I have or hold authority to release you, liberate you, or to set you free?" Yet, his authority was used in such a fickle manner, a compromising manner, to lean on Pilate or trust him was to trust a brittle or broken reed, John 18:38; John 19:4; John 19:6; Only Christ has the power to set men free from the chains and penalty of sin; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:15.

Verse 11

1) "Jesus answered," (apekrithe lesous) "Jesus replied directly," to Pilate’s brusque, rough scolding, John 19:10.

2) "Thou couldest have no power at all against me," (ouk eiches aksousian kat’ emou oukemian) "You have, hold, or possess no authority against me at all," except by the mercy of God, in whose mercy and providence he held his office as governor, La 3:22; Acts 4:7; Acts 4:28; Acts 17:28.

3) "Except it were given thee from above:" (ei me hen dedomenon soi anothen) "Except it exist as having been given (doled out or granted to you) from above," from heaven, as your temporary hour to judge, for which decisions you too will be judged before God, Ecclesiastes 12:14; Matthew 12:36; Luke 22:53.

4) "Therefore he that delivered me unto thee," (dia touto ho paradous me soi) "On account of this the one who delivered me to you," who was Caiaphas, the high priest that year, and who had long sought His life, John 11:49-53; John 18:3; John 18:28-29, or it may have included Judas Iscariot who delivered Jesus to the mass band of Jewish religious Christ-hating rulers, Mark 14:44; John 19:3.

5) "Hath the greater sin." (meizona hamaritian echei) "He has the greater sin," against his account. Our Lord seems to have recognized Pilate as a weak-willed man, a tool of stronger men, yet responsible for his actions, James 4:17; Luke 12:47.

Verse 12

NEW ASSAULT ON PILATE, HIS SURRENDER V. 12-16

1) "And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him:" (ek toutou ho Pilatos ezetei apolusai auton) "Out of and from this statement and time Pilate sought to release him," or set Him free, seemingly impressed by His innocence and majesty, though he had told the Jewish mob," take ye him and crucify him," John 19:7.

2) "But the Jews cried out, saying," (hoi de loudaioi ekraugasin legontes) "Then the Jews shouted, repeatedly charging," accusing Him with derogatory scoffing, with a new turn of harassment against Pilate.

3) "If thou let this man go," (ean touton apoluses) "If you release this one," or let this one go free, instead of Barabbas, Matthew 27:20.

4) "Thou art not Caesar’s friend:" (ouk ei philos tou Kaisaros) "You are not a friend of Caesar," are not even a friend to Caesar, insinuating that such actions would be treasonous against Caesar, inferring also that Jesus was an insurrectionist, bent on overthrowing Caesar, a thing they knew to be untrue, Matthew 22:21; 1 Peter 2:13-17.

5) "Whosoever maketh himself a king," (pas ho basilea heauton poion) "Everyone who makes himself a king," or poses as a king, as they had accused Him, though knowing their claims to be untrue, Luke 23:2. This was a threat, a political threat Pilate could not take lightly.

6) "Speaketh against Caesar." (antilegei to Kasari) "He speaks (sedition) against Caesar," in a treasonous manner, a thing that Pilate, having examined their malicious charges, considered to be fallacious and brought because of envy, a thing that had led him three times to announce publicly, "I find no fault in him at all," that is, not a thing to sustain as evidence of a single charge they had mouthed against Him, Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10.

Verse 13

1) "When Pilate therefore heard that saying," (ho oun Pilatos akousas ton logon touton) "Then when Pilate heard these words," these vociferous charges that to release Jesus would be tantamount to sedition against Caesar, John 19:12, as an expression of apparent fear of prestige and political position, and out of his own weak character, Proverbs 29:25; Acts 4:19.

2) "He brought Jesus forth," (egagen ekso ton lesoun) "He brought Jesus outside," outside the place he was being detained, in the area of the judgment hall of Pilate, John 18:28. Here Pilate was to make his final decision concerning Jesus, John 19:16.

3) "And sat down in the judgment seat," (kai ekathisen epi bematos) "And he sat down upon the tribunal seat," the civil judicial tribunal, presided over by Pilate.

4) "In a place that is called the Pavement," (eis topon legomenon lithostroton) "Into a place that is called Pavement," a stone floor in front of the Praetorium, of the judgment hall proper.

5) "But in the Hebrew, Gabbatha." (hebraisti de Gabbatha) "But in the Hebrew Gabbatha," a Hebrew word that meant a ridge or elevation. It was an elevated platform from which judicial decisions were heard and pronounced. It was here Pilate received his wife’s message, regarding the Jewish demands on him, for the death of Jesus, "Have thou nothing to do with this just man," Matthew 27:19.

Verse 14

THE KING REJECTED BY THE JEWS V. 14, 15

1) "And it was the preparation of the passover," (hen de paraskeue tou pascha) "Now it was the passover preparation time," the very day on which our Lord was crucified, Matthew 27:62, the "feast preparation," not the regular sabbath.

2) "And about the sixth hour," (hora hen hos hekte) "Which was about the sixth hour," according to the Roman computation, used by John, and referred to as the third hour by Mark, Mark 15:25, who used the Hebrew marking of time.

3) "And he saith unto the Jews," (kai legei tois loudaiois) "And he said to the Jews," from the open judgment seat, John 19:13, to the masses there waiting for the end of Jesus.

4) "Behold, your King!" (ide ho basileus humon) "Behold the king who is yours," a statement of sarcasm and rage, the one who is yours, to dispose of, to use as you choose, to feed to the lions of Caesar, if you please. Behold the hate of any who would seek to usurp kingly rule under Roman rule, without Caesar’s sanction! That is what you charge that this Jesus has done and is doing, Luke 23:2.

Verse 15

1) "But they cried out,’ (ekraugosan auton oun ekeinoi) "Then they shouted out," all at once, Luke 23:18, vociferously, like howling wolves and yapping jackles, led by emotion stirring chief priest mob leaders, Matthew 27:18; Matthew 27:20.

2) "Away with him, away with him, crucify him," (aron, aron, stauroson auton) "Take him away, take him away, crucify him;" Repeatedly they cried out, prodded by the mob-inciting priests who feared they would lose their jobs if they or their people accepted Jesus Christ, John 11:47-53; Exodus 23:2; Luke 23:23.

3) "Pilate saith unto them," (legei autois ho Pilatos) "Pilate said to them," to those chief priests who, "moved the people," or stirred up the screaming mob of Jewish people, Mark 15:11.

4) "Shall I crucify your King?" (ton baseleia humon stauroso) "Shall I crucify your king?" Is that what you want? Shall I order Him killed like a Gentile heathen, a seditionist, or insurrectionist? Galatians 3:13.

5) "The chief priests answered," (apekrithesan hoi archiereis) "The administrative priests responded in unison," with envy and hate and murder in their hearts, Matthew 27:18; John 8:37; John 8:40; John 8:44; John 15:25.

6) "We have no king but Caesar." (ouk echomen basilea ei me Kaisara) "We have not a king except Caesar," a confession from Jewish people who had claimed for near 1,500 years that God was their king, and that they looked for a promised king, Genesis 49:10; 1 Samuel 12:12-13; Luke 1:32-33; Hosea 3:4.

Verse 16

CHRIST CRUCIFIED V. 16-30

1) "Then delivered he him therefore," (tote oun paredoken auton) "Then at that point he delivered him," the Christ, in response to and as a result of the clamor of the priest-led, Sanhedrin demands of a religious Jewish mob, motivated by sanction of and appeals from the chief priests, elders, scribes, and council of the Sanhedrin, Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1.

2) "Unto them to be crucified." (autois hina staurothe) "To them in order that he might be crucified," in response to their demands. Though Pilate pronounced no sentence, he delivered up an innocent man, an uncondemned prisoner, like a chunk of meat to howling wolves, to satisfy the demands of the priests.

3) "And they took Jesus and led him away." (parelabon oun ton lesoun) "Then they took (charge of) Jesus," the Sanhedrin and the whole multitude of the congregated Jews took Him, not to their legal Mosaic stoning, but to be crucified, an heathen form of death for an accused person, the worst of criminals, Deuteronomy 21:23; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24.

Verse 17

1) "And he bearing his cross," (kai bastazon heauto ton stauron) "And he himself carrying the cross," carrying his cross, as He went out of and away from Pilate’s hall, for a short way, after which it was placed on Simon of Cyrene, Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26.

2) "Went forth into a place called the place of a skull," (ekselthen eis ton legomenon kraniou topon) "He went out and way to a place called the skull," Numbers 15:36; Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; also described as being "without the gate," outside the walled city of Jerusalem, Hebrews 13:12.

3) "Which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:" (ho legetai hebraisti Golgotha) "Which is called Golgotha, in the Hebrew," Matthew 27:33 a; Mark 15:22; also called Calvary, Luke 23:33. The place is located on the north side of the city wall of Jerusalem, as a bare knoll with two holes in it, facing Jerusalem, that has for more than 2,000 years resembled the face of a skull. The name is Aramaic in origin and is derived from the Hebrew word "Gulgoleth," meaning "skull," found in 2 Kings 9:35.

Verse 18

1) "Where they crucified him," (hopou auton estaurosan) "The place where they crucified him," as He had Himself prophesied that they would, Matthew 20:18-19; Matthew 27:35.

2) "And two other with him," (kai met’autou allous duo) "And two others with him," called "The thieves also, which were crucified with him," Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:27.

3) "On either side one," (enteuthen kai anteuthen) "One on each side," or out at each side, as described Luke 23:33; Luke 23:37; They were both "robbers," perhaps of the same class as Barabbas, who also had committed murder in pursuit of their crime.

4) "And Jesus in the midst." (meson de ton lesoun) "Then Jesus in the midst," or in between two other men, on the middle cross, of the three being crucified for alleged criminal, capital crimes that day, numbered or identified with the wicked, the transgressors, one on either side, Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:28; Luke 22:37. Humanity was here represented in three ways:

1) The sinless Savior.

2) The saved penitent.

3) The dying impenitent.

Verse 19

1) "And Pilate wrote a title," (egrapsen de kai titon ho Pilatos) "Then Pilate also wrote a title," required to indicate the charge for which the accused was crucified. It was a whited gypsum board commonly used for public notices.

2) "And put it on the cross." (kai etlaken epi tou staurou) "And he put it on the cross," at the upper part of the erected cross, over His head, so that those who passed by might read, without asking any questions, Matthew 27:37.

3) "And the writing was," (hen de gegramenon) "Then it was written," or inscribed and placed in view of all who passed by. Each of the four Gospel writers indicated the name of the one on the middle cross and the charge on which He was crucified, using different language, but not contradicting any other.

4) "JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS." (lesous ho Nazaraios ho basileous ton loudaion) "Jesus the Nazarene (of Nazareth) the king of the Jews," by which He was prophetically known, Matthew 2:23; John 17:5; John 17:7.

The exact wording, that includes every word that each used is: "This is Jesus of Nazareth the king of the Jews." For the wording used by each see; Matthew 15:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38; John 19:19, the later here given.

Apparently Pilate wrote it as a rebuff, to insult them, as a precise judgment of his own.

Verse 20

1) "This title then read many of the Jews:" (touton o oun ton titlon polloi anegnosan ton loudaion) "Then many of the Jews read this title," as they stood and sat nearby, Matthew 27:36.

2) "For the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city:" (hoti engus hen ho theos tes poleos hopou estaurothe ho lesous) "Because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city," near the Holy city of Jerusalem," outside the gate," Hebrews 13:12. And it was beside the road where many saw it as they came into the city from the north.

3) "And it was written in:" (kai hen gegrammenon) "And it was inscribed in," the three major languages of the day, Luke 23:38.

a) "Hebrew," (hebraisti) "in Hebrew," the ancient Hebrew language, the language of the Old Testament and of the Law of Moses.

b) "And Greek," (hellenisti) "In Greek," the ancient koine Greek, the language of human wisdom and of international trade and commerce of that day.

c) "And Latin." (hromaisti) "And in Latin," the language of the Romans, used throughout the Empire of the Caesars of the day.

It was so written that every literate person, Jew or Gentile could read it, and know what had happened.

Verse 21

1) "Then said the chief priest of the Jews to Pilate," (elegon oun to Pilato hoi archiereis ton loudaion) "Then the administrative priests of the Jews said to Pilate," in complaint against the wording of the charges placed against Jesus, for which He was crucified, for which they were the chief instigators. Their sins had "found them out," through a determined Gentile governor, Numbers 32:23.

2) "Write not, The King of the Jews;" (me graph ho basileus ton loudaion) "Don’t write or inscribe The King of the Jews," as each Gospel writer certifies had been written over His head, upon His cross.

3) "But that he said," (all’ hoti ekeinos eipen) "But write that that man said," asserted or claimed:

4) "I am King of the Jews." (basileus eimi ton loudaion) "I am (exist as) king of the Jews:" Suppose He did. Someone had to be their king, Genesis 49:10; Luke 1:32-33.

Verse 22

1) "Pilate answered," (apekrithe ho Pilatos) "Pilate replied," to the complaints and complainers, being himself by nature obstinate and stubborn.

2) "What I have written I have written." (ho gegrapha, gegrapha) "What I have written or inscribed, I have written or inscribed," and have no mind to change it, or alter it in any way, Matthew 27:37.

Verse 23

1) "Then the soldiers," (hoi oun stratiotai) "Then the (Roman) soldiers," the legal executors of the Roman government, who served as protectors for Pilate’s territory, of the band that had arrested Jesus, John 18:3; John 18:12; John 19:2. There were four in an execution band (Gk. tetradion) Acts 12:4.

2) "When they had crucified Jesus," (hote estaurosan ton lousun) "When they crucified Jesus;’’ It was they who did crown Him, drive the nails, and pierce His side with the sword, but it was the Jews who were the real cause of His death, who were charged by inspiration as the real conspirators, killers, and crucifiers of Him, Acts 2:23; Acts 2:36; Acts 3:13-15; Acts 3:17; Acts 4:10; Acts 4:27; Acts 5:28; Acts 7:52; Acts 13:26-29; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

3) "Took his garments, and made four parts," (elabon ta himati autou kai epoiesan tessera mere) "They took his garments and made four parts," or made four stacks or piles, that each of the four soldiers might share His regular garments as personal loot, partial benefit allowed them for their work.

4) "To every soldier a part; and also his coat," (hekatso stratrote meros kai ton chitona) "To each soldier a part (of the loot), and the tunic, coat, or outer garment," as prophesied Psalms 22:18, and as recounted by this and each of the three other Gospel writers, Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24.

5) "Now the coat was without seam," (hen de ho chiton arraphos) "Now the tunic or outer garment of Jesus was seamless," a very excellent outer garment, less subject to tear and ruin than a seamed garment, and more valuable, Josephus antiq. III, 7:3 says it was a description of Aaron’s vest, made of linen (cotton) woven throughout.

6) "Woven from the top throughout." (ek ton anothen huphantos di’ holou) "It was woven from the top throughout," as one garment without any seam, less likely to hang on a rock, brushes, thorns, etc., than a garment with sewn seams. It was known as a toga, a priest’s garment, woven usually from linen or wool, as described, Exodus 28:32; Exodus 29:5.

Verse 24

1) "They said therefore among themselves," (eipan oun pros allelaus) "They then said to one another," as they were negotiating the dividing of the garments of our Lord among themselves, and appropriating them for their own use.

2) "Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it," (me skisomen auton alla lachomen peri autou) "Let us not tear it apart, but let us cast lots concerning it," or "let us obtain by lot," which of the four may have it, by chance-gambling, as they squandered their time waiting for Jesus to die, instead of tearing it into four pieces, Psalms 22:18.

3) "Whose it shall be:" (tinos estai) "Whose it shall come to be:" by chance.

4) "That the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith," (hina he graphe pleruthe) "In order that the scripture might be fulfilled," since all are "true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160; Psalms 119:162.

5) "They parted my raiment among them," (diemerisanto ta himatia mou heautois) "They parted my garments, appropriating them to themselves," Psalms 22:18. The four parts were 1) the headgear, 2) the sandals, 3) the girdle, and 4) the square outer garment with fringes.

6) "And for my vesture they did cast lots." (kai epi ton himatismon mou ebalon kleron) "And over my vesture (who should have it, my outer garment) they cast a single lot," a single chance type of gambling, by which only one, according to an agreed chance method won.

7) "These things therefore the soldiers did." (hoi men oun stratiotai tauta epoiesen) "Then the soldiers (the four) did these things," these kind of things, as definitively foretold in prophecy of Psalms 22:18.

Verse 25

1) "Now there stood by the cross of Jesus," (heistekeison de para to stauro tou lesou) "Then stood by the cross of Jesus," recounted by John only, as He hang thereon; The soldiers gambled and divided His clothes for personal profit nearby, and many sitting down watched Him there, Matthew 27:36; Genesis 3:15 was now being explicitly fulfilled, as well as Isaiah 53:3-12.

2) "His mother and his mother’s sister," (he meter autou kai he adelphe tes metros autou) "The mother of Jesus and his mother’s sister," His mother Mary, who had given virgin birth to Him, by the Holy Spirit, and later gave birth to four other sons and three daughters, Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3.

3) "Mary the wife of Cleophas," (Maria he tou Klopa) "Mary who was the wife of Clopas," not the Cleopas of Luke 24:18, but the father of James the less and Joses, Mark 15:40.

4) "And Mary Magdalene." (kai Maria he Magdalene) "And Mary Magdalene," the Mary of Magdala, out of whom Jesus had cast seven demons or unclean spirits, the Mary to whom He first appeared after His resurrection, Mark 16:9; Matthew 27:55-56; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49. These women had "followed Him from Galilee," down to Judea, and ministered to Him.

Verse 26

1) "When Jesus therefore saw his mother," (lesous oun idon ten matera) "Then Jesus upon seeing his mother," or when He saw His mother, standing by the cross, John 19:25.

2) "And the disciple standing by whom he loved," (kai ton matheten parestota hon egapa) ’’And the particular disciple he loved standing by," the one who leaned on His breast at the supper, John, who was one of the three inner-circle disciples, John 13:23; John 18:15; John 21:20; John 21:24; Matthew 17:1.

3) "He saith unto his mother," (legei te metri) "Said to his mother directly, personally," to Mary. Luke 1:27; Luke 1:30; Luke 1:34; Luke 1:38-39; Luke 1:46; Luke 1:56; Luke 2:5; Luke 7:11; John 2:1.

4) "Woman, behold thy son!" (gunai ide ho huios sou) "Woman take special note of your son," much as He addressed His mother at the wedding feast in Cana, when He performed His first miracle, John 2:4; John 2:11. In each instance He referred to her as "woman’’, perhaps to emphasize His higher, Divine relation to both her and John, her son on whom she was to rely for earthly support, in His place hereafter.

Verse 27

1) "Then saith he to the disciple," (eita. legei to mathete) "Then he said to the particular disciple," whom He loved so dearly, in whom He confided, who wrote this Gospel, John 21:20; John 21:24.

2) "Behold thy mother," (ide he meter sou) "Take special note, attention, or care of your mother," act the part of a son in caring for her, physically and emotionally, 1 Timothy 5:2, as I am leaving her in your care.

3) "And from that hour," (kai ap’ ekeines tes horas) ’’And from that hour," and thereafter, after the death of Jesus.

4) "That disciple took her unto his own home." (elaben ho mathetes auten eis ta idia) ’’The particular disciple (John) took her into his own home, residence, or care," to nourish and support her, John 16:32. Tradition holds that she lived with John at Ephesus to a very old age.

Verse 28

1) "After this, Jesus knowing," (meta touto eidos ho lesous) "After this, Jesus perceiving," or knowing, because He knows or comprehends all things, is cognizant of all things and what is in man, John 21:17; John 2:23-24.

2) "That all things were now accomplished," (hoti ede panta tetelestai) "That at this time, moment, or point, all things had been and were now fulfilled," John 17:4; John 19:30.

3) "That the scripture might be fulfilled," (hina teteiothe he graphe) "in order that the scripture (particular scripture) might be fulfilled,’’ Psalms 69:21; John 19:24; John 19:36-37, for they are "true from the beginning," and "can not be broken," John 10:35; They shall all be fulfilled, Matthew 5:17-19; Acts 13:29.

4) "Saith, I thirst." (legei dipso) "Says (or said) I thirst,’’ after which they gave Him vinegar to drink, Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36.

Verse 29

1) "Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar:" (skeuous ekeito oksous meston) "A vessel was (then) set full of vinegar,’’ as prophesied, Psalms 69:21, of vinegar and gall, bitter herbs like gall. The other gospel writers, farther from the cross, did not see or tell of the vessel of vinegar.

2) "And they filled a sponge with vinegar," (spongon oun meston tou oksous) "Then a sponge was filled of vinegar," the sponge was soaked in the vinegar-gall mixture, designed to alleviate pain.

3) "And put it upon hyssop," (hussopo perithentes) ’’And they put it around an hyssop; "The hyssop plant has not been identified, but it was a three or four foot length reed, long enough to reach up to the mouth of Jesus, where He was suspended on the nails, hanging on the cross, in excruciating agony of body, mind, and soul, Isaiah 53:7-12.

4) "And put it to his mouth." (prosenegkan autou to atomati) "And brought it up to his mouth," that He might drink or taste of the potion, while certain ones cried that they might watch now, see whether or not Elias, one from God, might come to relieve or rescue Him, Matthew 27:49; Mark 15:16; Luke 23:36-37.

Verse 30

1) "When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar," (hoto oun elabon to oksos ho lesous) "Then when Jesus took the vinegar," or received it, from the Roman soldiers, with their cries of sarcasm, "If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself," ringing in His ears, and across Golgotha, where the multitude sitting down "watched Him there," Luke 23:37; Matthew 27:36.

2) "He said, It is finished:" (eipen tetelestai) "He said, It has been and is finished," or completed. It "tetelestai" was the "victors" cry. He had won the battle over sin, and His Father was satisfied, Isaiah 53:10-12; 2 Corinthians 5:21; John 4:34; John 17:4, Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:13; Hebrews 10:5-10. The debt of sin was paid in full. So that believers in Him might be set free, forever; The term "tetelestai" was a term stamped on tax receipts that meant the claim is "paid forever," John 8:32; John 8:36; Hebrews 2:15; We can shout "forever free!" Hallelujah!

3) "And he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost." (kai klinas ten kephalen paredoken to pneuma) "And inclining his head he gave up the spirit, of his own will or choice," as He had said He would, John 10:17-18. It was at this instant the veil of the temple was rent in "two" from top to bottom, from heavenward above, to the earth below, Mark 15:38; signifying that the law forms and ceremonies of types, shadows, symbols, and object lessons were fulfilled, finished, to be required no more in approaching or directing one to God, in worship or service, 2 Corinthians 3:7-11; Colossians 2:14-17. The work of Jesus was finished and a new order of worship was hereafter to be followed, through His church which he had established, chosen, taught, loved, and purchased with His own blood, Matthew 16:18; John 15:26-27; Mark 13:34-35; 1 Timothy 3:15; John 13:1; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 5:25; Ephesians 3:21.

Verse 31

NOT A BONE BROKEN V. 31-37

1) "The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation," (hoi oun loudaioi epei paraskeue hen) "Then the Jews, since it was preparation," as also indicated, John 19:42; Matthew 27:62 which was the Passover Day.

2) "That the bodies should not remain," (hina me meine ta somati) "In order that the bodies (of those crucified) might not remain," linger over night.

3) "Upon the cross on the sabbath day," (epi tou staurou en to sabbato) "Upon the cross on the sabbath," the Passover sabbath, Joshua 8:29.

4) "(For that sabbath day was an high day)” (hen gar megale he hemera ekeinou tou sabbatou) "For that (Passover) day was an high sabbath," as directed, as set aside by Moses’ Law, Exodus 12:16; Deuteronomy 21:23.

5) "Besought Pilate," (erotesan ton Pilaton) "They asked or requested Pilate," the governor who had delivered Jesus to them to be crucified, John 19:6. The Romans usually left them on the cross to be eaten by carrion birds and beasts of prey.

6) "That their legs might be broken," (hina kateagosin auton ta skele) "In order that their legs might be broken," to hasten their death, Deuteronomy 21:23.

This was done with a club or wooden mallet, with a blow above each ankle, followed by a heavy blow in the breast, that put an immediate end of life to the crucified. It was a beastly, brutal end.

7) "And that they might be taken away." (kai arthesin) ’’And in order that their bodies might be taken away," taken down and away from the crosses, according to the formal law of Jews, cited above, Deuteronomy 21:23; Galatians 3:13.

Verse 32

1) "Then came the soldiers," (elthon oun hoi stratistai) "Then the (Roman) soldiers came," the ones in charge of the execution, the four who had divided His garments among themselves a few hours earlier, that crucifixion day, John 19:23-24.

2) "And brake the legs of the first," (kai tou men prorou kateaksan ta skele) "And they broke the legs of the first," the first of the two thieves, who had been crucified beside Him that day, John 19:18, who was a transgressor, with whom the Jews wanted to identify Jesus in His death, Isaiah 53:5; Isaiah 53:12.

3) "And of the other which was crucified with him." (kai tou allou tou sustaurothentos auto) "And of the other (second) who had been crucified with him," on the other side, John 19:18; who too was a transgressor, with whom Jesus was identified in His death, fulfilling the prophesy of Isaiah 53:12; Luke 23:34.

Verse 33

1) "But when they came to Jesus," (epi de ton lesoun elthontes) "However when they came to Jesus," on the middle cross, with the thieves on either side, John 19:18; Mark 15:37.

2) "And saw that he was dead already," (hos eidon ede auton tethnekota) "As they saw that he had already died," or was already dead, had already expired, in so short a time, Mark 15:44-45.

3) "They brake not his legs:" (ou kateaksan autou ta skela) "They did not break his legs," refrained from breaking His legs, thus fulfilling the Law Passover preparation injunction, often repeated, "thou shalt not break a bone thereof," John 19:36; Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalms 34:20.

Verse 34

1) "But one of the soldiers," (ail’ eis ton stratioton) "But one of the (four) soldiers, John 19:23.

2) "With a spear pierced his side," (logche autou ten pleuran enuksen) ’’Pierced or pricked his side with a lance," or penetrated His side, John 20:25-27, to make sure of His death, Psalms 22:16; Isaiah 53:7. The spear thrust seems to have been an handbreath in width, which would have surely been a fatal thrust, John 20:25.

3) "And forthwith came there out blood and water," (kai ekselthen euthus haima kai hudor) "And immediately or suddenly there came out blood and water," which gushed out, from the piercing of the lymph of the pericardium, the fluid sac surrounding the heart. It was the watery blood of pleura, that follows a mortal wound, one of the last phenomena of mortal life, 1 John 5:6; At the victor’s cry "It is finished," there occurred the instant rupture of the aorta, caused by the excruciating agony and pain He was suffering, "bearing our sins in his body on the tree," 1 Peter 2:24; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Isaiah 53:12.

PHYSICAL CAUSE OF THE DEATH OF CHRIST

A. His death was not the mere result of crucifixion, for --- 1. The period was too short; 2. The attendant phenomena at the time of actual death were different from those of crucifixion. B. No known injury, disease or lesion of the brain, lungs, or other vital organs could, I believe, account for such a sudden termination of His sufferings in death, except --- 1. Arrestment of the action of the heart by fatal fainting or syncope; or --- 2. Rupture of the walls of the heart or large blood vessels from it. C. The attendant symptoms --- especially the loud cry and subsequent exclamations --show that death was not the effect of mortal fainting, or mere fatal arrestment of the action of the heart by syncope. D. On the other hand these symptoms were such as have been seen in cases of rupture of the walls of the heart.

J.Y. Simpson, F.R.S.E.

Verse 35

1) "And he that saw it bare record," (kai ho heorakos memartureken) "And the one who saw it has witnessed," and does witness, John himself, John 21:20; John 21:24; Though modestly, he did not call his own name.

2) "And his record is true:" (kai alethine autou estin he marturia) "And his witness, record, or testimony is true," or trustworthy, 1 John 1:1-2.

3) "And he knoweth that he saith true," (kai ekeinos oiden hoti alethe legei) "And that one knows that what he says is true," 1 John 1:3-4; 1 John 5:6-8. Nothing can be more trustworthy evidence than that of a reliable eyewitness.

4) "That ye might believe." (hina kai humeis pisteuete) "In order that you all may believe or trust," that you may believe both the facts of His death and in Him, John 20:30-31; 1 John 5:9-13.

Verse 36

1) "For these things were done," (egeneto gar tauta) or these things happened," came to be, or occurred.

2) "That the scripture should be fulfilled." (hina he graphe plerothe) "In order that the scripture (particular scripture) might be fulfilled," to attest their Divine character, John 10:35.

3) "A bone of him shall not be broken." (ostoun ou suntribesetai autou) "Not a bone of him shall be broken," Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalms 34:20; Psalms 22:16; Zechariah 12:10, and one day "every eye shall see Him," even those who pierced His side, Revelation 1:7.

He was both the Paschal lamb and the pierced Messiah, 1 Corinthians 5:7.

Verse 37

1) "And again another scripture saith," (kai palin hetera graphe legei) "And again (in prophecy) another scripture says," accurately foretold:

2) "They shall look on him," (opsontai eis) "They shall look at him," both there and thereafter, upon His coming to judge them, Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; Matthew 12:36-37; Hebrews 9:27; 2 Timothy 4:1-2.

3) "Whom they pierced." (hon eksekentesan) "Whom they did pierce," as declared also, Zechariah 12:10; Revelation 1:7, and shall wail because of Him.

Verse 38

THE ENTOMBMENT V. 38-42

1) "And after this," (meta de tauta) "Then after these things," that culminated in His death, after the Jews asked that His body be removed, John 19:31. Had the soldiers removed the three they would have cast them together into some refuse pit, as in Joshua 8:29.

2) "Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus," (loseph apo harimathaias on mathetes tou lesou) "Joseph from and of Arimathaea who was a disciple of Jesus," one of His believing confidants, a rich man, one of the Sanhedrin, Matthew 27:57; Luke 23:50-51; Mark 15:43.

3) "But secretly for fear of the Jews," (kekrummenos de dia ton phobon ton loudaion) "But for or because of fear of the Jews, secretly," he acted, John 7:13; John 12:42; to avoid being excommunicated, excluded or ostracized from the synagogue, and its rights and privileges, both socially and religiously, John 9:22.

4) "Besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus:" (hina are to soma tou lesou) "In order that he might take up and bear away the body of Jesus," He requested or appealed to Pilate for a personal privilege of honor, Mark 15:42-43; Luke 23:52.

5) "And Pilate gave him leave," (kai epetrepsen ho Pilatos) "And Pilate allowed or permitted that he take it up and bear it away for burial, an honorable, temporary burial, Matthew 27:58.

6) "He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus." (elthen oun kai eren to soma autou) "Then he (Joseph of Arimathea) came and took His body," the body of Jesus, at the command of Pilate, Matthew 27:58-59; Mark 15:44-45.

Verse 39

1) "And there came also Nicodemus," (elthen de kai Nikodemas) "Then Nicodemus also came," the born again ruler of the Jews, John 3:1-9; John 7:50, also a member of the Jewish council, of the Sanhedrin.

2) "Which at the first came to Jesus by night," (ho elthon pros auton nuktos to proton) "The one (Nicodemus) who first came to Him by night," as recounted, John 3:1-2, with less boldness than at this time.

3) "And brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes," (pheron migma smurnes kai aloes) "Bearing a mixture of myrrh and aloes," fitting spices for burial preparation of the dead body of our Lord, used in palaces of the wealthy, befitting the burial of Jesus, Psalms 45:8; Song of Solomon 1:3; Song of Solomon 4:4.

4) "About an hundred pound weight." (hos litras hekaton) "About an hundred pounds in weight," according to Roman weight, about 12 ounces to the pound, about 75 pounds by English weight, at 16 ounces to the pound.

Verse 40

1) "Then took they the body of Jesus," (elabon oun to soma tou lesou) "Then they took the body (corpse) of Jesus," The "they" were Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus, jointly or working together, expressing their gratitude for Him, in preparation care for His burial.

2) "And wound it in linen clothes with the spices," (kai edesan auto othoniois meta ton aromaton) "And bound it (the body) in sheets with the spices," clothes or strips of linen (cotton cloth) as Lazarus was buried, John 11:44; John 20:7; Acts 5:6.

3) "As the manner of the Jews is to bury." (kathos ethos estin tois loudaiois entaphiazein) "As the custom is (exists) with the Jews to bury," Matthew 27:59; Mark 15:46; Luke 23:53; Acts 5:6. It was a temporary embalming until the sabbath day was past. It was an ancient custom of a very honorable burial, 2 Chronicles 16:14.

Verse 41

1) "Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden;" (hen de en to topo hopou estaurothe kepos) "Now there was a garden in the location (area) where he was crucified," well known, immediately outside the city wall, in that neighborhood. According to Matthew 27:60 it must have belonged to Joseph of Arimathaea.

2) "And in the garden a new sepulchre," (kai en to kepo mneimeion kainon) "And in the garden there was a new tomb," new in the sense that no other body had ever been buried in it; It was hewn, new, and clean.

3) "Wherein was never man yet laid." (en ho oudepo oudeis hen tetheimenos) "In which no one at all had ever been placed," the tomb of Joseph of Arimathaea, a rich man, Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 27:57-60; Luke 23:53.

Verse 42

1) "There laid they Jesus," (ekei ethekan ton lesoun) "Out there they placed Jesus," in that place, in that garden and in that tomb, known today as Gordon’s tomb, near Calvary, the place of a skull; He was put there for embalming and an hurried burial.

2) "Therefore, because of the Jews’ preparation day;" (oun dia ten paraskeuen ton loudaion) "Then because of the preparation day of the Jews," Matthew 27:62; Luke 23:54.

3) "For the sepulchre was nigh at hand." (hoti engus hen to mnemeion) "Because the tomb was near," near where He was crucified, or near at hand for a burial place, as it was late in the afternoon; Then followed the setting of the watch, described, Matthew 27:66.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on John 19". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/john-19.html. 1985.
 
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